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Diabetes - Symptom, Treatment And Causes

Types of Diabetes:

  • Type 1 diabetes- Most people generally develop type 1 diabetes before the age of 40. It is also known as early onset diabetes, juvenile diabetes and insulin dependent diabetes. People who have type 1 diabetes usually have to take insulin injections. They also need to ensure blood glucose levels by carrying out blood tests and following a strict diet.
  • Type 2 diabetes- This form of diabetes occurs when the body doesn’t produce adequate insulin for the proper functioning of the cell which produces insulin. Many people are able to control type 2 diabetes by controlling their blood glucose levels, exercising a lot, consuming a healthy diet and losing weight. Overweight and physically inactive people are at a higher risk of getting type 2 Diabetes. Eating a lot of junk food and food rich in sugar can also contribute to type 2 diabetes.
  • Gestational diabetes- This form of diabetes usually affects women during pregnancy. Many women have high levels of glucose in their blood during pregnancy because of the inability to produce insulin. If gestational diabetes is not controlled on time, it can be fatal for the baby and a lot of complications can arise during childbirth. The newborn can be bigger than she/he should normally be.

How is diabetes diagnosed?

The doctor usually diagnoses Diabetes by conducting a series of tests such as the A1C test, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) test and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT).

Complications of Diabetes:

Type diabetes
Can't be cured, but treatment helps Require medical diagnosis Lab test required Chronic: can last for years or be lifelong
Increased thirst Frequent urination Hunger Fatigue and blurred vision

Popular Health Tips

Gestational Diabetes - Know The Risk Factors!

Gynaecologist, Gurgaon
Gestational Diabetes - Know The Risk Factors!

Gestational diabetes, as the name suggests, occurs during gestation or pregnancy when the blood sugar levels exceed the normal level. Gestational diabetes, like other form of diabetes, affects how your body cells use glucose or sugar during pregnancy, and usually disappears after you’ve given birth.

Causes and symptoms to look out for!
During gestation, the placenta produces hormones that lead to the accumulation of blood glucose. Under normal condition, the pancreas forms enough insulin to counter the buildup of blood glucose. The level of blood sugar rises when the pancreas fails to produce adequate insulin to manage your blood sugar.

Usually, women with gestational diabetes do not show symptoms. So, the presence of the condition can go unnoticed if they are not diagnosed during routine checkups and screening tests. Nevertheless, if the condition goes out of control, you may feel tired, feel thirsty or hungry, or feel the urge to urinate more often.

What are the risk factors?
About 2-10% of pregnant women are affected by gestational diabetes every year. The following factors are likely to put you at risk of developing gestational diabetes-

  1. Excess body weight- You may develop gestational diabetes if you were overweight or had gained excess weight (BMI equal to or greater than 30) before getting pregnant
  2. Family history- Women who have a family history of diabetes are likely to have gestational diabetes.
  3. Age- Women aged more than 25 years are at a greater risk of developing this condition.
  4. Diabetic history- A slightly raised blood sugar level may act as the precursor to Type-2 diabetes, which in turn increases your chance of getting affected by gestational diabetes.
  5. Previous pregnancy- Women who’ve previously given birth to a child weighing more than 4.1 Kg (9 pounds), or have delivered a stillborn child are likely to have gestational diabetes.

What is the treatment for gestational diabetes?
Urine tests are performed to check for ketones. In a non-diabetic person, glucagon, insulin and other hormones avert ketone levels in your blood from soaring up too high. Once you’re diagnosed with gestational diabetes, it’s important that you consult your doctor for treatment. Uncontrolled blood sugar level can affect you and your baby’s health after birth. This condition can be treated in the following ways-

  1. Keep a check on your blood sugar- During pregnancy, your doctor will have you tested for gestational diabetes 4-5times a day to keep a tab on your blood glucose level. For this, a small drop of blood is first drawn from the finger using a needle. The sample of blood is then placed on the test strip inserted into a device called the blood glucose meter to measure and monitor the level of blood sugar in your body.
  2. Medication- Anti-diabetic medications and insulin are prescribed to control the amount of glucose or sugar in the bloodstream. Your doctor may also suggest oral medications like Diabeta and Glynase to manage your blood glucose level.
  3. Healthy diet- Diabetic diet- one that helps control blood sugar levels- is highly prescribed by doctors during pregnancy. Cut down on carbohydrates and sugar, and switch to food items that provide your body sufficient nutrients and calories.

