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Diabetes - Symptom, Treatment And Causes

Diabetes is known as diabetes mellitus in medical terminology. It is described as a metabolic disease where a person has high blood sugar (high blood glucose). This happens when the insulin production in the body is not adequate causing the insulin to respond improperly with the cells. Some common symptoms faced by such patients are increased hunger and thirst followed by frequent urination. Diabetes is a common condition so much so that the in 2013 over 382 million people had diabetes throughout the world.

Types of Diabetes:

  • Type 1 diabetes- Most people generally develop type 1 diabetes before the age of 40. It is also known as early onset diabetes, juvenile diabetes and insulin dependent diabetes. People who have type 1 diabetes usually have to take insulin injections. They also need to ensure blood glucose levels by carrying out blood tests and following a strict diet.
  • Type 2 diabetes- This form of diabetes occurs when the body doesn’t produce adequate insulin for the proper functioning of the cell which produces insulin. Many people are able to control type 2 diabetes by controlling their blood glucose levels, exercising a lot, consuming a healthy diet and losing weight. Overweight and physically inactive people are at a higher risk of getting type 2 Diabetes. Eating a lot of junk food and food rich in sugar can also contribute to type 2 diabetes.
  • Gestational diabetes- This form of diabetes usually affects women during pregnancy. Many women have high levels of glucose in their blood during pregnancy because of the inability to produce insulin. If gestational diabetes is not controlled on time, it can be fatal for the baby and a lot of complications can arise during childbirth. The newborn can be bigger than she/he should normally be.

How is diabetes diagnosed?

The doctor usually diagnoses Diabetes by conducting a series of tests such as the A1C test, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) test and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT).

Complications of Diabetes:

Type diabetes
Can't be cured, but treatment helps Require medical diagnosis Lab test required Chronic: can last for years or be lifelong
Increased thirst Frequent urination Hunger Fatigue and blurred vision

