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Circumcision: Purpose, Procedure, Benefits and Side Effects

Last Updated: Feb 28, 2024

What is Circumcision Surgery?

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Among the earliest medical technology used to trim foreskin is circumcision. A professional urologist that focuses on the examination and treatment of illnesses of the urinary system can conduct this.

The skin covering the penis's rounded top is known as the foreskin. The foreskin is fully fused to the genitalia when the newborn is born. The foreskin eventually splits out from the penis tip and develops the ability to extend, or retract.

A baby's foreskin is surgically removed during circumcision. Circumcision has a number of benefits, along with a reduced incidence of infections like UTIs. Men and teenage boys can also get circumcision. The circumcised penis typically recovers in one week at any age.

Types of Circumcision

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Dorsal slit, shield and clamp, and excision are the three main categories into which circumcision techniques can be divided. Today's methods often follow these approaches which are categorized below.

Open Circumcision

The far more common and historically significant form of circumcision procedure is the open procedure. The surgeon uses a stainless steel blade to remove the foreskin after numbing the genital region. Since this procedure typically involves bleeding and stitching, many doctors no longer favor it.

Stapler circumcision

An Anastomat, a specialized tool, is used to perform a stapler circumcision. The foreskin is quickly pulled off by the stapler tool, which tightly fits over the penis tip and replaces it by a silicone ring. As the wound heals over the course of approximately seven to ten days, the silicon ring naturally comes out.


Laser Circumcision

With a laser circumcision circumcision, the foreskin is removed without wounds or bleeding by a urologist using a powerful laser light. It heals quite quickly due to the absence of incisions or stitching, making it the most popular treatment today.

Benefits of Circumcision

We have curated a few significant advantages regarding male circumcision.

  • Promotes appropriate penile health and hygiene
  • Lowers the danger of males contracting HIV
  • Reduces the likelihood of penile cancer
  • Maintains foreskin health by reducing the risk of diseases

Males who have circumcision surgery benefit as well as the female spouses. These advantages of male circumcision for women are listed below.

  • Increased sex gratification
  • Fewer potential infections, such as
  • Lower chance of cervical cancer
  • Enduring private moments
  • Cervical cancer risk for partners: Female partners of circumcised men had a lower risk of developing the disease.
  • Men who have had circumcision are much safe from the risk of getting penile cancer.
  • Sexually transmitted diseases (STIs): Men who have their navels cut off have a decreased chance of contracting HIV and other STIs.
  • Urinary tract infections: Uncircumcised men are often more likely to develop UTIs.

Why is Circumcision done?

Circumcision surgery is one of the oldest medical operations currently carried out in the present day. This procedure is carried out for ritualistic, therapeutic, and cultural reasons. People who practise Islam, Judaism, the Druze faith, and various branches of Christianity typically have their sex circumcised as part of religious ceremonies.

But thanks to recent medical developments, many men are now conscious of the health advantages of circumcision surgery. Because of this, men from many religions all around the world are more likely to undergo a circumcision procedure.

  • Take a look at them and learn more about the safest circumcision.
  • To get rid of extra foreskin
  • Foreskin conditions such phimosis, paraphimosis, posthitis, and balanoposthitis are treated, cured, or prevented.
  • To cure men's genital or penile issues, including preputial neoplasms, balanitis xerotica obliterans, and other conditions.
  • To cure tears in the frenulum in order to lower urinary infections.
  • To practise good hygiene.
  • To lower the risk of STDs, or infections transmitted sexually.

Untreated foreskin issues can cause a person to experience pain and discomfort while urinating, penile discolouration, blood in the pee, etc. Penile and foreskin illnesses may be temporarily relieved by drugs, lotions, ointments, and home treatments.

However, many doctors advise circumcision as a long-term treatment addressing foreskin conditions.

What happens if you don't circumcise?

