To understand about psychological disorders, we must first know what a psychological disorder is. A psychological disorder or more commonly known as a mental disorder is defined as the behavioural symptoms of an individual which are considered maladaptive and hamper the day-to-day functioning of the concerned individual’s life. According to DSM-5, the latest edition of the American Psychiatric Association's diagnostic manual, personal distress alone is not sufficient for a disorder to be psychological; it should also be coupled with causing damage to multiple spheres of life such as social, personal and/or professional.
Psychological disorders such as - clinical depression, anxiety disorder, bipolar disorder and dementia – are not caused by one single factor alone. They are a complex mix of both genetic factors and environmental dynamics. The causes that lead to the inception of a mental disorder are called risk factors and are highly case specific – they depend from person-to-person and cannot be generalised per se. However the following list of risk factors has been identified which lead to the development of psychological disorders.
Just as it is difficult to pinpoint particular causes that lead to the advancement of psychological disorders, it is equally problematic to isolate symptoms for a said mental disorder on a generic basis as symptoms may vary from person-to-person and from the nature of the said disorder. However the following list of symptoms has been compiled to recognise the symptoms of any given psychological disorder.
Some medical experts advocate that use of medication such as anti-depressants which are essentially bio-chemical in nature. While some argue that psychotherapy alone should suffice. However there is emerging growing consensus that the use of both kinds of treatments can effectively deal with the problem of psychological disorders.
Preventing mental disorders early in life can prove to be highly beneficial not just to the individual but also to the community. Boosting your self-esteem and controlling your stress can go a long way in helping you. Paying close attention to warning signs by contacting your therapist, friends or family in case you notice your behaviour changing can be of immense help. Taking proper care of yourself –sleeping well, intake of proper nutrition, maintaining personal relationships and engaging in regular physical activities has been shown to prevent disorders as well.
Withdrawal symptoms caused by the treatment are case-specific dependent upon the nature of the mental disorder and the characteristics of the individual. However withdrawal symptoms are mainly seen when the disorder is treated with medication as medicinal drugs artificially increase levels of dopamine and serotonin. As a result, it can be extremely difficult for the individual when the brain has to naturally produce appropriate levels of these neurotransmitters. This is the main reason why psychotherapy is seen as a long-term solution since the withdrawal symptoms related to it are little. When it comes to mental disorders and withdrawal symptoms, medical experts believe that clinging onto the hope that things will become better is essential and a game-changer. After-all, it’s all psychological.