Post treatment the blood sugar levels usually come down to normal within 4-6 weeks of giving birth.

4473 people found this helpful

Diabetic Foot & Revascularization In Them!

MBBS, DNB - Peripheral Vascular Surgery, DNB - General Surgery, MNAMS
Vascular Surgeon, Nashik
Diabetic Foot & Revascularization In Them!

When you have diabetes, your body does not produce enough insulin or loses the ability to utilize it. When this happens, your blood sugar level goes up. Diabetes can affect all organs of the body. Your feet are no exception.

How does diabetes affect the foot?

There are two ways in which the foot may be affected by diabetes -

  1. Diabetic neuropathyDiabetes can damage the nerves of the feet so that you lose all sensations in your extremities. So you can no longer feel any irritation or pain in your feet. If sores/cuts/blisters develop on your feet, you won’t know and they may fester and get infected.
  2. Peripheral vascular disease: This disorder affects the blood vessels of your limbs. Fatty deposits clog the blood vessels that carry blood from your feet to your heart. So blood flow is cut off to the feet. This may lead to pain, numbness, swelling, slow healing of wounds or infection.
  3. Ischemic foot: When blood flow to the feet is interrupted, you may develop an ischemic foot, which is characterized by cold skin, loss of hair from the legs and discoloration. In extreme cases, the affected foot may have to be amputated.

What are the symptoms of diabetic foot?
The range of symptoms depend on the intensity of the disorder and vary from one patient to another-

  • Tingling sensation in the feet
  • Numbness of the feet
  • Blisters or wounds that refuse to heal
  • Discoloration of the skin of the feet
  • Stains on the inside of your socks
  • Deformed feet

If an infection has set in, some symptoms that will manifest are-

  • Trembling of the limbs and arms
  • Spiking blood sugar
  • Shock
  • Redness and swelling of the feet

The complications that may arise out of diabetic foot are-

  • Ulcers of the foot
  • Abscesses
  • Gangrene and death of tissues
  • Charcot’s Foot or fractures and dislocations of the bones of the feet
  • Deformity of the feet

Revascularization for diabetic foot

Chronic diabetic foot can be treated with multiple revascularization methods like synthetic conduits, endarterectomy, balloon angioplasty, arteriovenous reversal, muscle flap transfer or atherectomy. These procedures eliminate the need for limb amputation. The aim of a revascularization procedure is to fix up the blood vessels that were blocked by bypassing the affected blood vessel so that blood can normally flow to your feet.

Along with revascularization, your doctor will recommend exercises like walking to increase supply of blood to the feet as well as medicines that will deal with the pain and swelling.

Diabetic foot can be a serious health threat that could lead to the limb being amputated. But with revascularization, you can get back on your feet in no time and resume your daily activities

2739 people found this helpful

Can Diabetes Lead To Emergencies? Here Is How Can You Deal With It!

MBBS, MD - General Medicine, Certification In Diabetes
Endocrinologist, Delhi
Can Diabetes Lead To Emergencies? Here Is How Can You Deal With It!

Diabetes is known as a silent killer and this name is well earned. Research findings have shown that around 20 lakh Indians suffer from diabetes of which 5 lakh are not aware that they are diabetic. Managing diabetes can be a difficult task but definitely not an impossible one. However, if you do not take steps at the right time, diabetes can cause many health complications and emergencies. Read on to know more about this deadly disease.

What is diabetes?

Diabetes is an ailment, which compromises the body’s ability to produce or respond to the hormone, known as insulin. This leads to an increase in the blood sugar levels of the body and causes an abnormal metabolism of carbohydrates.

What kind of complications can diabetes lead to?

Yes, diabetes can lead to emergencies as diabetics always run the risk of suffering from insulin shock and falling into a diabetic coma. Excessive insulin in the body can lead to a low blood sugar level causing insulin shock. This is also known by the term ‘hypoglycemia’. Similarly, if your body has too little insulin then it is known as hyperglycemia where you run the risk of falling into a diabetic coma.

