This Lipy Gupta once again and here we are launch we are to launch another technique of semi-permanent makeup.
Semi-permanent makeup as the name suggests is a technique for enhancing of eyebrow and eyelashes and introducing a new bright lip color. It’s a technique in which we introduce a pigment into your skin and this pigment stays for approximately 3 years. It is not like tattoo which is going to stay with you for life and which bleached over a period of time, this is the main difference between a tattoo and a semi-permanent makeup. The pigment which is used in semi-permanent makeup is 100% organic and doesn’t bleach with time. It fades gradually and gives you a very natural and good lasting results which you would love and like to maintain again and again. The technique of this procedure is very simple. In this when a patient come to us, we assess the patient, we tell the patient about the procedure and how the procedure is going to be carried out. A tropical numbing cream is applied on the area to be treated, the procedure is generally performed under two sittings which are four to six weeks apart, and the pigment is introduced using a fine sterile needle after an area which is properly cleaned and sterilized. After the cleaning is done and the area has been sterilized the pigment is introduced in the skin. You can see a change of the pigment and the skin color immediately which you can appreciate like fine hair strands on the eyebrow and a neat liner in case someone is going for an eye line eye liner enhancement. Last for around three years, give you natural long lasting result and this is a clear cut answer of when you don’t want to do make up every day. The procedure is extremely safe and doesn’t have any side effects and it’s a walking procedure. You can come at a doctor’s clinic get it done and resume work immediately. The result of this procedure are do matched by natural enhancement and do not look artificial. It gives greenish color to the skin.
We are here answer your queries and welcome you in case you have any quick questions. Thank you.read more
I am Dr. Lipa Gupta and I am back here again to discuss about dermal fillers and solve your FAQs about it. Before we start what dermal fillers are it is important for us to understand what is natural itching? As all of us age this is because of our frequent blinking or because of a repeated lip movement we lose hyaluronic acid which is the natural substance of the skin. This leads to appearance of fine lines around the eyes, tear troughs, nasolabial folds and marionette lines. When these signs start appearing there is an appearance of lines of wrinkles and these days we have products which are very close to the natural occurring Hyaluronic acid in the skin, to replenish the lost volume and improve the fine lines and pores which are developing. Juvederm gives us a complete range of products which is specifically designed to target the individual needs of these areas. We have a whole range of Voluma, volbella, vollift and ultra HC which is specifically design to treat. A volume which is good for lifting and filling effect cheekbones and around the deeper and courser lines of the skin. A volbella which is specifically designed. It’s a soft product to take of the tear trough areas. A volt which is specifically designed to target lips so it gives a natural plumed lips without giving an unnatural appearance and an ultra HC which is again for a filling and lifting effect. The difference to these products is the quantity of Hyaluronic acid which is different in each of them and which is specifically designed to target that particular area. These products are injected using fine needles which have certain key points for each area which are already predetermined. The effect of the result is immediate which can be seen immediately after injecting for up to one to one and a half years easily. The procedure is safe but should be performed by an experienced dermatologist because there are certain complications may which occur if you are not doing it with a proper doctor who specifically train for the same. When these products are inserted using needles there is an immediate lifting and plumping effects which further enhances within a week’s time. Another common question which we commonly face is why Juvederm or any other product as against the cheaper dermal fillers. The quality of the product is dependent on the tissue integrity it achieves. This product when injected, it integrates in the tissue and forma part of the tissue. This integration factor is variable for different quality of products. When you are choosing a product which is superior, though it might be slightly costlier it is to give you natural result, these days we not only aim at lifting or filling lines, we also help in treating expressions. We commonly have patients who walk in telling that suddenly, ‘I have started looking angry or I look worried’.