Popular Health Tips

Diet Tips to Prevent, Control and Reverse Diabetes

MBBS, MRCGP ( UK), Diploma in Diabetes (UK), DFSRH (UK), DRCOG (UK), CCT (UK)
Endocrinologist, Hyderabad
Diet Tips to Prevent, Control and Reverse Diabetes
Diabetes is a chronic progressive condition of glucose abnormality. A patient with diabetes loses the capacity to regulate his blood glucose and hence there are high circulating levels of glucose in his blood. This is either due to less production of insulin hormone or the body loses the sensitivity to respond to the insulin hormone normally or both. The incidence of diabetes in general population is increasing fairly rapidly due to our erratic work schedule followed by lack of exercise and sleep. Further, it is aggravated by our overindulgence in high sugary food and junk food. But, the good news is that you can control and even reverse diabetes (at least in the initial stages) by following some simple dietary tips. People have a misconception that Dieting = Starving . This is completely wrong. Further people also think that to enhance the taste of any dish it should have lot of oil, ghee, butter. This is again wrong. You can make your dish delicious even by using healthy ingredients and reducing the fats, oil and sugar in it. You can enhance the taste by using spices which are good for health as well as for digestion. Following a healthy diet means that you are eating nutritious food which is both healthy and tasty. Here are a few dietary tips you should follow to keep your blood sugar levels in check: Include plenty of vegetables in your diet, more the better. At least half of your plate should be filled with vegetables; this can be in salad form or can also be in form of curries/subzi which is prepared using less oil. Eating vegetables helps to bulk you up, you do not feel hungry and thus you would not be consuming high-calorie food like fats or carbohydrates. Vegetables have plenty of fibre. Eating vegetables also help to release the glucose from carbohydrates slowly so that your blood glucose levels do not fluctuate much. Green leafy vegetables are excellent sources of Vitamin-A. Beans are rich sources of protein too. Carbohydrates are needed for your body; you derive the necessary energy from these carbohydrates. But you should consume them in a portion of about 1/3-1/4th of your plate in other words, 2-3 phulkas, a bowl of rice etc. Use whole grains rather than polished grains. Whole grains of rice, wheat will release glucose into your blood in a slower fashion than polished rice or wheat. Whole grains also have much needed essential vitamins and minerals, the polished grains lose these vitamins during the process of dehusking and polishing. Include plenty of millets like jowar, bajra, Ragi/pearl millets etc. Include oats, quinoa, brown rice, broken wheat, wheat rava, etc. Avoid food items made with maida. Make sure you eat pulses. Pulses are a good source of protein. Sprouts are filled with protein and fibre. Try adding sprouts to your rice, noodles or salads. Non-vegetarian food is a very good source of protein. You can take egg, chicken and fish. Avoid mutton or organ meat. Restrict animal fats like butter, cheese. Also, restrict large quantities of oil and ghee. Avoid Vanaspati/dalda. Milk is the perfect combination of protein and carbohydrate and can control blood sugar levels. Take a glass of milk when you experience low sugar symptoms. People who don't drink milk can consume yoghurt/curd or buttermilk. Milk, curd and buttermilk are good sources of calcium. Consume fruits such as papaya, pear, orange, guava, small bowl of musk melon, water melon, apples, etc. Don t eat fruits which have high sugar content such as mangoes or grapes, custard apple, chikoo. Foods which are rich in Omega-3 fatty acids are excellent in combating diabetes. These include flax seeds and nuts. You can take 5-7 nuts everyday like almonds, cashew nuts, walnuts etc. There are few everyday tips which you should follow: Make sure to have small frequent meals comprising of high-fibre and low in carbohydrate foods. This is to make sure that you do not experience low sugar levels as you would be taking medicines for your diabetes. Methi or fenugreek seeds are good for glucose control too. Soak one tablespoon of the seeds in 100 ml of water overnight and have it in the morning. Tip for sticking with a diabetes-friendly diet plan: First and foremost, take small, manageable steps. Choose one aspect you want to work on. For e.g. if you eat junk food 4-5 times a week, make a conviction of consuming junk food only once a week. After you have mastered this, then go for another aspect. This is to make sure that you are not overwhelmed with the prospect of lot of changes and that you can take pleasure in the fact that you could make one positive change. This will provide you enthusiasm to likewise make other changes. The mantra that you should be following should be small portions of food . So instead of helping yourself to 3 ladoos or 2 bowls of kheer, you should limit yourself to 1 ladoo or ladoo. That way you will still derive the pleasure of eating the ladoo (and satisfy your craving) but you would not have consumed that many calories as you would have done if you had eaten 3 ladoos. As well as following a diet, make sure that you get some exercise. It is recommended to exercise at least 45 minutes every day for 5 days of the week. You can go on fast walk, running, jogging, cycling, swimming etc. You can even break your exercise time into small chunks maybe you can exercise 15 minutes 3 times a day. If you have never exercised start with 5-10 minutes of walking, you can then gradually increase the intensity of the exercise.
3416 people found this helpful

Diabetes - We Need More Help To Combat This Epidemic!

