Oral contraceptive pills are medications that prevents unwanted pregnancy. Oral contraceptives are hormonal preparations that may contain a combination of hormones oestrogen and progesterone or progesterone alone. When given in certain amounts and at certain times during the menstural cycle, these hormones prevent the ovary from releasing an egg for fertilization.
Oral contraceptives have many effects that can prevent an unwanted pregnancy from taking place but the main action of these pills is- it stops a woman’s egg from fully developing each month. Thus the egg can no longer accept a sperm and as a result fertilization is prevented. Pills which contain a combination of oestrogen and progesterone prevent pregnancy by inhibiting the release of the hormones luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone from the pituitary gland in the brain. Luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone help in the development of egg and preparation the lining of uterus for the implantation of the embryo. Progesterone also functions as the hormone which makes the uterine mucus that surrounds the egg and make it more difficult for the sperm to penetrate the egg and therefore or fertilization to take place. In some women, progesterone also inhibits ovulation. There are different types of combination birth control pills- monophasic, biphasic, triphasic. Most birth control pills are packaged as 21-day or 28-day units. For the 21-day packages, tablets are taken daily for 21 days. This is followed by a seven day period during which no pills are taken. Then the cycle repeats. For 28-day units, medication is taken for 21 consecutive days, followed by a seven day period during which placebo tablets are taken. Women just starting to take the pills should also use additional contraception for the first seven days of use because pregnancy may occur during this period.
Any woman who does not want to get pregnant and does not have medical histories like migrane, blood clots, breast cancer can use oral contraceptive method to prevent pregnancy but it is advised to consult a doctor before taking the pills.
Women who smoke and especially those who are over thirty five years of age and women with certain medical conditions like history of blood clots or breast or endometrial cancer, are advised against taking oral contraceptive pills as these conditions can increase the risks of the pills.
The most common side effects of birth control pills are nausea, headache, breast tenderness, weight gain, irregular bleeding and mood alterations. Women with a history of migrane may suffer increased migrane frequency. Oral contraceptives may also aggravate insulin resistance and thus pose a risk of diabetes. Though uncommon, oral contraceptives can lead to increase in blood pressure, blood clots, heart attack and stroke.
There are no such post treatment guidelines.
A combined pill is packaged in either 21 day or 28 days everyday pack.
Some pills usually cost more than thousand rupees. While some may cost hundred rupees. Cost depends on the type of pills used. Many health clinics sell these birth control pills for less amount.
The birth control pills work when taken at the right time and right amount for the prevention of pregnancy. So, the result of taking the pills will be as desired.
Women can use some other ways of preventing pregnancy such as the injection known as Depo Provera which is injected every three months. Women can also use vaginal ring known as Nuvaring, that is squeezed and placed in the vagina for three weeks and is taken out for a week during periods and then replaced with a new ring. Women can also use hormone UID and copper UID.
With increasing globalization and lifestyle changes, even general practitioners are getting more and more young patients willing to adopt contraceptive measures. An optimum clinical choice of contraceptive can only be done through a mutual discussion between the physician and patient taking into consideration both clinical aspects and patient's choice. This article gives a brief general summary of the methods of contraception.
Contraception is the process of taking steps to ensure about not becoming pregnant after having sex. There are different types of contraceptive measures. They all have pros and cons. Different methods will be right for different couples, or right at different times in life.
Types of contraceptives:
* percentages mentioned within brackets are failure rates
It involves the use of estrogen and progesterone to prevent fertilization; associated with a 2-3% failure rate.
Oral contraceptive pills suppress the action of fsh/lh from the pituitary gland, they also suppress the lh surge, alter the cervical mucosa to inhibit penetration by spermatozoa, and they inhibit atrophic change in the endometrium.
Complications: venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, cva, mi, htn, amenorrhea, cholelithiasis, hepatocellular adenoma. Risks increase with smoking.
Contraindications: dvt, pe, cvd, cva, pregnancy, cancer, abnormal lfts
Monophasic (fixed combination: take estrogen and progesterone on days 1-21 and placebo on days 22-28. Increased estrogen increases the side effects of a headache, weight gain, nausea, and edema decreased estrogen and progesterone increase the risk of breakthrough bleeding and increases the failure rate.
Multiphasic: low-dose estrogen with varying doses of progesterone on days 1-21.
Progestin-only pills: not as effective and can cause breakthrough bleeding.
Levonorgestrel: lasts up to five years.
Medroxyprogesterone: lasts three months.
Decreases the risk of ovarian and endometrial cancer and decreased the risk of ectopic pregnancy.
It involves the insertion of a small device into the uterus with the hopes of inhibiting implantation, altering tubal motility, or inflaming the endometrium.
Intrauterine contraceptive devices are associated with a relatively low failure rate (2-4% pregnancy rate) but do suffer from a higher rate of complications (e. G, four times increased the risk of ectopic pregnancy).