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Sex Education: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, and Cost

Last Updated: Feb 24, 2023

What is Sex Education?

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Sex education is of prime importance in today's world. Owing to the increasing exposure and excessive alteration in lifestyle has put youngsters under the threat of sexual abuse and premature sexual relationships.

Sex education has become the need of the hour in order to shield them from any such risk. Young individuals receive the information and abilities they require for a lifespan of healthy sexual behavior through sex education.

They discover how to love and accept yourself unconditionally, develop meaningful relationships, think rationally about the society, make educated sex choices, and be a good partner to others who are mistreated.

Sex education refers to brilliant and relevant knowledge and instructions on a plethora of topics directly related with sexuality and sex.

It examines the assumptions and values around those subjects and aids in the development of requisite skills for managing relations with oneself, others, and the society as well as managing one's personal sexual and reproductive health.

Sex education can happen in classrooms, at home, in public places, or digitally.

What are Sex Education programs?

The National AIDS Control Organization and the Ministry of Human Resources and Development devised the present programme of sex education classes that is included in the Indian education system, known as adolescent FLE.

Generally speaking, the main goals of family life/sex education (FLE) are as described in the following:

To foster the development of emotional stability in children and adolescents who feel confident and capable enough to make judgements about their behavior without even being influenced by their sentiments.

To impart sound understanding of sexual behavior's socioeconomic and psychological components in addition towards its physical attributes, in order for sexual encounter to be seen as a component of a person's individual identity.

To foster behaviors and attitudes that assure both adolescents and adults make choices about their sexual and other behavior by taking into consideration how those decisions will affect their long-term emotional growth, the wellbeing of many other people, and humanity in general.

More precisely, the programme covers, although it is not restricted to, the related subjects: interpersonal bonds, contraception, various facets of people's sexual & platonic behavior, sexual anatomy, procreation, reproductive health, and rights and obligations in regard to conception.

Different Programmes on Sex Education

Comprehensive Sexual Education

A programme called Comprehensive Sexuality Education runs from infancy all the way to high school.

It discusses maturity level sexuality issues and educates that sexuality is a natural, normal aspect of healthy lifestyle.

The wide range of sex education covered by comprehensive sexuality instruction includes:

  • Protected sex
  • Sexually transmissible diseases
  • Contraception methods
  • Masturbation
  • A body image
  • Relationships
  • Culture

Appropriate health information about HIV and STDs is included in comprehensive sexuality education. Though celibacy is discussed, this program also places a strong emphasis on methods for decreasing the likelihood of unwanted pregnancy and STDs.


Program for Only Abstinence Until Marriage

Programs that only allow sexual activity up to marriage place a strong emphasis on abstinence. It emphasizes that having sex with someone who is not your spouse can have negative psychological, societal, and biological repercussions.

The following are not covered by abstinence-only programme:

  • Contraception methods
  • infections caused by sexual contact
  • Masturbation, Abortion, Abstinence-Only-Until-Although condom use may be discussed in marital programmes, they focus on how frequently it fails.

Adding Sex Education at Home

If your teen has any information gaps, you should fill them. For instance, the sexuality education programme at the schools might emphasize contraceptive pills and protected sex without discussing the mental problems that come with starting to have sex.

Or, it could not adequately cover the sexuality-related subjects that you wish your kid to be aware of. The teenager will receive a basis to build discussions and dialogues with parents thanks to the sex ed program.

Individuals may provide instances from the classroom with which you disagree or they may share comments made by their friends. There should be more to sex ed than just 'the sexual interaction.'

It ought to be a sequence of open discussions spread out across many years. The teenager will inquire more regarding sex as they grow older. If you encourage your adolescent to ask you a few questions, you might have the answers.

Does Sex Education Encourage sex?

Sex-ed does not enhance sexual interaction, risky sexual behavior, or STI/HIV rates, whether it occurs in or outside of schools.

In fact, thorough sex education improves sexual awareness and knowledge, such as: a better understanding of our entitlements in sexual relationships.

Complete sexual education significantly prevents the commencement of the first sexual contact, as well as lowers the risk of STDs and unplanned pregnancy, according to recent research.

Every person should have a basic understanding of their own anatomy and physiology. If adolescents receive reality based sex education, they report fewer unintended pregnancies.

If teenagers take fact-based sex ed, they will have fewer abortions. If fact-based sexual education takes the secrets and stigma from sex, crosses over into combating harassment, becoming consent conscious on a public level it would be really beneficial.

If it treats one another as individuals, teens would be less pressured to start a sexual relationship before they feel the time is right for it.

