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Nephropathy is also known as renal disease. It is any type of damage or disease relating to the kidneys. Though not everyone with diabetes has nephropathy, however, diabetic nephropathy can cause kidney failure.
How does diabetes affect the kidney?
Kidneys are responsible for taking waste out from your blood. They have a lot of tiny blood vessels to do this. High blood sugar may kill such blood vessels. Once these blood vessels are destroyed, the kidneys may not function as well or it may even lead to kidney failure.
What increases your risk of getting diabetic nephropathy?
There are several factors which increase your risk of getting diabetic nephropathy including: \
- High blood pressure
- High cholesterol
- Being Native American, African American or of Hispanic origin, for whom risk factors have proved to be magnified
- If you have family history of diabetic nephropathy
Symptoms and diagnosis:
There are very few noticeable symptoms, which appear when you have diabetic nephropathy, except swelling in your arms and legs. The diagnosis is done by checking for a type of protein in your urine known as albumin, which is not supposed to be there. Getting the diagnosis done early is crucial.
You can prevent kidney damage by doing the following:
- Keeping your blood sugar levels under control - keep HbA1C < 6-7%
- Keeping your blood pressure under control in the range of 130/80
- Eating healthy food
- Exercising regularly
- Not eating too much protein
- Not eating too much salt
- Reducing smoke or excessive tobacco usage
Medicines for treatment:
If you do get diabetic nephropathy, here are some medicines, which can help cure it
- ACE inhibitors which are also called angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors
- Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARBs)
- Blood pressure may rise
- Triglyceride levels and cholesterol levels may rise.
Did you know that metabolism functions within a scope that goes beyond just maintaining your body weight? This chemical process is also subject to a number of complications and disorders, and can wreck your system without your knowledge. Mineral Metabolic Disorder is one such impediment that can easily corrupt your body and is characterized by an abnormal and unprecedented rise or fall of the level of minerals in the blood. This may result in a number of cardiovascular and bone diseases.
Minerals undoubtedly play an extremely vital role in the proper regulation of the body conditions and aid and abet growth and development. However, under certain (and mostly unforeseen) circumstances, the mineral levels have a propensity to differ substantially from the normal rates and may lead to several disorders.
- Mineral metabolic disorders may be genetic in certain cases, being transferred from the parent to the child via genes.
- However, most mineral metabolic disorders are likely to arise as a result of certain clinical conditions pertaining to starvation, excess alcohol consumption,diarrhea and diet disorders.
The most commonly observed and medically documented complications affecting metabolism as a result of sudden augment or fall in the following minerals are:
- Magnesium: hypomagnesaemia and hypomagnesaemia
- Calcium: nephrocalcinosis, hypercalcemia, osteoporosis, kidney stones, Paget's disease, osteomalacia, pseudohypoparathyroidism, rickets and hyperparathyroidism
- Iron: hemochromatosis and cirrhosis
- Phosphorus: hypophosphatemia, osteomalacia, hyperparathyroidism, hypoparathyroidism and rickets.
- Sodium: hypernatremia and dilutional hyponatremia
- Zinc: nausea, skin rash, diarrhea, and difficulty in wound healing
- Copper: Menkes syndrome and Wilson's disease
- Potassium: Cushing's syndrome(from exposure to high levels of cortisol), Fanconi's syndrome, Bartter syndrome, Addison's disease and kidney disease.
The ideal remedy to battle the majority of mineral metabolism disorders is to maintain a healthy lifestyle and follow a proper, filling, and balanced diet. In case the diseases crop as a result of genetic factors, consult your doctor immediately. However, in most cases, proper medication and a wholesome and nourishing food intake is recommended to fight most mineral metabolic diseases.
Here are some preventive aspects for kidney failure
Here are some causes and treatments of kidney failure
Causes and Symptoms of Renal Hypertension
High blood pressure is characterized by an increased force that the blood exerts on the blood vessels when it moves through the body. Renal hypertension is a blood pressure disorder where the arteries that carry blood to the kidneys become narrow, as a result of which the blood pressure through these vessels increases.
It is caused when the arteries that supply blood to the kidney get narrow or get blocked. This can cause the kidney to release specific hormones that signal the body to retain water and sodium. This can put additional pressure on the blood vessels which leads to increased blood pressure. It can also be caused by atherosclerosis which is characterized by hardening of the arteries. Improper development of the arteries can also lead to renal hypertension.