The symptoms of an insulin shock are:

- Rapid pulse
- Sweaty and pale skin
- Odorless breath
- Hunger
- Drowsiness and fatigue
- Rapid breathing
- Trembling
- A headache
- Numbness in feet and hands

The symptoms of a diabetic coma are:

- Nausea
- The shaky or wobbly way of walking
- Dry, warm or flushed skin
- Drowsiness leading to a gradual loss of consciousness
- Quick and weak pulse
- Deep breaths
- Confusion
- The odor of sweet apple of nail polish

How can you deal with diabetes?

Even though diabetes is a very serious disease to deal with, there are a few things you can do that can help you deal with it and keep it at a normal level. Some of these steps are:

- Count your carbs - Even though carbohydrates is an essential nutrient for ensuring a healthy body, too much of it can wreak havoc on your blood sugar levels. It is imperative that you follow a well-balanced diet with the right amount of carbs in it. The best thing you can do is to pair high-fiber carbs with protein, as it can slow down your digestion and you will feel full without your blood sugar being hiked up. Some of the best sources of carbs and fiber are sweet potatoes, dried beans, whole wheat bread, and pumpkins.

- Check your blood sugar regularly - Go for regular blood sugar tests, so that you know where your diabetes stands. If your blood tests come back to normal then you are on the right path but if they do not, then consult a doctor so that he or she can help you come up with a plan to deal with this in a better way.

- Exercise - Exercise is something that does not just takes care of your body from the outside; it can also keep you in good shape internally by lowering your blood sugar levels. Make sure that you work out at least 4 days a week for a minimum of half an hour. Physical activity can also help your body secrete the hormone; endorphins, which can help, boost your mood and emotions.

Even though diabetes is a very unfortunate disease, that does not mean you will have to put your entire life on hold for it. If you take the right steps at the right time and listen to your doctor’s advice, you will be able to beat this disease in no time.

1760 people found this helpful

Diabetes and Vascular Dementia - What You Should Know?

DM - Neurology, MD - General Medicine
Neurologist, Ahmedabad
Diabetes and Vascular Dementia - What You Should Know?

Diabetes and dementia have more in common than the letter ‘D’. Diabetes is a disorder where the body cannot produce enough insulin. It may also make the patient’s body resistant to insulin. As a result, the body’s glucose levels fluctuate. This, in turn, increases the risk of many other conditions including vascular dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. This risk can be as high as 60%. Dementia caused by diabetes is seen more often in women than in men.

According to research studies, high levels of glucose or sugar in the body can affect the brain cells. This excessive sugar limits the amount of oxygen that can reach the brain cells and leads to the death of these cells. It also prevents brain cells from communicating with each other thus leading to vascular dementia. Vascular dementia can also be caused by a stroke or a number of small strokes. This too is an effect of diabetes as it can cause cardiovascular troubles and narrow the arteries.

Vascular dementia is the second most common form of dementia. Patients suffering from this type of dementia typically complain of memory loss and difficulty thinking. Language may also be an issue. Some of the common symptoms associated with it are:

  • Trouble planning or organizing things
  • Trouble solving simple problems
  • Trouble making decisions
  • Difficulty in following steps or a procedure
  • Reduced speed of thinking
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • Mood swings

The risk of developing vascular dementia doubles every five years after the age of 65. Hence, it is important to keep your diabetes under control and manage your blood sugar levels. If you are on insulin, you must take the prescribed dose regularly. Do not change the dosage on your own or skip a dose. Here are a few other tips that can help you control diabetes and reduce the risk of vascular dementia.

Eat a well-balanced diet
A person suffering from diabetes should have plenty of whole grains, fruits, and vegetables. Avoid processed foods and fatty foods. Instead of frying our food, try grilling, steaming or baking it. Raw salads are great for a diabetes patient.

Exercise Regularly
Exercise can improve your overall health and make your body respond better to the insulin. If you lead a sedentary lifestyle; start by adding a walk to your daily routine. You could also try cycling or swimming. Aim for at least half an hour’s exercise each day. If you cannot find the time, incorporate exercises into your daily routine. For example, take the stairs instead of the lift or park your car a little further away from your home and walk back.

3 people found this helpful

Why Is It Important To Control Your Diabetes?