Most of the males with good hygiene didn't have any specific impact on their uncircumcised penis. However, there are some complications that one may face without Circumcision like:

  1. Phimosis: The condition into which the foreskin of the penis is very tight that it cannot cover the head of the penis is known as phimosis. The condition rarely impacts a man in their adulthood as the foreskin starts to lose as you grow, but if the foreskin fails to cover the penis completely, it can make an individual more vulnerable to getting infected by sexually transmitted infection (STI).
  2. Paraphimosis: The condition is quite identical to phimosis in terms of pineal coverage, but in the case of paraphimosis the skin is stuck below the head of the penis as it is too tight to cover the whole genital. Paraphimosis can be very discomforting as the tight skin can swell the area creating a blockage in the blood flow connected to the tip of the penis. The situation is considered critical and required immediate medical attention to avoid further complications.
  3. Bacterial or fungal infection: Poor hygiene practices can build up a bacterial or fungal infection in the foreskin of the penis, especially in case of a cut or sore on the foreskin. Commonly found in men, the bacteria of balanitis can cause inflammation of the head of the penis along with the foul smell, unusual discharge under the foreskin, and pain during urination.
  4. Injury: In most cases, the foreskin is loose and hangs over the head of the penis, which makes it more prone to zipper accidents. The caught-up skin in the zipper of jeans and trousers will develop an open wound making your genital area vulnerable towards urethral meatus damage ( tube present in the tip of penis head).
  5. Yeast infection: Even though the condition is common in females, males can also get affected if they do not follow healthy hygiene. Fungi like Candida albicans can develop yeast infections in and around the foreskin of your penis.
  6. STI and STD (sexually transmitted infections and diseases): Scientists believe that being circumcised lowers the risk of sexually transmitted infections like genital herpes simplex, human papillomavirus (HPV), mycoplasma, trichomoniasis, syphilis, HIV, and chancroid. Uncircumcised men are more prone to infesting the infection under or around their foreskin.

What are the risks of Circumcision?

Without the assistance of a qualified surgeon, circumcision may entail some hazards and consequences that could endanger a person's life. Here are a few dangers connected to circumcision procedures.

Bleeding from a surgical incision (penile bleeding)

Infection or inflammation in the operative wound

Allergic response to a component of the anesthetic

The foreskin may have been cut excessively short or lengthy, or it may not have healed properly.

Minor surgical intervention may be necessary to prevent the residual foreskin from reattaching to the penis.

Get a safe circumcision performed by a skilled surgeon who has performed numerous circumcisions to prevent these hazards.

However, these risks can be negated if you get your surgery done through Pristyn Care. We assure that our deft and experienced surgeons will ensure your safety and carry out the procedure with complete care and professionalism.

If you want to minimize the risks of your surgery, then do consult us. We promise to give you a safe and reliable treatment.

How do I prepare for Circumcision?

Newborn circumcisions are performed by a variety of healthcare professionals, including obstetricians and doctors. You will be required to sign a consent document if you decide to get this treatment done on your infant.

For older males, this formality is not required.The treatment is typically carried as an outpatient procedure in a hospital or surgery center for older kids and adults. As a result, you would return home that day. Suitable permission is however required.

Prior to the surgery, the surgeon might advise you to refrain from eating for roughly six hours. Additionally, you might need to avoid consuming some medicines for at least 24 hours, including blood thinners. Under local anesthetic, partial circumcision might well be carried out.

This indicates that the sole parts that are numb are the penis and its surroundings.

How is Circumcision done?

A pediatrician, obstetric, physician, surgeon, or urologist carries out circumcisions. Religious circumcisions are occasionally carried out by people who have received training in the process.

Prior to the process

Your boy will rest on his back with legs and hands restrained prior to the infant circumcision. To dull the pain in the penis,and numb it an anesthetic is injected or used topically.

The procedure for circumcision can be done in a number of ways. What method is employed is determined by the preference and background of the doctor.

During the procedure

After that, a topical antimicrobial or paraffin jelly would be applied to the penile area and bandages would be gently tied around it. Usually, the process lasts ten minutes.

Both adults and teenage boys can get circumcised. When surgery is performed later in life, it may be necessary to use general anesthesia, recovery may take awhile, and there may be a higher chance of problems.

After the procedure

The penis normally heals in a week or ten days. The penis may first feel sensitive at the head and may appear red, inflamed, or scarred. The top of the penile area may also have a tiny portion of yellow liquid.

If the anesthetic goes off and the baby becomes irritable, hug them lightly while being mindful to keep the weight off the genitalia. After the penis recovers, washing it is fine. When changing a child's diaper, replace the gauze every time.

