Bone structure is a partial or a complete break in your bone. Fracture mostly acknowledged as broken bone takes place with the change in contour of any bone. The basic symptoms of bone fracture are abnormal swelling, high pain or deformity in the structure. You won’t be able to move the injured part of the body. Often in severe cases, you might experience bone poking inside your skin. Basically bone fracture takes place if you get hurt severely or even slip and hit something heavy. Bone can also get fractured if you fall down from height like while climbing a tree, or slipping down from stairs. There are various categories of bone fracture that includes complete and incomplete bone fracture and compound and simple bon structure. Complete fracture indicates that the bone got snapped in two or moreparts whereas incomplete fracture is where the bone gets a crack but do notface a complete breakage.
On the other hand, compound fracture is where the bone tries to break through the skin of the patient. For simple bone fracture, the bone undergoes breakage but does not penetrates through the skin. The treatment often requires surgery and long term medication.Even in some cases, psychotherapy is also required to recover completely.
If you experience symptoms that indicate bone fracture in any part of your body, do not avoid it. Go to doctor right away and he would prescribe you to undergo a X ray test. The X ray report will provide the exactcondition of the bone and its injuries. Depending on the report of your X ray, the doctor would decide whether to conduct a surgery or using immobilizer, slings would do the needful. In can of surgery, devices like rods, plates and even screws are utilised. On the other hand, in case of cases that do not require surgery, they are advised to use sling that would not allow any movement of broken arm and let it heal eventually. After surgery, the patients are advised to take complete rest for few weeks so that the patient gets habituated with the external object in the body. However, the surgery is completely dependent on the health conditions of the patient. For instance, high blood sugar and pressure highly influences the surgery. Without normal sugar and blood pressure, surgery conducted is highly vulnerable to risk and may lead to adverse situations. Often closed reduction is done in case of misplacement in the alignment. In this case, a general anaesthesia is done and a cast is placed to hold the bone in that alignment. However, depending on the patient nature of the case, the external objects to be inserted are chosen. These objects are required to remove after a certain period of time like 2 or 3 years when the fracture is cured. Along with that, the patient needs to be under medication that would escalate the curing process.
There remains so such eligibility for bone fracture. It may take place to people of any age structure. Often children get their bone fractured while playing and on the other hand middle aged and old aged people even meet accidents and severe fracture may lead to surgery. However, the treatments are conducted in respect to the age of the patient like hildren recovers faster than teenagers and middle aged patients. Again, conducting surgery for old aged patients often turns risky.
If you seem to meet an accident and get your bone fractured, you will either be prescribed to use slings or undergo surgery depending on the intensity of the injury. After getting your surgery done, you might face several side effects.
Some of these are over swelling, pain or even bruising. Added to that, you may face complications while conducting surgery for bone fracture that is rare and that would include bleeding, blood clots, and severe allergic reactions for patients who suffer from anaesthesia. You also remain vulnerable to infections if you had complications during the surgery.
After you are done with the surgery of your fractured bone, you must follow few strict rules in your daily life. Along with that, you must maintain a frequent coordination with the doctor and continue medication. It is extremely necessary to abide to these rules otherwise it may lead to adverse effects.
You are not allowed to pull heavy things like rearranging furniture, carrying luggage bags etc. You are advised not to take up much physical work and make your daily tasks easier.
The recovery span is entirely dependent on how severe the fracture is. In case of small cracks, it gets recovered within 2 to 3 weeks. However, children recover faster within 3 weeks whereas teenagers and middle aged people takes around 6 weeks to attain full recovery. In some cases of severe injury full recovery takes around 10 weeks.
The average cost of bone fracture treatment in India ranges from 700 INR to 500000 INR. It basically depends on the severity of the condition.
The results of the treatment on bone fracture is permanent only if you follow the post-surgery regulations. Along with that, proper medication and psychotherapy is required to adopt.
Some alternative treatment for bone fracture is to avail Ayurveda process of medication that are entirely prepared from natural products. Even home remedy like using turmeric, constant use of ice, black caraway and sesame seeds and castor seeds acts as a catalyst in the recovering process. A complete rest is essential during this time.
Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) is a group of genetic disorders that primarily affect the bones, making them extremely weak. It is also known as ‘brittle bones disease’. This genetic disease is incurable and the treatment is primarily focused on pacifying the condition by reducing pain and strengthening the bones.
The symptoms of OI include, but are not limited to, recurring fractures, bluish tinge in the white of the eyes, hearing loss, breathing problems, short height, loose joints and dental problems. There is no definitive test for OI but doctors recommend certain scans and DNA testing before confirming their diagnosis.
What Causes Osteogenesis Imperfecta?
Osteogenesis Imperfecta is caused by genes that are not functioning properly. These genes can be inherited from one or both of the parents, although there have been cases in which neither parent gives the bad genes. These bad genes inhibit the production and functioning of collagen (the skin’s building block); a material found in bones and is responsible for making them strong. Low amounts of collagen lead to weakening of bones, which get fractured easily or sometimes without any reason at all.