Why is Sex Education important?

A significant number of studies suggest that SE aids in both children's and adolescents' formation of precise and developmentally appropriate understanding, behaviors, and skill sets as well as of good attributes.

These include the protection of human rights, fairness of the genders, and diversification as well as values and needs that contribute significantly to secure, hygienic, and positive associations.

SE is especially important because it can help youths contemplate societal beliefs, indigenous practices, and value systems to better comprehend and regulate their relationships with classmates, families, educators, older adults, and societies.

According to research, comprehensive and culturally sensitive sex education helps young people acquire the emotional and social abilities necessary to grow up to be kind and understanding adults.

Early and frequent exposure to this kind of sex education promotes respect for sexual variety, reduces romantic and partner violence, fosters meaningful relationships, guards against sexual abuse of minors, and boosts media literacy.

Additionally, it aids youths in avoiding unplanned pregnancies and STDs (STIs).

Sexual education is most effective when:

  • Instructed by skilled people
  • Throughout the lifespan, early and frequent instruction
  • Both informational and instructional activity
  • Substantial proof
  • LGBTQ+ youth-inclusive; based on anti-racism principles
  • Trauma-informed

What are the different types of contraception and how do they work?

Contraception comes in a wide variety of forms, and not all of them are suitable in all circumstances.

The best method of contraception relies on the person's age, general health, frequency of sex, number of sex partners, willingness to have children in the near future, and genetic predisposition of specific diseases.

This even relies on how many sexual relationships they have.

Long Active Reversible Contraception

LARC (long-acting reversible contraception) has a lengthy duration.

LARC comes in two flavors.

The implant, that lasts for five years, and the intrauterine device, that serves for three, five, or ten years. Once a LARC is implanted, you are not required to remind yourself to take contraception daily or monthly.

The best forms of contraception are LARCs. They have a pregnancy prevention rate of greater than 99%.


Rods that can be implanted are called implants. Each rod is silicone, bendable, and the size of a matchstick. Only about 1% of attempts at the procedure fail. The rod is surgically inserted under the woman's skin on her forearm.

Hormonal Methods

Hormonal Contraceptives

Hormones are used in these contraceptives to avoid getting pregnant. The Pill and the Depo Provera injectable are two examples of hormonal contraception.

Pills come in two varieties:

  • Progestogen-only contraceptive pill and combination oral contraceptive pill. Every day, you take one medication. The pill has a greater than 99% success rate in prevention of pregnancy when taken as directed.
  • You must have an injection called Depo Provera once every three months. Depo Provera is about 99% successful if you receive your doses on time.

Barrier Methods

Using barriers, sperm cannot permeate the vagina. There are two barrier techniques:

  • Condoms
  • Internal Condoms

A condom can prevent unwanted conception and sexually transmitted diseases (STIs). Condoms can be purchased from Family Planning, your physician, pharmacies, malls, and other stores without prescriptions.

Emergency Contraception

The emergency contraceptive pill (ECP) or a copper IUD are the two main methods of contraceptives available.

ECP is safe to use for three days following unsafe intercourse. The ECP is 98% effective for people of average weight. The ECP is less successful and a copper IUD is suggested if you weigh more than 70 kg.

If you decide to use ECP and weigh more than 70 kg, you should determine whether having a dual dose is the best course of action for you. The copper IUD is 99% efficient at preventing conception and can be placed a maximum of five days post unsafe intercourse.

You may want to use emergency contraception to avoid getting pregnant if:

  • If you don't wear protection,
  • You have missed more than one dose of a contraceptive pill, experienced nausea or diarrhea while taking the pill,
  • You have missed injection,
  • Using ECP as your primary method of contraception is not advised because it is less effective than LARC or hormonal methods.

Fertility Awareness

Fertility Awareness is also a beneficial method used to avoid pregnancy.

You must be able to:

  • Recognize the menstrual cycle.
  • To plan or prevent pregnancy, check your cervical mucus, take your temperature, and pay attention to other symptoms of your fertile phase.
  • Then, you may determine the productive and infertile periods of your cycle using this awareness and a few tools.
  • It is advised that you avoid having intercourse unless you are using protection while you are practicing this technique.

Permanent Contraception

Permanent contraception, also referred to as sterilization, stops all future conceptions. Reversing is extremely hard or impossible. A vasectomy or a tubal ligation are both forms of everlasting contraception.

The fluid or semen that comes out the penis when ejaculation occurs (cum) contains sperm. The testicles (balls) produce sperm, which then move to the vas deferens (tubes) to combine with the semen.