PhD, Human Energy Fields, Diploma in PIP, EFI, Aura scanning for Health evaluation; Energy field assessment, Fellowship Cardiac Rehabilitation, Cardiac Rehabilitation, MD (Ayur - Mind Body Med), Mind Body Medicine
Non-Invasive Conservative Cardiac Care Specialist, Pune
Diabetes - We Need More Help To Combat This Epidemic!
If you are reading this, you are amongst the many who are suffering personally or trying to help another overcome the burden of this silent, epidemic killer of modern era. Statistics given by International Diabetic Federation declares 415 million diabetics today and an estimate of 642 million diabetics by 2040 world-wide. Picking up older records, WHO has published that the number of people with diabetes has risen from 108 million in 1980 to 422 million in 2014. The global prevalence of diabetes among adults over 18 years of age has risen from 4.7% in 1980 to 8.5% in 2014. Diabetes prevalence has been rising more rapidly in middle- and low-income countries This clearly indicates that actually, in-spite of all the miracle medicines and dietary restrictions put on Diabetics; the prevalence continues and the numbers are still growing. Where are we going wrong?? What are we doing less to curtail this epidemic?? Ayurveda, the Science of life has a different way of looking at the patient. Rather than treat his/her symptoms, the Ayurvedacharys will try to evaluate the triggers of the disorder or disease and correct them, with natural products are used traditionally, sometimes with the help of natural herbs, potentized with different processes making them into medicines. Let us evaluate the triggers: According to Ayurveda, the trigger and body response determines (early diabetes) Prameha; and if not kept under control, can lead to Madhumeha (Diabetes Melitus). The classifications are based on the variations or mismanagement of Vata, Pitta, or Kapha- the 3 major humors of the body. The mismanagement a result of lifestyle, stress, age, toxicity and poor immunity. So what happens when a person is declared diabetic? The body functions on the foods consumed, the nutrition derived and the ease with which it is transformed into the correct form of energy required for the cells, tissues, organs and different metabolic processes of the body. THIS FUEL IS GLUCOSE-SUGAR. So sugar is an essential component in every activity in the body. Insulin (produced by pancreas under mental/brain stimulus) triggers the process of activating cellular function to absorb this glucose fuel to be converted into energy in the presence of pancreas hormone insulin. Diabetes condition prevails when the inherent normal process of (sugar) glucose to energy cycle is disrupted either because there is a problem in insulin quality and quantity or the cells resist absorbing insulin. If this conversion system is disturbed or not available for balanced cellular function and maintenance, catabolism or breakdown of protein synthesis leads to muscle loss, energy loss, accumulation of internal toxins. Incorrect kind of insulin leads to incorrect kind of cellular fuel. The cellular chemical factory, the Mitochondria and ATP (energy molecule) are affected leading to excess toxin build up. The build-up of these acidic toxins including Ketoacidosis (acids from breakdown of fats as alternate fuel), become the trigger for the various symptoms of diabetes that includes weakness, loss of weight, inflammation, skin reactions/darkening, inability to recover from injury, eventual loss of internal recovery and rejuvenation. All these are supported or triggered by hormones that greatly depend on the mental stimulus. And mental stimulus is a STRESS response. Stress to mental thoughts, stress to digest proper food, stress to protect from incorrect lifestyle habits, stress to combat self-inflicted (alcohol and tobacco) and external pollution, stress of competition, stress of emotional burdens, stress of forced im-mobility (sedentary life). Unfortunately, by the time a person is declared diabetic, the derogatory response within the body has set in and cannot be reversed .. but it can be kept under control and the symptoms can be reversed. Techniques that will work for controlling Diabetes: Change of lifestyle: these include stress management techniques that are designed to evaluate the trigger and help patient slowly and surely make changes in MIND- BODY together. Remove or reduce the pollutions in and around the person. Detoxification is of paramount importance and building the immunity to fight disorder. This can be achieved with natural detox systems. Chemical/drug based detox will create a different kind of toxicity in the body. Detox is ideally achieved by cleaning the digestive track first, and then detox of the blood, other body fluids with proper diet. Build immunity with Mind control, food control and natural foods that are designed in nature to improve immunity responses. Consume the sugar-glucose in the body with adequate physical exercise. Proper rest; as he body rejuvenated when in deep sleep. Ideal food intake should comprise of natural, fresh and local foods to nurture the body and help maintain the genetically/customary natural food to fuel, and improve detoxification cycles. NO FOOD IS GOOD OR BAD: ALL DEPENDS ON HOW WELL YOU CAN DIGEST, CONVERT FOOD-FUEL AND ELIMINATE TOXINS And most important Change Mind, Emotional and thinking patterns to POSITIVE thinking and continuous mental peace. Ayurveda and Yoga are the best options to achieve all these. These respect balance and harmony, as they follow natural science; uses the natural harmony of Nature to heal and the treatment is based on the personal needs of the patient. In modern times, based on statistical data from the world, it is not medicines that will make a change, but the manner in which we can deal with the pressures of modern lifestyle, mind patterns and internal immunity that will save us from the vagaries of epidemics like diabetes. Integrating various healthcare facilities like Aahar (foods we consume: diet and thoughts we think); Viihar (lifestyle: our habits and ideologies); Vichar (mental responses and immunity powers to changes); Vyayama (adequate flexibility and health of physical body) and Aaushadhi (medicines as are required, both in type/quality and quantity). Consult your Ayurvedic doctor to plan the best combination of treatment for you: both, to prevent diabetes and to help overcome the vagaries of diabetes.
3382 people found this helpful