So when we are treating expressions, we want product as close to natural as possible. This is an advantage of Juvederm over other products.read more
Hello everyone, I am Dr Lipy Gupta and I am a dermatologist. I am going to discuss Anti ageing treatments with you today. We all are aware of Botox and this is a Botulinum toxin very common and very common of his procedure is basically involves injections which are given on the skin which relaxes the muscles and it is good for treatment of fine lines and wrinkles specially around your forehead and the crossfit. The second most popular procedure are fillers and there is a whole range of fillers available, the most popular ones are Juvederm Voluma and Juvederm Ultra XC. Voluma filler is for deeper lifting and the Ultra XC is for more superficial lifting. These fillers are available in prefilled syringes which can be injected into the desired area, per optimum results. The results with these fillers last easily for one and a half to two years and can be done by a trained dermatologist. The third most common procedure which is done these days is a therapy or high intensity focused ultrasound this is the technique which uses high intensity focused ultrasound energy in 3 different depth. A depth of 4.5 millimetre, 3 millimetre and 1.5 millimetre. The 1.5 millimetres is for superficial lifting the 3 and the 4.5 is for the deeper lifting of the skin. How it is done is that after application of an ultrasound gel, the probe is placed on the skin and the ultrasound energy is at fire to cause skin tightening and lifting of the skin. This is the common procedure not it is associated with little pain while the procedure is being done and a little bit of discomfort. However the results are excellent and generally last for a year and a half. Another most Common procedure which is now done is a thread lift. Threads are basically polydioxanone materials which is arranged and placed on a needle, the needle is inserted into the skin and the thread is automatically released. The thread which is place inside the skin disintegrates and induces new collagen over a period of 6 weeks to 6 months. This is available both as Monopolar as well as Bipolar which are thicker and deeper threads. Another procedure which I like to talk about is Micro needle radio-frequency, in this needles are inserted which are thermally insulated, these are fired into the skin they penetrate into the skin release radio frequency energy and cause skin tightening. This procedure works where if our reducing fine lines and wrinkles on the face as well as for the neck area. Another common procedure these days is Vampire facelift which uses patients on blood, out of which the platelet rich traction is segregated. It is process and then it is injected into the facial skin or even sometimes this injected into the Nasolabial folds and other areas. Once this procedure is done there is a downtime of 2 to 3 days, however it gives a good facial rejuvenation and good facial lifting. Thank you for patient hearing and for any queries you can contact us at www. drlipygupta.com Thank you.read more
Doctor in Green Park Family Medicine Clinic
Laser Hair Removal
Mole Removal Procedure
Skin Care Treatment
Skin Diseases Treatment
Cysts Removal Procedure
Wart Removal Technique
Chronic Skin Allergy Treatment
Stretch Marks Treatment
Tattoo Removal Procedure
Removal Of Stitches Procedure
Corn Removal Procedure
Liver Problems Treatment
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Patient Review Highlights
It's nice.. Doctor lipy gupta describe me everything about my daughts.. She is very friendly with me..
I was panicked, because I never thought I will suffer from eczema like this. Dr Lipy Gupta is not just friendly, but also is very motivating. During the complete eczema treatment program she always supported and motivated me. Even though there was a long queue, still the staff was very pleasant. I have consulted so many doctors but nobody till now was able to understand my concern properly, until i consulted Lipy GuptaI I am so happy with the results of my treatment, that I will surely recommend Lipy Gupta to anyone gladly.
I was panicked, because I never thought I will suffer from acne and pimple like the. she is not just friendly, but also is very motivating. . Someone from the office, referred us that Lipy Gupta. the overall atmosphere in the Green Park Family Medicine Clinic is very soothing. I found the Green Park Family Medicine Clinic itself quite pleasant. her treatment of chemical peel suited me the best and now I am fine. Lipy Gupta has expert knowledge in the field.
My boss referred me this Dr.Lipy Gupta. She is not just friendly, but also is very motivating. Lipy Gupta with great ease handled my case. I was panicked, because I never thought I will suffer from greying hair like this. Hygiene is very important, and I must Green Park Clinic was extremely clean. I had lost hope, but the greying hair treatment given by Lipy Gupta has helped me regain my confidence. I was suffering from greying hair for such a long time.
My mom told me about the doctor, so i visited dr lipy for my Fungal Infection Treatment. She is a keen listener and gave proper time and examined the problem as well. The medication she gace me was quiet easy to consume and also got the results. Now i am totally fine. Her clinic was also good and the hospitality was even better. I am happy to got treated by Dr. lipy. I will surely recommend her to everybody with the same cause. God bless you mam.
Even though I was fit and fine, it was shocked when I got to know that I have skin infections. I read an article of Dr Lipy in the paper and made contact. The treatment She offered was amazing. She asked me several queries in order to diagnose the issue and then prescribed teh medicines. Over the period of time I noticed a number of changes in myself. With the help of her treatment for skin infections I am feeling so great.