To prevent the top of the penile area from clinging to the diaper, smear it with petroleum jelly. Ensure the diaper is lightly secured and replace the dirty diaper frequently. If it is a silicone ring in place of a bandage, it will typically fall off naturally in a week or so.

Clean the penile area with water and soap during a regular bath when it has healed.

Circumcision-related issues are rare. Consult a physician if-

  • After the circumcision, normal urine doesn't begin again for 12 hours.
  • There's still ongoing bleeding.
  • The apex of the penile area is dripping with an unpleasant scent.
  • Just after circumcision, the silicone ring is still in place after two weeks.

What is the cost of circumcision?

Circumcision cost may vary depending upon the procedure and the place the patient belongs to. In India, circumcision services start at a minimum cost of INR Rs. 30,000. In some places circumcisions often cost INR 25,000. The maximum amount to be paid for circumcision in India can rise to Rs. 35,000. The average price of circumcision in India can be Rs. 32,000. See the circumcision surgery cost in 4 major cities across India.

What to do after Circumcision?

Regular, quiet activity is advised. For two weeks after surgery, stay away from sports that are physically demanding or harsh since they may result in incision bleeding.


Full-body bathing should be avoided until the second day following surgery, but sponge baths are acceptable. Once the second day has passed, you can have a regular shower or bath, but avoid scrubbing the incision site. Instead, let the hot, foamy water wash over the wound and dry it off.

Incision Care

The penis is typically covered with a bandage. It's not a big deal if the gauze comes off after the procedure, which frequently happens. Just the next day following surgery, if the bandage has not yet come off, you should take it off.

It may be simpler to take off the dressing if you soak in the bathtub or shower for ten minutes first. After removing the bandage, leave your penis exposed to the air and repeatedly dab Jelly or Bacitracin lotion around the stitches each and every day.

This should stop the wound's dry sides from clinging to your clothing. Prefer to wear loose clothing since it may compress the penis. Be prepared for some swelling and bleeding around the wound; this is a typical sign that you are healing properly.

Use a cloth to gently push on the area where you see seeping if possible. Within a couple of minutes, the bleeding would stop. Consult a doctor if the bleeding doesn't cease or if your child encounters significant bleeding.

What to eat after Circumcision?

Antioxidant Fruits And Berries

Foods rich in vitamin C, that has been demonstrated to aid in the creation of skin, include blueberry, strawberries, raspberries, and blackberry. Berries include significant amounts of antioxidants that support the biological recovery process in addition to a large amount of vitamin C.

Fish oils and fatty foods

Note that diet with good fats is crucial for the treatment regimen post circumcision in order for the skin cells to repair efficiently with less bruising and while enhancing the immune system. Junk food and oily and fried snacks that contain bad fats must be shunned.

Eat healthful fats and fatty fish like salmon. Eat foods like coconut, avocado, olive oil, almonds, and seeds. Having a balanced diet that includes all of these items aids inside the body's ability to soak up the minerals and vitamins it requires through meals.

Vitamins and Mineral-Rich Vegetables

Vegetables, and in particular green vegetables, play a significant part in the healing process, whether they are consumed in smoothies or a specific meal that you prefer. A variety of minerals and vitamins are all present in kale, spinach, bok choy, and romaine lettuce.

Iron and Protein-Rich Foods

There are a number of excellent meals that can help you maintain a healthy diet of protein and iron. Foods like chicken, fish, legumes, beans, almonds, egg, and soy all provide iron and protein.

So when the system is recovering, eggs specifically are an excellent food because they are packed with iron and proteins, as well as vitamins A, B complex vitamins, vitamin E, and K, zinc, calcium and other nutrients.


Probiotics provide the body with the good bacteria it needs to digest food, combat infections, and keep your digestive system healthy. They operate in tandem with the defense system to ensure that the process of recovery is as painless as possible.

Whole Grain and Fiber

It is essential to ensure to have enough fiber to avoid constipation and support proper digestion post circumcision—or any other surgery, for that matter. Fiber and carbohydrates from wholegrain foods, such as whole grain bread, pasta, and cereal, are essential for sustaining our bodies' energy requirements.

