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I found the answers provided by the Dr. D.K. Agarwal to be practical and inspiring. Thanks for your valued advice. I will certainly follow your advice and inform you accordingly.
Dr. D.K. Agarwal provides answers that are very helpful. Thank you sir
I am 51 years old. There is problem in urine discharge system, discharge pressure is very slow and many times. I have also problem of very fast discharge during sex.
Kidney stones are often small enough and pass through urine without much bother. Most kidney stones are smaller than 4 mm in diameter. Having said this, even the smallest of kidney stones can be really painful until they pass through urine (learn more what Urine Says about Your Health). It typically takes a couple of days for the body to get rid of it. While medication and self-care are the foremost options, there are a range of other options as well available for treating kidney stones.
Admission to a Hospital
You must get admitted to a hospital if the stone moves to the ureter, thereby resulting in severe pain. Typically kidney stones which are more than 6 mms in diameter need to be surgically removed through procedures such as ureteroscopy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), open surgery and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). A doctor takes a call on any of the above procedure if:
1. The patient is inching towards a kidney failure.
2. The pain doesn’t go away even after taking pain killers.
3. If the patient is pregnant (learn more about for healthy pregnancy)
4. If the patient is more than 60 years.
Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL)
ESWL is one of the simple and most preferred stone removing procedures. It involves the usage of ultrasound shock waves to break the bigger stones into smaller ones. The latter is then passed through urine. A patient is given a few painkillers since this mode of treatment could be a little uncomfortable. A patient might need multiple ESWLs to successfully get rid of all the stones.
If a stone gets stuck in the ureter, a medical procedure known as the ureteroscopy is performed. In this procedure, a thin telescope is passed through the urethra and bladder to the ureter. Either a second instrument is used or the telescope itself has laser energy to break the bigger stone into smaller ones.
Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL)
PCNL is an alternative to ESWL for removing big stones. This procedure involves the usage of nephroscope that is routed into the kidney through a small incision made behind the back of the patient. This procedure requires general anesthesia and is effective for breaking stones that have a diameter of 20 mm or more. It has a success rate of 86%.
This is one of the older methods to eradicate kidney stones. Unless the stone size is abnormally large and other procedures cannot be performed, open surgery is generally avoided. An open surgery involves making an incision and getting access to the ureter and the kidney. The surgeon then removes the stone from the kidney. This procedure requires general anesthesia. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a nephrologist.
A kidney transplant is a procedure that employs an operation to transplant properly functioning kidney in the body. The main job of the kidneys is to remove the excess waste from a person’s body with the help of a filtration process. When the kidneys stop filtering the toxins properly, they become diseased as harmful waste products and toxins begin to accumulate in the body. Following this, the patient has to go through treatment measures like dialysis or kidney transplant.
Read on to know the five things you should keep in mind about a kidney transplant.
- Treatment: Transplant is one of the best ways to treat chronic kidney disease stage-V, until unless it is contraindicated. Life becomes near normal after transplant, though there is a possibility of rejection of transplant kidney. Patient has to take immunosuppressive medication life long.
- Medication: Medications are mainly for:
- To prevent rejection: Patient takes immunosuppressive medications life long.
- Prevention of infection: Patient has to take care all the measures to prevent infections as they are more prone to infections.
- Other medication: To control diabetes, HTN etc.
- Family Only: The donors are from family or emotionally related or cadavers (after brain death). HLA-matched donors are better because of less chances of rejections and first reduction of immunosuppressive.
- Doing Your Part: Once transplant is done - patient becomes normal and he/she lives a normal life. However, they have to take regular medications and to protect themselves from various infection.
- End Stage Renal Diseases: These diseases includes diabetes mellitus, HTN, polycystic kidney disease, chronic glomerulonephritis or interstitial nephritis etc.
Consult a Nephrologist before going for renal transplant for detailed check up or line of action.
Nephropathy is also known as renal disease. It is any type of damage or disease relating to the kidneys. Though not everyone with diabetes has nephropathy, however, diabetic nephropathy can cause kidney failure.
How does diabetes affect the kidney?
Kidneys are responsible for taking waste out from your blood. They have a lot of tiny blood vessels to do this. High blood sugar may kill such blood vessels. Once these blood vessels are destroyed, the kidneys may not function as well or it may even lead to kidney failure.
What increases your risk of getting diabetic nephropathy?