I was having skin rashes so I went to dr. lipy gupta as she has an good command on skin issues settling. Its been a nice experience, The staff individuals at the center were all around mannered and kind. The specialist was obliging listened n inspected my concern well. I have quite recently begun the recommended medicine and expectation the skin condition gets treated with time. I am very positive here. Much thanks to you
I had dry skin issue, because of which I get exceptionally aggravated essentially in winters. I needed to get this issue cured for which I went by Dr. Lipy Gupta, and was extremely satisfied to see the way she tunes in to his patients and furthermore give legitimate time to them. She gave me few hints and in addition pharmaceutical to make my slick skin less dry. I was happy with the outcomes. Much thanks to you
One of my cousin's referred to dr Lipy Gupta. She ensures that she gives enough time to each patient. I have consulted so many doctors but nobody till now was able to understand my concern properly. Due to my acne and pimples my daily activities were suffering. All the staff members were very helpful at her clinic Green Park Family Medicine Clinic in Delhi.Her advice and counselling has helped me immensely.
Dr Lipy Gupta isvery good and knowledgeable doctor. The complete process of hair fall treatment was so painless and quick, and i am so relieved that I chose to consult her. Finally with her treatment, I am completely cured from the disease. One of my colleague referred Lipy Gupta. I am so much bend=fitted with her hairfall treatment. I owe her a big thank for the treatment.
Due to my pigmentation i was feeling very depressed and had no hope. My problem was such that it required a number of sessions, and I must say after all the sessions, I am feeling much better now. The entire Green Park Clinic was spotlessly, clean. In the very first sitting, Dr Lipy Gupta clearly told us the problem and the what the treatment procedure will be in future.
I am a 22 years girl and went to Green Park Family Medicine Clinic, Delhi there i met dr. lipy for my pimple treatment. She is a knowledgeable doctor who also keep in touch with her clients. She has given me proper medication for my pimple treatment and by gods grace and doctors support now i see a completely changed skin with much glow and clear skin. Thank you mam.
Visited her for my hairfall problem, as i am 27 male. She gave me proper time to detect what is the actual cause for this and also did numerous test to cross verify. Its been 3 months now that i have been taking the prescribed medication and i am happy to see the results. My hair have become thick now and hairfall has stopped. Thank you mam
The problem was severe and unmanageable, as I was suffering from pimples, but Dr Lipy Gupta was able to handle it. She ensures that she gives enough time to each patient. Someone from the office, referred us Dr Gupta. I had lost hope, but the pimples treatment given by her has helped me regain my confidence.
I visited for Pigmentation Treatment, It was my first meeting with Dr. Lipy Gupta. I am extremely happy with the way she clarified about different medicines and she didnt straight away suggested methodology which by and large different dermatologists do. Much obliged to you for your recommendation.
I have been taking treatment for my skin coloration since last year and I got amazing outcome. It has been the best understanding for my skin and helped all things considered. Her advices and proposals extremely well suits on me.She listen all your concern deliberately and treat well.
She did my pimples treatment. Thanks to the expert care and guidance, I feel much better than before. One of my neighbour's recommended Dr Lipy Gupta. My case was extremely serious, but she really handled it very nicely. The nurses at the Green Park Clinic were really helpful.
Facial hair was a big issue which i was dealing with, so i visited dr. Lipy Gupta after reading the reviews. I found the same environment and friendliness there as well. She did my laser hair removal and it was carried out safely without the after effects. Thank you.
I visited dr. gupta for my Skin Disease Treatment and i am Happy with Doctor friendliness and Clarification of the medical problem. iIlness was all around clarified, medicine was likewise clarified in detail.
I consulted Dr. Lipy Gupta for Mole Removal Procedure, as i had 6-7 moles. She was very kind and gentle during the treatment procedure. I am satisfied with the results. Thank you Doctor
Pollution is increasing in India. Delhi and NCR are very affected by pollution. Moreover, one can stop going outside, which means it is hard to escape from pollution. Pollution can generate free radicals on the skin. Free radicals are highly unstable molecules that react very quickly with other compounds. So these free radicals can give you are a very bad effect on your skin. In addition, Diwali is very near and during the Diwali time pollution level will be at its peak. Therefore, we recommend you to take care of your skin.
How Does Pollution Affect My Skin?