Treatment of Osteogenesis Imperfecta
Osteogenesis Imperfecta is an incurable disease. The treatment for this disease focuses on reducing the pain and strengthening the bones of the patient so that he/she may lead a somewhat normal life. The treatment of OI depends on how severe it is. There are 8 types of Osteogenesis Imperfecta. Types 2, 3, 7 and 8 are considered severe while types 4, 5 and 6 are considered moderate. Type 1 is considered to be least severe. The treatment includes:
With the advancement in the medical field, we are blessed to have doctors who specialize in various fields. We have cardiologists who specialize in the treatment of the heart, orthopedics who specialize in treating disorders that are related to the development and growth of muscles, skeleton, and joints in children and neurologists that determine treatment for the brain. Spine and limb deformities mainly occur in children as their bodies are still growing and they react differently to disorders, infections and injuries. Some of the deformities of the limb and spine that are treated by orthopedics include clubfoot, scoliosis, and limb length discrepancy.
Limb Length Discrepancy
Limb length discrepancy is referred to as a deformity when the legs and arms differ in their length. The difference in the length of legs and arms in several cases does not cause any change in the quality of life or in its functioning. However, in certain cases when there is an extreme difference in the length of the legs and the arms, the health of the patient is affected to a great extent. Limb length discrepancy is also caused due to injury to the leg, bone disease or due to bone infections that occur during growth. Depending on the severity of the injury or bone disease it becomes very difficult for the individual to even walk. In certain cases, when the condition is not very severe, then to help the patient to walk comfortably a shoe lift is suggested. It is only in extreme conditions that orthopedics suggest limb length surgery mainly to correct the discrepancy.
Limb Lengthening Surgery
Future proof and innovative solutions are provided these days to the patients for bone reconstruction. The surgery for limb lengthening is performed in many countries all over the world and by professional orthopedics. The patient is at first put under anesthesia after which a large slit is made in the legs, all the way through. The leg bone is sawed, after which a supporting bracket is placed which the patient needs to wear for nearly a year or till the completion of the procedure.
The area of the bone that is fractured is widened every week by the patient by inserting a key into the bracket and by turning it a little. Healing of the bone happens over time and two inches can be added to the height of the patient in six months. The bracket used during the surgery for the legs are very bulky and it is very important that the patient does not put more pressure on them. Immense pain is caused during this time as the limbs are bound to crutches. Hence, proper care should be taken to avoid more stress on the limbs.
This is a very common condition seen in toddlers. When the legs are brought together then there is a gap at the level of the knee. It happens because of inward bowing of thigh bone or tibia. The deformity may appear to increase on standing.
Daily requirement of calcium
The optimal primary nutritional source during the first year of life is human milk. Premature infants have higher calcium requirements than full-term infants while in the nursery. These may be met by using human milk fortified with additional minerals or with specially designed formulas for premature infants. Around 6 months of age when weaning foods are started, food items rich in calcium should be added. Readymade formulas are fortified with calcium but one must remember that the bioavailability of calcium from human milk is greater than that from infant formulas or cow's milk. Hence breastfeeding should be encouraged. In children age 2-8 years the daily requirement is around 800 mg/d. In children 9- to 18-year-olds the daily requirement is 1,200-1,500 mg/day.
Some of the common items that are rich in calcium are.
|Food Item||Quantity||Amount of Calcium in each serving|
|Milk||1 cup (240 ml)||300 mg|
|Cheddar cheese||1.5 oz (42 g)||300 mg|
|Spinach cooked||1/2 cup (90 g)||120 mg|
|Sardines or salmon with bones||20 Sardines (240 g)||50 mg|
|Sweet potatoes||1/2 cup (160 g)||44 mg|
Babies younger than 1-year-old need 400 IU of vitamin D a day. Kids older than 1 year need 600 IU or more of vitamin D a day. Our bodies make vitamin D when our skin is exposed to the sun. The recommended exposure to sunlight is at least 30 min every day. There are various fortified food items that have vitamin D. Also medicines are available which can provide the daily requirement of Vitamin D
Physiological genu varus. In most of the toddlers, the legs are curved inwards. They should improve over a period of time. The legs should straighten by 2 yrs. The child should be investigated if the deformity is severe; the deformity is only in one leg, if the child complains of pain and if the child appears unusually short. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
The knee joint is the meeting point of several bones. The knee bone's connected to the thigh bone at knee joint. The thigh bone or femur is the longest bone in the human body and it sits directly above the knee. Below the knee joint lies the shinbone or tibia down to the ankle. Tibia is partnered with the fibula, which runs along the outside of the leg. The kneecap also called as patella lies in between, protecting the knee joint. When the leg bends, the patella moves on the front part of the femur.
Knee Joint Compartments -
Arthritis affects the ends of the bones, or spots where the bones in the knee joint move against each other. The joint capsule is a thick ligamentous structure that surrounds the entire knee that contains synovial membrane which provides nourishment to all the surrounding structures. The synovial fluid produced by the synovial membrane lubricates the knee joint. The capsule itself is strengthened by the surrounding ligaments.
Cartilage in the knees -
Cartilage covers up the knee joint's ends thus keeping the bones from rubbing together and creating friction. This makes cartilage critical to keeping the knees pain-free when one is running, walking bending or squatting. There are two types of cartilage in the knee joint. Meniscus cartilage makes up the crescent-shaped disks on the inside and outside of the knee between the femur and tibia. Meniscus cartilage works like a shock absorber, providing cushion to the joint when walking to running. Joint or articular cartilage covers the bones of the knee, making smooth and friction free movement.
A fall or an injury is among the most common causes of a fracture. For a fracture to heal; the bones must be set in the correct position and a cast may need to be worn so as to hold them in place. This allows the bones to grow new tissue and bridge the break. The food you eat can help you speed up this process. Some of the best foods to build strong bones and help a fracture heal are:
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!