Dental surgery refers to medical procedures involving artificial modification of teeth & jawbones by surgery for medical as well as cosmetic purposes. A number of surgical procedures all fall under dental surgery. These are broadly grouped into endodontic surgeries involving surgery of the tooth pulp or roots, orthodontics involving surgical placement of implants and their supported prosthetics, which is also grouped under prosthodontics and contains placement of crowns, bridges, veneers, implants, etc., periodontics involving surgical treatment of the supporting structures of teeth including gums, alveolar bone, etc., and oral and maxillofacial surgery involving surgical correction and treatment of the defects, injuries, and diseases of the entire craniofacial region including the head, face, neck, and jaws.
Apart from treatment of different medical conditions, dental surgery is also applied for cosmetic purposes. These include polishing and scaling of teeth, surgical alignment of teeth, adjusting size, etc. Cosmetic surgeries involving the maxillofacial region of the head also fall under dental surgeries.
Dental surgery involves the usage of various surgical equipments to treat conditions of the tooth and gums, to restore damage sustained to teeth, jaws, and craniofacial region, to perform cosmetic surgeries involving the mouth, teeth, gums, and jaws, to add dental prosthetics, and to perform anesthesia for such purposes. Treatment may involve root canal surgery, which is the surgical removal of the pulp and the nerve endings of the root. Dental surgery is also used in the extraction of diseased or damaged teeth, and subsequent placement of implants of different types like dental crowns, veneers, dentures, etc. Surgery is also used to place prosthetic implants in the jaw bones, on which further prosthetics can be placed. Dental surgery also involves the use of surgical tools to correct defects, injuries, and disfigurements in the oral and maxillofacial region.
Dental Surgery is used to treat severe conditions involving the dentition. People who have an infection in the pulp or root of the teeth are eligible for surgery. People whose teeth have been extracted or those with broken teeth are eligible for surgical procedures. Any injury or defect in the dentition may also need to be treated with surgical procedures.
Minor conditions of the teeth and mouth like malodour, unclean teeth, etc. may be treated by healthy practices like regular brushing or with medications and do not require surgical treatment.
Surgical treatments for dental conditions may have some side effects. Polishing of teeth may erode the outer enamel covering over a period of time. Surgical removal of teeth may cause pain under improper anesthesia. Use of anesthesia to perform surgery may cause some side effects like nausea, and improper anesthetization may even lead to nerve damage in some rare cases.
Post treatment guidelines are usually dictated by the type of surgical procedure conducted. In general, maintaining good oral hygiene is advised, including regular brushing and flossing of teeth at least twice a day using a soft bristled toothbrush, proper rinsing of the mouth after every meal, etc. Apart from this, specific guidelines may include regular thorough cleaning of removable implants, avoiding chewing with the side of the denture where surgery has been done, etc.
Recovery period for dental surgery depends on the type of treatment being undertaken. Usually complete recovery takes place within 4 to 6 weeks after surgery.
Prices for the different dental surgery procedures vary between Rs. 300 and Rs. 50,000. Some procedures may cost higher, especially if further follow ups are required.
Results of surgical treatments for dental conditions are usually permanent, except for procedures like polishing which require follow-ups, or if complications develop.