Glycemic Index in Diabetes

MBBS, MD - General Medicine, DNB, DM - Endocrinology
Endocrinologist, Gurgaon
Glycemic Index in Diabetes
The glycemic index is a measure of food containing carbohydrates and how it can raise the level of glucose in blood. This is essentially a process where every food is ranked based on a reference food such as white bread. A food with a high GI value increases the level of glucose in the blood compared to a food with a GI that is medium or low. Some of the common examples of food with a low GI include legumes and dried beans. Fats and meats are not included in the index due to the non-availability of carbohydrate in them. Some common foods with a GI of 55 or less include bread made up of pumpernickel and whole wheat, muesli, oatmeal, bulgur, barley, pasta, yam, lentils, sweet potato, converted rice, corn, non-starchy fruits, and vegetables. A food set with medium GI in the range of 56 to 69 includes quick oats, basmati rice, pita bread and couscous. Some example of foods with high GI value in the range of 70 includes pineapple, russet potato, white bread, macaroni, puffed rice, corn flakes, rice cakes and melons. What influences GI? Since GI has nothing to do with fibre and fat, some general findings of the GI count are as follows: When a food is processed or cooked, the GI tends to increase More the storage time of the food, the higher is the GI. It is applicable for ready to cook food and frozen food as well. The higher is the GI count, more the ripeness of a fruit or vegetable. Converted food items tend to have a lower GI as compared to the original version of the food What are the other considerations? While the GI value gives first-hand knowledge about the type of carbohydrate a person is consuming, it is hard of any help when it comes to the amount of carbohydrate intake. Portion size, therefore, still plays an important role for patients suffering from diabetes. The GI count of a food item greatly varies when combined with a food which has higher GI or lower GI for that matter. Nutritious food that is extremely beneficial for the body, tends to have a higher GI count. For instance, the GI count of oatmeal is greater than that of a chocolate. Which one is more effective? While there is no hard and fast rule for maintaining the carbohydrate count, an approach that is equally balanced between a GI count and carbohydrate count works best for a patient. Both the type of carbohydrate as well as the count of carbohydrate plays a crucial role in keeping the blood sugar level under control.endocrinologist
3036 people found this helpful