There are several factors which increase your risk of getting diabetic nephropathy including: \
- High blood pressure
- High cholesterol
- Being Native American, African American or of Hispanic origin, for whom risk factors have proved to be magnified
- If you have family history of diabetic nephropathy
Symptoms and diagnosis:
There are very few noticeable symptoms, which appear when you have diabetic nephropathy, except swelling in your arms and legs. The diagnosis is done by checking for a type of protein in your urine known as albumin, which is not supposed to be there. Getting the diagnosis done early is crucial.
You can prevent kidney damage by doing the following:
- Keeping your blood sugar levels under control - keep HbA1C < 6-7%
- Keeping your blood pressure under control in the range of 130/80
- Eating healthy food
- Exercising regularly
- Not eating too much protein
- Not eating too much salt
- Reducing smoke or excessive tobacco usage
Medicines for treatment:
If you do get diabetic nephropathy, here are some medicines, which can help cure it
- ACE inhibitors which are also called angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors
- Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARBs)
- Blood pressure may rise
- Triglyceride levels and cholesterol levels may rise.
Did you know that metabolism functions within a scope that goes beyond just maintaining your body weight? This chemical process is also subject to a number of complications and disorders, and can wreck your system without your knowledge. Mineral Metabolic Disorder is one such impediment that can easily corrupt your body and is characterized by an abnormal and unprecedented rise or fall of the level of minerals in the blood. This may result in a number of cardiovascular and bone diseases.
Minerals undoubtedly play an extremely vital role in the proper regulation of the body conditions and aid and abet growth and development. However, under certain (and mostly unforeseen) circumstances, the mineral levels have a propensity to differ substantially from the normal rates and may lead to several disorders.
- Mineral metabolic disorders may be genetic in certain cases, being transferred from the parent to the child via genes.
- However, most mineral metabolic disorders are likely to arise as a result of certain clinical conditions pertaining to starvation, excess alcohol consumption,diarrhea and diet disorders.
The most commonly observed and medically documented complications affecting metabolism as a result of sudden augment or fall in the following minerals are:
- Magnesium: hypomagnesaemia and hypomagnesaemia
- Calcium: nephrocalcinosis, hypercalcemia, osteoporosis, kidney stones, Paget's disease, osteomalacia, pseudohypoparathyroidism, rickets and hyperparathyroidism
- Iron: hemochromatosis and cirrhosis
- Phosphorus: hypophosphatemia, osteomalacia, hyperparathyroidism, hypoparathyroidism and rickets.
- Sodium: hypernatremia and dilutional hyponatremia
- Zinc: nausea, skin rash, diarrhea, and difficulty in wound healing
- Copper: Menkes syndrome and Wilson's disease
- Potassium: Cushing's syndrome(from exposure to high levels of cortisol), Fanconi's syndrome, Bartter syndrome, Addison's disease and kidney disease.
The ideal remedy to battle the majority of mineral metabolism disorders is to maintain a healthy lifestyle and follow a proper, filling, and balanced diet. In case the diseases crop as a result of genetic factors, consult your doctor immediately. However, in most cases, proper medication and a wholesome and nourishing food intake is recommended to fight most mineral metabolic diseases.
Here are some causes and treatments of kidney failure
Here are some preventive aspects for kidney failure
Causes and Symptoms of Renal Hypertension
High blood pressure is characterized by an increased force that the blood exerts on the blood vessels when it moves through the body. Renal hypertension is a blood pressure disorder where the arteries that carry blood to the kidneys become narrow, as a result of which the blood pressure through these vessels increases.
It is caused when the arteries that supply blood to the kidney get narrow or get blocked. This can cause the kidney to release specific hormones that signal the body to retain water and sodium. This can put additional pressure on the blood vessels which leads to increased blood pressure. It can also be caused by atherosclerosis which is characterized by hardening of the arteries. Improper development of the arteries can also lead to renal hypertension.
The symptoms of renal hypertension are:
- Feeling confused
- Blurred vision
- Regular headaches
- Bleeding from the nose
- Gradual decline in kidney function
- Possible long-term damage to the kidney
- Feeling lethargic and drowsy
- Loss of appetite
- Dryness in skin
- Muscle cramps
- Breathing difficulties
The diagnostic procedure for this disorder consists of blood, urine, doppler ultrasound and CT angiography or MR angiography tests. Treatments for this disorder usually include medications to ease blood pressure. Preventive measures include modifications in lifestyle such as following a proper diet, limiting smoking, restricting sodium or salt in the diet and following an exercise regimen. Steps should also be taken to reduce stress. Yoga and meditation are highly beneficial to control the condition. Sometimes intervention is needed in the form of PTRA and stenting.