The symptoms of renal hypertension are:
- Feeling confused
- Blurred vision
- Regular headaches
- Bleeding from the nose
- Gradual decline in kidney function
- Possible long-term damage to the kidney
- Feeling lethargic and drowsy
- Loss of appetite
- Dryness in skin
- Muscle cramps
- Breathing difficulties
The diagnostic procedure for this disorder consists of blood, urine, doppler ultrasound and CT angiography or MR angiography tests. Treatments for this disorder usually include medications to ease blood pressure. Preventive measures include modifications in lifestyle such as following a proper diet, limiting smoking, restricting sodium or salt in the diet and following an exercise regimen. Steps should also be taken to reduce stress. Yoga and meditation are highly beneficial to control the condition. Sometimes intervention is needed in the form of PTRA and stenting.
Related Tip: Kidney Stones and Homeopathy
Causes and symptoms of acute tubular necrosis
Damage or destruction to tube-like structures known as tubules in the kidneys can bring about the development of acute tubular necrosis (ATN) and subsequently, acute kidney failure.
What causes acute tubular necrosis (ATN)?
A lack of supply of oxygen to the cells in the kidney is the most common cause of this condition. The reason as to why oxygen may not reach the cells and tissues of this organ could be restriction or blockage of the pathways. When this happens, the kidneys get damaged. Dehydration is the most important cause of ATN which may be because of loose motions, vomitings, heat stroke etc.
Health conditions such as diabetes, heart attack, and stroke can bring about a decrease in blood flow to the organs resulting in ATN and death of cells. Similarly, the presence of toxic substances in the blood can also lead to tubules damage and change the way the cells function in the tubules.
Other causes that may lead you to develop ATN may be medications, radiology dyes, anesthetics and chemicals that cause your body to react adversely.
In addition to these causes, a number of factors can put you at risk of ATN and there are:
- An injury to the body, more specifically your kidneys can cause clotting of the blood vessels
- An adverse response to blood transfusion
- Instances of septic shock can slow down blood flow to the organs
- A major surgery that can interrupt blood supply to the organs
What are the symptoms of the condition?
The symptoms associated with the condition can vary depending on the severity of the problem.
You may experience:
- Troubles in waking up
- Drowsy feeling even during daytime
- Feelings of lethargy
- Feelings of excessive thirstiness
- Problems with urination
- Fluid retention problems
- Instances of confusion
- Feelings of nausea
Related Tip: 3 Causes of Acute Kidney Failure
11 Symptoms of Kidney Diseases
Kidney problems, although take a longer time to develop, they end up being silent killers. There are no obvious signs for months and the symptoms crop up when it's rather late.
Many younger people these days are getting diagnosed with kidney problems. This is primarily due to drinking alcohol, smoking, bad eating habits and a sedentary lifestyle. About 60% people who have diabetes or hypertension develop kidney problems eventually.
Therefore, it is advised to be aware of what harms your kidneys and take adequate care to keep them healthy.
Watch out for any of these symptoms early on.
1. Urine Color - This is probably the first symptom and unfortunately affects many people around us. With the way our lifestyles are, this is becoming an increasing concern. Urine becomes dark and there is a need to urinate yet, one is unable to do so.
2. Urine Infection - Second would be when you feel pain or difficulty while urinating. The infections in the urinary tract induce their symptoms of pain or burning during urination. If this infection spreads to the kidneys, one can feel pain in the back.
3. Blood In Urine - If there is blood in your urine, it is a sign of renal illness. While this could be happening because of various reasons, it is advisable to see your doctor soon.
4. Water Retention - The function of the kidney is to take out the extra liquid and the waste from our body. When this process is not smooth, water will stay back and cause your face, limbs and/or ankle joints to swell.
5. Weakness - Severe exhaustion would mean minimized oxygen being delivered to the cells, causing weakness in general. This is also one of the symptoms that your kidney needs medical attention.
6. Temperature Variance - If your kidney is unwell, one of the symptoms is that you will feel the chill even when the temperature is actually warm.
7. Skin Breakout - Since an unfit kidney means waste in the body is piling up, it causes the skin to break out and cause severe irritation and rashes.
8. Rise of Blood Urea Level - When the kidney is unwell, it increases the level of urea in the blood. This causes breakdown of the urea into ammonia in the spit, causes it to smell foul, like urine/metal.
9. Nausea - Waste accumulating in the blood adds up to causing nausea and vomiting.
10. Breathlessness - One can also feel the lack of breath if the condition of the kidney worsens.
11. Discomfort or Pain - Some people have been known to have bodily pains, an instant discomfort that spreads from the lower back to the groin. This usually means that there is a stone in the kidney.
Related Tip: 4 Types of Kidney Stones and Their Common Symptoms