Diabetes - 9 Self Management Tips

MBBS, MD - General Medicine, DM - Endocrinology, DNB Endocrinology, MNAMS, Speciality Certificate (Endo. & Diab.) (MRCP, UK), Fellow of American College of Endocrinology (FACE)
Endocrinologist, Delhi
Diabetes - 9 Self Management Tips
Are you suffering from diabetes and are looking for ideal at home management remedies? Diabetes is a health condition, which occurs when the blood sugar level of the body rises. There are several ways following which you will be successfully able to manage your diabetes. They are as follows: Exercise regularly and track your workout patterns. Exercise is the most important lifestyle choice for a diabetic patient, which allows you to maintain a good shape. It boosts your body's metabolism rate and insulin uptake process. By taking notes on your exercising habits, you will be able to make timely and required changes. Stop consuming fast food. Try to abstain from eating outside food and reduce your intake of sugar, salt and high calorie food. Meal should be prepared at home using light ingredients and less amount of salt and sugar. Quit smoking as it is very harmful, especially if you are a diabetic. Smoking narrows your blood vessels, as a result of which, your blood circulation gets disrupted. Increase your fiber intake. Fiber is beneficial for all diabetic patients and helps in smooth functioning of your digestive processes. It also help in reducing your cholesterol and blood sugar levels. Take care and pay attention to your feet properly. You should wash your feet in lukewarm water regularly and dry them gently. You should moisturize your feet with a lotion. Check on your feet for cuts, sores, redness, swelling and blisters and consult a doctor in case of an unusual foot sore. Get your eyes checked frequently as diabetes affects your vision in serious ways, which may also lead to blindness. Regular eye checkups will help you to prevent retinopathy. Take proper care of your teeth which includes brushing and flossing at least two times every day. This is because diabetes makes you prone to several serious gum infections. Go for regular dental checkups if you have type 1 or type 2 diabetes and in case you observe swollen, red gums, consult your doctor immediately. Avoid stress and adapt ways to eliminate stress. Your body hormones, which are produced in relation to intense stress, prevent insulin from working efficiently, which increases your blood sugar levels and stress levels further. Relaxation techniques are effective for dealing with stress. Opt for several small meals instead of a few large meals every day. This helps in keeping your digestive processes active, which in turn increase insulin sensitivity.
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How Does Managing Diabetes Help Your Kidneys?

Interventional Nephrology, DM - Nephrology, MD - General Medicine, MBBS
Nephrologist, Bangalore
How Does Managing Diabetes Help Your Kidneys?
Kidneys and Kidney Diseases The kidneys are organs which aim to filter out huge amounts of blood to produce 1-2 quarts of urine. They also perform the task of filtering out the excessive waste materials from the blood stream. However, there can be cases when infection enters your bloodstream and affects your kidneys. This can cause serious kidney diseases such as cysts, stones and cancer. Diabetes: What is it and how does it affect your kidneys? Diabetes is a condition which is caused when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin (Type 1 Diabetes) or when your body doesn t react to the insulin in a normal way (Type 2 Diabetes). The sugar in your food cannot be broken down effectively which can result in problems in your kidneys. The glucose content in your blood causes considerable damage to the filters in your kidneys. When the filters in the kidney are damaged, a particular protein called albumin releases into your blood and your urine. The damage in the kidneys can affect the kidney function and obstruct the filtering out of wastes from the blood. Thus, diabetes could be attributed as a major cause of kidney disease. Managing Diabetes- Managing diabetes is crucial to avoid kidney diseases. However, diabetes doesn t have a proper cure which is why it is even more important to take care of your health in such cases. Here are a few ways in which diabetic patients can aim to be healthy and prevent kidney diseases: Quit Smoking: Smoking increases diabetic complications such as nerve damage and heart strokes which can in-turn affect your kidneys functions adversely. Hence, it is advisable to quit smoking to keep diabetes under control. Healthy Meals: Opt for healthy meals which are balanced and packed with nutrients as they help in increasing the insulin function in your body. Foods such as green leafy vegetables, legumes, fruits and lean meat should be included in your meals. Engage in Physical Exercise: A diabetic person needs to engage in physical exercise in order to maintain a healthy lifestyle. Obesity can increase your chances of complications and can be detrimental to your kidneys as well.
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Popular Questions & Answers

Having card ace 2.5. My pressure used to be normal. Recently my blood pressure shot up. It reached 150/100. Doctor prescribed card ace h 2.5. But I have diabetes with HbA1c last recorded at 9. Is there any advice?

Dr. Shashidhar 91% (4560 ratings)
Homeopath, Secunderabad
You need to focus on your overall health and change your lifestyle. Not only taking the prescribed medicines on time but also spending some time to exercise every day. You can also learn Yoga which can help you balance the mind and body, thereby help reduce the need for increasing dosage of medicines over time. Adapt a healthy lifestyle and try to implement the good habits in your daily routine. You can also add Homeopathy which helps the body to recover naturally. You contact me for further details.

My mother is 63 years old, having to undergo cataract extraction. I want to know, which is one is the best multifocal or monofocal IOLs. She is also diabetic.