Related Tip: Kidney Stones and Homeopathy
Causes and symptoms of acute tubular necrosis
Damage or destruction to tube-like structures known as tubules in the kidneys can bring about the development of acute tubular necrosis (ATN) and subsequently, acute kidney failure.
What causes acute tubular necrosis (ATN)?
A lack of supply of oxygen to the cells in the kidney is the most common cause of this condition. The reason as to why oxygen may not reach the cells and tissues of this organ could be restriction or blockage of the pathways. When this happens, the kidneys get damaged. Dehydration is the most important cause of ATN which may be because of loose motions, vomitings, heat stroke etc.
Health conditions such as diabetes, heart attack, and stroke can bring about a decrease in blood flow to the organs resulting in ATN and death of cells. Similarly, the presence of toxic substances in the blood can also lead to tubules damage and change the way the cells function in the tubules.
Other causes that may lead you to develop ATN may be medications, radiology dyes, anesthetics and chemicals that cause your body to react adversely.
In addition to these causes, a number of factors can put you at risk of ATN and there are:
- An injury to the body, more specifically your kidneys can cause clotting of the blood vessels
- An adverse response to blood transfusion
- Instances of septic shock can slow down blood flow to the organs
- A major surgery that can interrupt blood supply to the organs
What are the symptoms of the condition?
The symptoms associated with the condition can vary depending on the severity of the problem.
You may experience:
- Troubles in waking up
- Drowsy feeling even during daytime
- Feelings of lethargy
- Feelings of excessive thirstiness
- Problems with urination
- Fluid retention problems
- Instances of confusion
- Feelings of nausea
Related Tip: 3 Causes of Acute Kidney Failure
11 Symptoms of Kidney Diseases
Kidney problems, although take a longer time to develop, they end up being silent killers. There are no obvious signs for months and the symptoms crop up when it's rather late.
Many younger people these days are getting diagnosed with kidney problems. This is primarily due to drinking alcohol, smoking, bad eating habits and a sedentary lifestyle. About 60% people who have diabetes or hypertension develop kidney problems eventually.
Therefore, it is advised to be aware of what harms your kidneys and take adequate care to keep them healthy.
Watch out for any of these symptoms early on.
1. Urine Color - This is probably the first symptom and unfortunately affects many people around us. With the way our lifestyles are, this is becoming an increasing concern. Urine becomes dark and there is a need to urinate yet, one is unable to do so.
2. Urine Infection - Second would be when you feel pain or difficulty while urinating. The infections in the urinary tract induce their symptoms of pain or burning during urination. If this infection spreads to the kidneys, one can feel pain in the back.
3. Blood In Urine - If there is blood in your urine, it is a sign of renal illness. While this could be happening because of various reasons, it is advisable to see your doctor soon.
4. Water Retention - The function of the kidney is to take out the extra liquid and the waste from our body. When this process is not smooth, water will stay back and cause your face, limbs and/or ankle joints to swell.
5. Weakness - Severe exhaustion would mean minimized oxygen being delivered to the cells, causing weakness in general. This is also one of the symptoms that your kidney needs medical attention.
6. Temperature Variance - If your kidney is unwell, one of the symptoms is that you will feel the chill even when the temperature is actually warm.
7. Skin Breakout - Since an unfit kidney means waste in the body is piling up, it causes the skin to break out and cause severe irritation and rashes.
8. Rise of Blood Urea Level - When the kidney is unwell, it increases the level of urea in the blood. This causes breakdown of the urea into ammonia in the spit, causes it to smell foul, like urine/metal.
9. Nausea - Waste accumulating in the blood adds up to causing nausea and vomiting.
10. Breathlessness - One can also feel the lack of breath if the condition of the kidney worsens.
11. Discomfort or Pain - Some people have been known to have bodily pains, an instant discomfort that spreads from the lower back to the groin. This usually means that there is a stone in the kidney.
Related Tip: 4 Types of Kidney Stones and Their Common Symptoms