When you undergo a vasectomy, these tubes are cut and knotted. The semen is devoid of sperm after a vasectomy. Sperm is still produced by the testicles, but the body absorbs them.

Tubal Litigation

A tubal ligation, sometimes referred to as 'getting your tubes tied,' involves cutting both fallopian tubes, preventing sperm from reaching eggs to fertilize it.

The tubes are fastened via rings, clips, piercing, and tying, among other methods.

Typically, a small incision at the navel is used to insert a laparoscope, a tiny telescope, and a second small incision near the pubic hair is used to close the tubes.

How can I talk to my partner about safe sex and contraception?

People must agree on their sexual goals with respective partners in order to maximize safe sex. It is vital to be able to talk honestly about protected sex regardless of whether you're with a person you've been dating for a while or just randomly met.

Many people find it more intimidating and difficult to consider talking about contraceptives and STIs with their partner than engaging in a close physical connection.

Showing your partner that you are concerned about them and are willing to do everything in your power to make sure that you're safeguarding them as well as the relationship is a wonderful place to start.

Your partner may be more at ease coming up if you first discuss your own safe sexual experiences. Keep in mind your message is conveyed clearly whenever you discuss contraceptive use with a partner.

You can say, 'I will not engage in sex together until we take condoms,' or 'I wish to utilize condoms as a way to protect myself against unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted disorders (STIs).' Ensure they keep condoms on hand.

What are the risks of unprotected sex?

Based on the number of sexual partners you have and the kind of intercourse you're engaging in, having intercourse without contraception can have some hazards.

Continue reading to learn critical info that anyone who engages in sexual activity without the use of contraceptives should be aware of.


After the illness is spread, they emerge later. They are undetectable, you can't feel them when you have them, they might not trigger any symptoms, and they aren't painful.

For some time following the unsafe intercourse, the majority of women are unable to realize they do have STI. Afterwards the infection could develop into a malady that calls for expensive, time-consuming medication and potentially results in infertility.

Some STIs, including HIV (which develops into AIDS) and unvaccinated HPV, cannot be treated. Nearly 30% of people are at risk of contracting an STD following unprotected intercourse.

Accidental conception

Unplanned pregnancy could have negative long-term effects on both the mother and the fetus. Unplanned pregnancies result in deliveries that have worse newborn, mothers, and children's health results than intended conceptions, according to numerous studies.

Many of them include untimely deliveries, postponed obstetric treatment, and detrimental consequences on a child's physical and mental well-being. The prevalence of psychological issues is higher in females who had unintended pregnancies.

Your pregnancy is a significant life event that calls for commitment and careful planning.

Adverse consequences of contraceptives

Despite the fact that emergency contraception is generally successful and secure, there are some concerns associated with how the body of a woman will respond to it.

Bleeding between periods, hormone imbalance, and psychological effects could all result from it.

Psychiatric problems : The first three impacts can cause certain women to suffer stress. You can avoid it by preventing risky sex, you are the only one who has the authority to stop this worry and any causative factors of it.

To prevent unplanned pregnancies or later expensive tests and procedures, use contraception methods today. For a modern woman, having control over her body and her health is crucial, and it shouldn't be ignored.

Note that you have numerous contraceptive options available to you, and the one type of contraception that will prevent you from contracting an STD is a condom.

How can I get tested for sexually transmitted infections (STIs)?

Contracting an STI might cause you severe issues. Though STI tests are easily accessible and affordable these days. Go for an STI test whenever you experience certain symptoms:

  • A prominent scab, lesion, or mark is swabbed to test for syphilis, HPV/genital warts, and herpes I/II.
  • Herpes I/II by urine or swab.
  • If you feel you have a wart, consult HPV/Genital Warts,Syphilis.

STIs like Chlamydia and gonorrhea screening often just calls for an urine test, or for women, a self-taken biopsy. A blood sample is required for HIV and syphilis testing.

Unless you experience lesions on your genital area or anus, herpes tests are typically not performed. A swab will be collected from the sore in this instance.

How can I prevent getting an STI?

Safety is what is the biggest requirement for preventing STI. People should keep in mind certain points to avoid these hazardous diseases. Here are certain reminders to follow in order to stay away from these diseases:

  • Always use latex condoms when having sex.
  • Avoid lending out underwear or towels.
  • Wash your hands both before and after sex.
  • Get vaccinated against hepatitis B.
  • Test yourself for HIV.
  • Get assistance if you are struggling with addiction to drugs or alcohol.

What are the symptoms of common STIs?