How safe is Circumcision?

The technique of circumcision is relatively safe, and serious symptoms are uncommon. Nevertheless, the aforementioned dangers could exist: The foreskin is either left excessively long or just too short by the doctor. Poor wound healing results.

Does circumcision cause pain?

In most cases, it is not extremely painful. You probably only require over-the-counter analgesics like ibuprofen or acetaminophen. Your entire penis or only the affected part will likely be covered in a bandage. Consider the medical recommendation regarding when to have it taken out.

As with any surgical procedure, circumcision can be painful. However, employing anesthetics and painkillers might lessen discomfort. These are beneficial before and during the treatment.

How long does it take to recover from Circumcision?

The eight to ten days following circumcision are spent recovering. The penis could appear enlarged and red as it cures. At the tip, you could notice a yellow coating. The treatment is typically carried out as an outpatient basis in a clinic or surgery center for older kids and adults. As a result, you would return home that day. Suitable permission is however required.

How is Circumcision performed?

A pediatrician, physician, surgeon, or urologist frequently performs circumcisions. Religious circumcisions are occasionally carried out by people who have received training in the practice.

Your boy will be placed on the back while being circumcised, with his legs and arms immobilized. For numbing the penis, an anesthetic is injected or used topically.

The procedure for circumcision can be done in a number of ways. Which technique is employed is determined by the preference and background of the doctor. The Gomco clamp, the Plastibell device, and the Mogen clamp are the three main techniques for circumcision.

To stop the bleeding when the doctor cuts the foreskin, each one acts by blocking off circulation to the area. The process lasts between 15 and 30 minutes.


The baby can be cranky following the operation. To lessen any soreness, the nurse or a physician will give advice. A newborn's circumcision heals in roughly 7 to 10 days. After the circumcision, it's typical for the penis to seem somewhat red or scarred for a few days.

With each diaper change, the penis can be washed and the bandages changed. To aid in the penis' healing, keep the diaper just a little bit slack. If your kid experiences any of the following, contact your doctor right away:

  • Persistent crankiness (in babies)
  • Greater pain (in children)
  • Difficulty urinating, fever
  • Putrid-smelling discharge
  • Elevated erythema or inflammation
  • Following two weeks, a silicone ring is still leaking profusely.
  • Healing in adults

You'll receive detailed instructions from your doctor on how to take care of your incision and manage your pain. In general, you should resume your job and regular activities as soon as you feel at ease.

For the initial four weeks of the rehabilitation or till the doctor will give their permission, stay away from demanding exercise like running or lifting weights. The ideal form of exercise for recuperation is walking. Try to increase your daily walking by a little bit.

Additionally, you should normally abstain from sexual behavior for six weeks following the treatment. Consider the doctor's recommendations on sexual behaviour.

What are the side effects of Circumcision?

The practice of circumcision is common and secure. There are dangers linked to surgery, however. These consist of:

  • Bleeding.
  • Infection.
  • A response to anesthesia
  • Pain.
  • Too-long or too-short a foreskin excision.
  • Soreness at the penis's .
  • Meatitis (inflamed entrance of the penis) (inflamed opening of the penis).
  • In a few rare instances, the foreskin will not really fully heal and may stick to the penis (penile adhesion). The child might need another surgery if that occurs.

However, these side effects are temporary and won’t last long. They will go away once the wound heals completely.

Circumcision Aftercare

  • If either you or your child had a circumcision operation, it is crucial to adhere to the post-surgical aftercare because they can speed up healing and recovery.
  • Each day, gently wash the penile region with water.
  • To prevent a searing pain, wash the penis with water and mild soap.
  • Avoid removing the gauze or dressing from the surgical site on your own.
  • If swelling, discomfort, and stiffness persist after the operation, speak with the doctor and get emergency medical help.
  • Wait a week or till the doctor instructs you to stop sexual activity.
  • To prevent any serious dangers, side effects, or consequences following the circumcision, it is constantly important to adhere to the recommended care instructions. Therefore, strive to follow the care instructions provided by the specialist.


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Written ByDr. C.S. Ramachandran DNB (General Surgery),FICS,MBBS,MS - General Surgery,FCCP (USA)General Surgery
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