All the dust and other small pollutants can enter and negatively affect your skin cells. Which can cause premature aging in a process called oxidation? There are many other gases like nitrogen dioxide, ozone, carbon monoxide, and sulfur dioxide can harm skin. Although skin has a barrier, which can protect from the pollutants when the pollution level is high, it is not able to protect 100%. Studies have shown that women who live in urban areas have skin that is up to 10 percent older than that of women who do not live in urban areas. Additionally, pollution can cause irritation, rashes and breakouts, particularly peaks in pollution. Pollution can also clot the pores and which leads to acne and pimples.
What precaution one should take to protect skin?
The key part is to protect the skin is cleanse your skin every single day, twice daily with the product, which contains antioxidant. “Antioxidants are molecules that can neutralize free radicals, and thus mitigate the negative effect of free radicals. After cleansing the skin use toner for the proper hydration to skin. When going out use sunscreen and cover the face for less damage.
How Can You Counteract Pollution In Other Ways?
Your diet plays a vital role in fighting against the pollutant. Eat fruits, leafy greens, citrus, which help the body, fight oxidation from inside out. Drink plenty of water for the proper hydration.
Excess of fat on the sub-mental area may result due to increase in weight, age or genetics. In an era where we are concerned about our looks. There are simple and easy ways to get rid of double chin.
- Cryolipolysis or fat a freeze technology now has an applicator specifically designed to treat sub-mental fat. It is placed in the sub-mental area. Fat is pushed into the applicator using a vacuum. Lateral cooling plates cool the tissue, once the fat is treated with the chin applicator, the body metabolizes the fat which is later excreted to the urine in a span of 4-6 weeks. The 1-3 session may be performed 4-6 weeks apart for the best results. Side effects Are minimal and range from mild pain, bruising which settles within a few days.
- Injection Lipolysis: Sodium deoxycholate is an enzyme which melts fat when injected into the sub-mental area it gives good results as the fat content here is localized in a small volume. 3-4 sessions are performed every 10-15 days for best results. Side effects include mild pain, bruising and local tenderness.
- HIFU: High Intensity Focused Ultrasound uses focused ultrasound to targets collagen and works on SMAS (Submuscular aponeurotic system) and causes controlled thermal injury which in turn causes collagen lightening and shun-age and improves skin sagging. The ultrasound energy is also absorbed by fat and leads to local fat reduction.
- Dermal Fillers: We may wonder how dermal fillers may be helpful for double chin reduction. Injecting dermal fillers on the chin and marionette line forms a curtain and helps in reducing the appearance of sub-mental fat. When dermal fillers are injected on the chin and the marionette lines ether is enhancement is the appearance of the chin which improves in projection and leads to meet contoured jawline. This improvement in appearance hides away the projecting sub-mental fat.
Dermal Filler which is gaining popularity, hence people still have lot many questions, which is unanswered. Here is the complete info about this. Though aesthetic medicines have increased by leaps and bounds and so has the acceptance of dermal fillers in today’s society. Increased number of working women with discretionary income have made fillers popular. But there still exists doubt in our mind regarding the safety of the procedure, whether it’s right to get foreign substance injected the pain during the procedure, the after effects whether the whether the aging will be a factor after the effect means off. Some also fear side effects and risk of bruising, swelling or any permanent damage after the procedure. So this article is well be addressing these queries.
The procedure is safe when performed by a trained aesthetician/dermatologist. The safety of procedure depends on whether the doctor is trained, quality of product use. It’s better to pay slightly more but use a good, well-tested product rather than cheaper ones. Many substandard products are available and are not wise to go far them in order to save few bucks.
Hyaluronic acid is plant desired and mimics the natural hyaluronic acid of our body. So it is close to our naturally occurring hyaluronic acid. After injection, the product integrates into the body tissues within 15-30 days. It is later dissolved in the body by its hyaluronidase. In case of any complication, it can be dissolved with hyaluronidase which can dissolve injected hyaluronic acid.
Pain: The procedure is performed under topical anesthetic cream which numb the skin. Moreover, the product which is injected contains Lidocaine which numbs the surrounding area. Most of the patients tolerate the procedure well. So pain should not be a deciding factor when you are planning for treatment.