STI can be quite hazardous if left unattended. There are several symptoms that indicate the occurrence of STI. An STI may cause the following symptoms:

An odd vaginal, penis, or anus discharge; discomfort while urinating; lumps or skin growths at the genitalia or bottom (anus)

Anus blisters and sores surrounding your genitals, anus warts in your mouth or throat, a rash, odd vaginal bleeding, itching genitals, however these are quite unusual.

How can I get help if I think I have an STI?

Having an STI doesn't mean your life has come to an end. You can always seek doctor's help for your problem.

Visit your general practitioner (GP) or a nearby sexual and reproductive health or genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinic if you suspect you might have a sexually transmissible infection (STI).

The majority of STIs are curable, but it's crucial to have any symptoms tested as promptly as possible. Learn more about going to a STI clinic


What is the perspective of Sex Education?

In order to help younger folks communicate regarding sex and make informed choices regarding their sexual health, sex education involves teaching them about how the body develops, sex, sexuality, and relationships.

All school systems of a kid should get sexual education, with lessons catered to their growth conditions and cultural environment.

Amongst many other things, it ought to cover themes like dating, sexual abuse awareness, body issues, gender identification, and sexual preference. It should also cover adolescence and procreation.

In a society where HIV/AIDS, STIs, unintended conceptions, gender-based abuse (GBV), and gender discrimination still represent serious dangers to adolescent people's health, complete sexuality education (CSE) is necessary for preparing them for a safe, fulfilling life.

People who participate in sex education are also given the information, abilities, and inspiration they ought to adopt responsible choices regarding their sexuality and sex.

Most youngsters reach that age with conflicting, unfavorable, and muddled perceptions on sexuality that are occasionally made worse by elders' awkwardness and silence, such as parents and teachers.

Adolescents are in a sensitive phase of life where herd mentality impacts might encourage morally repugnant and possibly even criminal group conduct. Youth rape culture is a burgeoning issue that must be tackled and eradicated as soon as feasible.

Since child sex offenders frequently have psychological and social risk factors that contribute to the initiation, maintenance, and perpetuation of the crime.

This calls for targeted efforts from organizations as well as from people who are members of that society.

It can be accomplished simply by educating people on sex and drugs as well as educating them how to utilize ethical and moral guidelines to guide their behavior.

It will really help to reduce confusion and the emergence of thoughtless, unethical, and life threatening attitudes.

The knowledge of healthcare experts is crucial while offering sex education since it educates not merely the learners but also the educators who educate them.

By developing concentrated sex education programmes that bring these potentially emotionally taxing themes to the youngsters in India while taking into account psychosocial and sociocultural variables, psychiatrists and psychologists play a crucial leading role.

On the grounds that sexual education has an influence on overall health, adaptability to the environment, life quality and facilitates humans to live appropriately by preference, sexuality education should be age-appropriate.

It should be scientifically correct, culturally sensitive, and rooted in human and civil rights, sexual equality, and a proactive outlook to sexual identity and delight.

India is required to offer free and mandatory complete sexuality education to teenagers and young adults.

As stated in a Report, denying sexual education to Indian young adults and adolescents breaches their entitlement to human rights as recognised by international human rights law.

How can sex education help prevent unintended pregnancies and STIs?

Sex education plays a vital role in educating the young minds and eliminating all sorts of doubts, confusions and myths. Education about sex helps youngsters to understand its importance and negative implications as well.

It has been discovered that teenagers who get comprehensive sex education have a markedly lower risk of getting pregnant than those who merely acquire abstinence until marriage or none at all.

Teens who acquire sex education also are safe from STIs because of their knowledge and information. They make wise decisions and don't indulge in unnatural and unsafe sex.

The education provided to them turns out to be fruitful as they know the pros and cons of these issues. Therefore sex education is a mighty tool in reducing unintended pregnancies.


It is said that educating the young minds is crucial for the development of a nation. Similarly Sex Education is a very important step towards the betterment of youngsters

Young guns who are just entering the modern world, tend to be quite bold and rebellious. They want to outlive rules and regulations and break free from societal norms.

Their undaunting spirits are packed with zeal and adventure. Sex and physical intimacy is still considered to be a taboo subject in society. People shy away from discussing sex related topics.

It has become such a forbidden topic that people can't even discuss their sexual issues with someone without inhibition.

Anything forbidden becomes more tempting and that is the reason youngsters find it an interesting thing and without knowing the pros and cons, indulge in sexual activities which puts their health at stake.

Therefore it is utmost important to impart sex education to kids at teenage itself so as to safeguard them from any sort of harassment or sexual abuse as well as to retain their health and wellness.

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Written ByDr. Ajay Kumar Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)Sexology
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