Diploma In Diabetology, MD - Diabetology
Endocrinologist, Delhi
Why Is It Important To Control Your Diabetes?

The food we eat, the liquids we drink and the air we breathe, everything plays an important role in affecting the health of our body. The consumption of food causes the production of glucose, which provides energy to our body. There is no doubt that excess of everything is bad and this is the reason that when blood glucose levels get a leap, then a disease named diabetes comes into existence.

Firstly, have a look at the types to know your problem well.

Type 1 Diabetes: This type of diabetes is quite hazardous for the pancreas as the immune system restricts the cells to produce insulin. Type 1 diabetes can be spotted among people of every age. It needs insulin on the daily basis to maintain the living of a person.

Type 2 Diabetes: Most commonly, people get affected by type 2 diabetes only, but generally it occurs in middle age people or to the people at their higher age. In this type of diabetes, patient’s body does not make proper insulin.

Gestational Diabetes: Gestational diabetes can be diagnosed among the pregnant women. Generally, this gets vanished with the birth of the baby. In most of the cases, people suffering from gestational diabetes come into the trap of type 2 diabetes in the later ages.

How common is the disease?
Various researches are evident to the point that 415 million people are suffering from this problem and it is not wrong to say that it is diagnosed in 1 out of 11 of the world’s adult population. Most of the people are suffering from type 2 basically.

Why is it important to put a stop on diabetes?
Insulin hormone plays a vital role in the transportation of glucose into the cells, but when the proper amount of glucose does not reach to the cells and get occupied in the blood, and then the excess glucose in the blood causes the health problems. These problems comprise of:

  1. Cardiovascular diseases
  2. Kidney problems which may force you to go under dialysis
  3. Effects in vision that may cause blindness
  4. Sexual problems such as erectile malfunctioning
  5. Amputation due to circulation and scarring

These problems can affect your life in a worse way so waiting for the excess is the not an option, whereas you should be careful towards it so that it can be cured in the early stages. There is nothing to have a second thought because higher levels of diabetes may lead to losing your life. So, do not ignore the disease and look forward to lessening the effects of the disease. Monitoring of the levels of glucose in your body on the daily basis can help you to stop the cause. This can save your body get affected by various other diseases. Do not wait for the disease to cause damage and plan beautiful life ahead by putting a stop to your diabetes. Only you have the courage to give a better and a happy ending to your diabetes story.

2806 people found this helpful

Popular Questions & Answers

I am borderline diabetic since the last 10 years on Diamicron Mr. 30 mg once (bbf) daily. I am male, 45 years, 64 kg, BMI less than 22. Recently I got my tests done and the reports are as under: HbA1C: 6.7, Renal Profile: WNL, Heomogram: WNL, Thyroid profile: WNL, Liver profile: SGOT: 39.5, SGPT: 66, other value in normal limits, LIPID: WNL, Fasting Insulin: 2.43. I see that my HbA1c has started increasing from 6.2~6.3 to 6.7 now in the last 1-2 years. I go for 50 minutes walk every day. Should I add some drug to the existing medication? Pl advice.

MBBS, CCEBDM, Diploma in Diabetology, Diploma in Clinical Nutrition & Dietetics, Cetificate Course In Thyroid Disorders Management (CCMTD)
Endocrinologist, Dharwad
Mr. lybrate-user, Thanks for the query. Usually when treatment is on for a number of years, there is a possibility of some increase in HbA1c%, mainly because you are on same drug for a long time. You have not mentioned recent Fasting & PP levels, those also do give an idea. There apears to be a need for either increasing the dosage or ading another compound for better control Thanks.
5 people found this helpful

I am an elderly person age near 70. I am prone to cold. Take regularly ecosprin AV75, urimaxf and glycomet 500 and glizid 40. Sugar levels pre diabetic. Can I take anti pneumonia vaccine? And how's the Right sugar tablets?