Post-procedure swelling, minimal bruising is common and resolves with minimal medication after 7-10 days. Occasional complications are reported like granuloma formal infection or persisting pain. The side effects are much lower when the procedure is performed by a well-trained doctor and the correct product is used.
Dermal fillers will increase and fasten the aging process. They replenish the lost hyaluronic acid one’s age. However, after injection, you get so much used to the results that ones the effect of filler means off. You may miss the glow and brightness you get after filler.
Fillers are an excellent option for restoring youth and for making the lines and fold less prominent. The procedure is safe when performed by trained professionals with good experience.
Poly-cystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age group. The pathogenesis involve multiple metabolic pathways that culminate in metabolic, reproductive and cutaneous effects. The hallmark clinical features of the syndrome are acne, hirsutism, and androgenetic alopecia and Acanthosis nigricans. Hyperandrogenism and hyperinsulinemia are key altered parameters which lead to the above mentioned clinical manifestations.
Vampire facelift is the one of the most advanced facial treatment available. This treatment gives the face a better appearance. If you go for the simple cosmetic surgery, it will only remove excess skin from your face and create a younger look. However, the vampire facelift will give you more than this. If you have the imperfect shape of any parts of your face, Vampire face life can be the solution.
Vampire facelift is non-surgical facelift procedures and due to its result, it is getting very popular. This procedure involves extracting blood from your arm and then spinning the blood sample in a centrifuge to separate the platelets. The blood cells are then re-injected into the skin with a very fine needle and only injected into the areas that need to get treatment. These injections are performed in conjunction with fat injections to create a smooth, rounder, and plumper appearance.
Vampire facelift is much more advanced as compared to other procedure of rejuvenating your face. It has 3-way advantages:
- Improvement in skin texture and tone
- Restoration of facial shape
- Growing out new and younger tissue
- Give you refreshing look
Chemical Peel is the technique used to improve the appearance of skin, especially face. A chemical peel is a solution, which exfoliates the skin and finally peeling. The new skin is smoother, fresh and wrinkles less. Chemical peel rejuvenates the skin texture and tone. Chemical Peels remove dry, dull skin cells and reveal smoother, more radiant skin underneath.
The dermatologist who should understand your skin should use the chemical peel. Who use highly concentrated exfoliates. Chemical peels can be performed as outpatient procedures, but they tend to result in noticeable skin flaking, peeling or downtime, depending on the strength of the peel. To minimize downtime, and deliver the best results, a series of peels are usually performed over a six- to 12-week period, followed by maintenance twice a year.
What should be done before Chemical Peel?
Take a consultation with the dermatologist and then embark for the chemical peel.
When is a Chemical Peel appropriate?
- Can Scare
- Aging Skin
- Crow’s Feet
- Hyper Pigmentation
- Sun Damaged Skin
- Sagging Skin
Who should not go for Chemical Peel?
The procedures are not recommended for the people having broken skin, active skin disease, infections, and sunburn.
The attractiveness of permanent makeup is that you just will rise each morning with utterly designed eyebrows, spectacularly outlined eyes, and sensual-looking lips while not lifting a finger. Wish that permanent makeup won’t wear off, and need to seem their best the least bit times.
Other than for aesthetic improvement, individuals get permanent makeup as a result of it will camouflage scars, as well as scars left from burns or surgery. It may also conceal white spots like those caused by skin problem. Permanent makeup is additionally used when breast surgery to revive or enhance the breast’s areola. Individuals might elect permanent eyebrows if they’ve lost them thanks to adulthood, therapy, like phalacrosis totalis. Permanent lip liner will correct uneven lips and supply a fuller look.
The procedure for lips, lip liner, eyebrows, and makeup is comparable to applying a body tattoo; colour is injected employing a tattoo machine, and remains within the skin for good. There’s conjointly a specialised rotary pen–type machine that’s used for permanent makeup application. Pigments created from approved compounds area unit factory-made specifically to be used in permanent cosmetics. The definition is reduced to lips, eyelids, and eyebrows using several designs and colours, from soft, natural-looking lash improvement to sharply outlined lines.
Permanent makeup is simply as safe as tattooing the other a part of the body. Performed properly by a trained experts, with single-use sterilized needles for every application, there's restricted risk. Solely a really tiny share of patients with permanent makeup can expertise skin irritation or connective tissue swelling if they need associate magnetic resonance imaging, thanks to iron chemical compound within the pigment.