Dr. Prabhakar Laxman Jathar 96% (11939 ratings)
MBBS, CCEBDM, Diploma in Diabetology
Endocrinologist, Hubli-Dharwad
Mr. lybrate-user, Thanks for the query. First and foremost is to keep her blood glucose in strict control (fasting < 100 mg, PP 150 to 170 mg & HbA1c% <7). +Choice of lenses depends on one's affordability. All are good. Multifocal does not offer any grade advantage. Thanks.
2 people found this helpful

My mother is a diabetic patient she is age 60 she use dibizide M tablet and sugar level is after food 300 please suggest me what to do.

Dr. Alpesh Jain 92% (248 ratings)
Endocrinologist, Mumbai
Follow a diet which is low in carbohydrate, low in fat ,high in protein and high in fiber. Avoid sugar, jaggery and Honey. Avoid fried foods. Avoid fruits juices and cold drinks. Eat more of fruits and vegetables. Eat small meals at 2-3 hours interval. Rice and rice product should be kept minimal. Avoid potatoes. Whenever eating packed foods, look for the ingredients label. Avoid processed foods. Eat multi-grain roti/bread rather than whole wheat. Your mother will require modification of medication depending on fasting blood sugar and HbA1c (3 months average blood sugar. So kindly do following test.
1 person found this helpful

Can diabetic patient eat walnut. Please advised us and which dry fruit can consume by them. Please suggest

Dr. Prabhakar Laxman Jathar 96% (11939 ratings)
MBBS, CCEBDM, Diploma in Diabetology
Endocrinologist, Hubli-Dharwad
Hi, Lybrate-user, Thanks for the query. A diabetic person can eat walnuts and other dry fruits too. But quantity has to be very limited. About 4 to 5 kernels of walnut, 5 almonds per day. Others dry fruits like cashews should be 2 to 3 pieces. Resins also very limited quantity. Thanks.
3 people found this helpful

Can notablets asomex 5 ,telma 40 and metolar xl 50 be use all in morning for a high bp 170 for my mother aged 56 years. She is also a patient of diabetes.

Dr. Prabhakar Laxman Jathar 96% (11939 ratings)
MBBS, CCEBDM, Diploma in Diabetology
Endocrinologist, Hubli-Dharwad
Mr. lybrate-use, Thanks for the query. All the three dugs are for controlling high BP, so it is better to use one in the morning and other two in the evening. There is no problem even if the patient is diabetic.
2 people found this helpful

Health Quizzes

Diabetic Food List: Best and Worst Choices

Dr. Hanish Gupta 90% (1667 ratings)
MBBS, DNB (General Medicine)
Internal Medicine Specialist, Delhi
Processed food like pasta is considered as one of the most fatal contributors to the onset of diabetes. True or False? Take the quiz to know now.
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Diabetes - Try These Unani Remedies!

Dr. A Z Khan 89% (207 ratings)
Bachelor of Unani Medicine & Surgery (B.U.M.S)
Unani Specialist, Gaya
Unani advises avoiding sweets completely to treat diabetes. True or false? Take this quiz to know more.
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Diabetes - How To Manage It?

Dr. Hardik Thakker 86% (417 ratings)
MD - Internal Medicine, MBBS
Internal Medicine Specialist, Mumbai
For diabetic patients, missing out on prescribed medicines is at times beneficial. True or False. Take this quiz to know now!
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Diabetes - How It Affects Your Feet?

Dr. Anuj Maheshwari 87% (112 ratings)
MBBS, MD - General Medicine, FACE, FACP, FRCP (London)
Diabetologist, Lucknow
The progess of peripheral neuropathy can be controlled by having a check on your blood sugar level. True or false? Take this quiz to know more.
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Diabetes - Assessing The Cardiovascular Risk!

Dr. Gopala Krishnam Raju Ambati 90% (1594 ratings)
Diabetologist, Hyderabad
All forms of cholesterol increase the risk of heart diseases. True or false? Take this quiz to know more.
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