MBBS, CCEBDM, Diploma in Diabetology, Diploma in Clinical Nutrition & Dietetics, Cetificate Course In Thyroid Disorders Management (CCMTD)
Endocrinologist, Dharwad
Thanks for the query. In persons with pre-diabetic glucose levels (FBG 101 to 125 mg, PP 141 to 191 mg & HbA1c% < 6.4), there is no need for any antidiabetic medication. I do not understand why have been taking those. Please mention your blood glucose levels (before starting treatment and also current). Taking Pneumococcal vaccine is good you can go ahead. As regards the particular tablet for treating diabetes, there are no clinical studies done, no published reports in top journals. So very difficult believe whatever is being claimed. Thanks.
2 people found this helpful

I am a type 2 diabetic and taking pioglitazone hydrochloride 15 mg one tablet twice a day, glimepiride 2 mg one twice a day and metformin hydrochloride 500 mg one tablet twice a day. Please advise if this is a safe dose to control my diabetes.

MBBS, CCEBDM, Diploma in Diabetology, Diploma in Clinical Nutrition & Dietetics, Cetificate Course In Thyroid Disorders Management (CCMTD)
Endocrinologist, Dharwad
Mr. lybrate-user, Thanks for the query You have mentioned the drugs and dosage being taken, but there us no mention of blood glucose levels and HbA1c%, so I am unable to know whether glucose is well controlled or not. Another aspect you are taking 30 mg of Pioglitazone, which is the maximum dose recommended. It is better if that is reduced to 15 mg a day. Please let me know the glucose levels and HbA1c% Then only I can comment. Plus I need to know the diet pattern and extent of exercise, weight and height. Thanks.
10 people found this helpful

Hi. I am a diabetic, fasting is 71 and PP is 110 (on medication). I want to switch to Millets and vegetables for lunch and steamed vegetables for dinner. Is this okay? Any suggestion about quantities?

Endocrinologist, Delhi
Yes you take these food item which will benefit you to reduce dose of medicines. Your reports suggest you should reduce your diabetes medicine as pp blood sugar is low.
2 people found this helpful

I am taking gluconorm sr 500 mg twice a day for diabetes for 5 years. Every year doing diabetic health check up. HbA1c range is 5.7 to 6, but my fasting sugar is fluctuating like 120 to 150 and random sugar is 150 to 200. Now my problem is in legs, headache, thirsty, smell in urine, and bones pains.

MBBS, CCEBDM, Diploma in Diabetology, Diploma in Clinical Nutrition & Dietetics, Cetificate Course In Thyroid Disorders Management (CCMTD)
Endocrinologist, Dharwad
lybrate-user ji, Thanks for the query. Madam the HbA1c% mentioned is showing you have excellent glucose control. But the fasting and PP levels mentioned are fairly high. Please clarify following points: 1)HbA1c% given is tested when (dates)? Becausse at that level average glucose has to be fairly low for example HbA1c% Glucose level (mg) 83 2) Looking at glucose levels mentioned present HbA1c5 will be much higher. So it shows that your glucose control has not been good of late as compared to earlier. That can lead to a variety of symptoms complained. It appears your current treatment is not really effective. Thanks.
8 people found this helpful

Table of Content

Types of Diabetes:
How is diabetes diagnosed?
Complications of Diabetes:
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Diabetes In Children
According to most experts, depression and diabetes have been intricately connected in a vicious cycle. While the prolonged and sustaining nature of diabetes directly makes one vulnerable to the bouts of depression, doctors tend to locate traces of depression in the family history of an individual at least diagnose the roots of diabetes.
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Each tiny action we commit involves the risk of a condition, disease or disorder. For instance, sneezing a bit too hard can rupture an eye vessel, or having your face right up against the wind in a moving bus can expose you to germs. Diabetes is as prevalent as common cold in every household and there is no end to the list of causes that can make you suffer from it.
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Is Bariatric Surgery Good For Diabetic Patients?
It can also help to diabetic patients as it helps in reducing weight. So if you are overweight and diabetic too, so go for this procedure.
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Know More About Diabetes
There are a number of lifestyle ailments that plague people around the world. Cardiovascular diseases, high cholesterol, hypertension and diabetes are just a few of them. Diabetes means your blood sugar level, called glucose, is too high. Blood glucose is the main kind of sugar found in your blood and is supposed to be your main source of energy.
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Metabolic Syndrome
Metabolic syndrome is a collection of risk factors that increase the chance of developing heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. Lifestyle changes like losing weight, exercise, and dietary changes can help prevent or reverse metabolic syndrome.
Having issues? Consult a doctor for medical advice