Contouring treatments work by killing off a targeted bunch of fat cells. Since the cells aren't any longer there, and might so not expand, the concept is that the dimensions and incidence of these "trouble spots" are reduced for good. Every contouring treatment solely reduces regarding twenty to the twenty-fifth of fat cells. This suggests there are apart still around seventy-fifth of these cells left therein space. Yes, people who were treated don't seem to be progressing to grow back. However, if you do not still eat well and exercise, you'll still gain weight therein space, thanks to those remaining cells increasing.
Unlike ultrasound and heat-based fat-reducing treatments, that really explode the fat cells, Cool Sculpting works by cooling them - inflicting them to die and be far away from the body as waste. This has fewer facet effects than different ways, which might cause bruising and soreness, and it's seen as simpler.
Most body-contouring procedures involve making an incision within the least obvious part of the skin to be cut, removing excess skin, and stitching the skin with fine stitches to attenuate scarring. With these kinds of procedures, scarringis ineluctable. Liposuction could also be utilized in conjunction with some procedures. attributable to the many quantities of skin to be removed throughout contouring surgery, there area part bigger associated risks than with customary lift that embrace harm, infection, separation of the incision, skin neglectfulness, and formation of a seroma, spatiality, and barely deep vein obstruction.
Efficacy of PRP
Platelet made plasma or PRP is a gift in human blood. Platelets are the thickening cells of our blood having the potential for quicker healing. Platelets unleash growth factors within the blood that augments the healing method. PRP or blood platelet made Plasma medical care could be a non-surgical and therapeutic choice for folks affected by hair loss. As a matter of truth, this can be the most effective choice for people that are observing a way of restoring hair, to some extent once the loss has simply started setting in. if the hair loss is extreme, then hair transplant may well be the sole choice, except for those that have simply started noticing depilation or cutting of hair, this may well be a good choice.
How PRP works?
Human blood contains one thing referred to as mesenchymal stem cells that contain growth factors and development of varied aspects of the body. In PRP, platelets, that contain these cells, area part gathered from your own body, treated with another growth factors and so reintroduced into your body, specifically your scalp, resulting in higher hair growth.
PRP Hair Treatment value
PRP hair treatment value in India can vary from clinic to clinic and can even be avid about different factors like the instrumentation used, the expertise of the doctor, varying the amount the number of sessions you'll need and therefore the number of injections you would possibly want.
Why PRP Therapy?
PRP helps in natural healing. There'll be no risk of any infection as plasma used is drawn from your own blood. There's no probability that your body can oppose the procedure. Furthermore, the procedure isn't prolonged and can be completed in only one to two hours.
Although hand sanitizers offer you the convenience to clean your hands sans soap and water, and help in killing germs, these convenient health tools also come with their share of negatives. Here's why you should drop that bottle of hand sanitizer, every time you can avoid and go conventional with soap and water:
1. Creation of Superbugs and Destruction of Cells
Although the ingredient triclosans prevent the development of bacteria, it does more harm than good. Studies show that it aids creation of superbugs (different types of bacteria that are resistant to certain forms of antibiotics). Furthermore, according to a 2014 study, triclosans have also been found to spur the development of breast cancer cells, not to mention the destruction of brain cells, according to research conducted by the university of california.
2. Causes Disruption in Hormones
Excessive use of hand sanitizers has also been found to bring about abnormal hormonal problems. Studies reveal that the triclosan ingredient can alter the way hormones function in the body, enabling bacteria to be able to adapt and become more resistant to antibiotics.
3. Development of Life-Threatening Health Problems
4. Causes Skin Damage in The Long Run
As an active ingredient in hand sanitizers, alcohol can have an adverse effect on your health. It breaks down the protective outermost layer of skin, rendering it easy for toxins like parabens or bpa (bisphenol a) that is found in plastics to penetrate your skin easily.
5. Makes You Resistant to Antibiotics
Using hand sanitizers can make you resistant to antibiotics, thereby lowering your resistance to diseases. They may affect your body's immunity by killing off good bacteria that are responsible for keeping you safe from disease-causing bad bacteria. A study conducted in 2011 found that health care workers who used hand sanitizers more than soap and water are 6 times more likely to fall prey to outbreaks of norovirus (a highly infectious virus that causes viral gastroenteritis)