I am Dr. Lipy Gupta, Dermatologist. Today I will talk about facial pigmentation today. As we all see commonly that both man and woman are affected with hyperpigmentation involving different parts of the face. Whenever patient suffers from this problem, patient tries to hide it by using different cosmetics because it is something socially not acceptable. Many a times, people point out for this problem. It gives a very unhealthy apperance to the face. We will discuss about the most common causes and how can we manage them. The most common causes are freckels, melasma, contact allergies.
Why it develops? Because of hormonal issues, PCOS, oral contraceptives, thyroid disorder and other metabolic condition. Excess use of sunscreen and sun exposure also develop freckles and other sun spots. Whenever a patient who comes to us for the pigmentation, we always check the patient for these factors. And advice the patient to use right sunscreen properly. The sunscreen has both physical and chemical agents which helps the skin to reduce the amount of UV damage. We suggest which can suit oily and dry skin. Sunscreen is effective only for 3-4 hours. We suggest topical medications also.
Few more treatment are there which may help you in getting rid of this problems like lasers, chemical peels. The laser is known as Q-switched NdYAG laser. This laser works by the principal of selective photothermolysis. This laser works for almost all kind of pigmentation. Over a period of time and after a multiple sessions done we can observe a decrease in the pigmentation and we see very good clearance rate and a good patient satisfaction where a laser has been used. This laser doesn't have any side-effects. The laser deliver which is given to the skin is properly calculated and it cannot induce any damage to the skin. Over a period of time visible changes can be observed. Results are also more last longing. We do not have any permanent cure for many of the pigmentation which happens on the skin. We also use a wide range of chemical peels which contain glycolic acids, lactic acid and also we use long duration peels. One of the drawbacks of retinoil chemical peels that they cause massive exfoliation of the skin which increases the sensitivity for few days and also makes more prone to sun damage. So, whenever we are going for the long duration peels, it is important that the good sun protection is followed after the peels have been performed.
Treatments are performed in the interval of 2-4 weeks on which kind of peels are used. The results are satisfactory after 1-2 sessions. In resistance case of pigmentation, we use chemical and laser together and give the maximum benefits to the patient. Oral medicines which also reduces pigmentation are also helped in recovering them. Laser is performed after removing all the make-up. The patient is comfortable when the laser is performed.
After the procedure is complete, there is a mild redness over the face which goes in 1-2 hours. After laser, a facial mask is applied over the face which acts as a soothing agent for the patient. This is kept for 5 minutes and after cleaning we apply sunscreen on the pateint face. Overall, a dermatolgist has wide range of treatments which can be used judiciously and as per the patient needs and requirement. We are able to maintain flawless skin. So, whenever you find anyone suffering from pigmentation, it is very important to consult a Dr and do not treat yourself over the counter medications. A proper guidance is required when using these medications and these treatments should be performed by trained person because many a times both chemical peel, lasers and even your skin lightening creams can have sid-effects.