A lining tear in the lower part of the rectum results in pain while passing stools. Anal fissures usually don’t result in grave problems. Anal fissures generally heal at home with proper treatment after some time. They are termed as acute or short term fissures. If your anal fissure doesn’t heal after 12 weeks, then it may be a chronic fissure. A long term fissure might require medical treatment. It is quite a normal and treatable problem. All age groups of people may be affected, even otherwise healthy and young people.
Trauma or injury in the anal cavity may cause an anal fissure. Injury might happen when:
Rectal exams, anal intercourse or foreign object insertion can cause fissures as well. In few instances, Crohn’s disease might cause a fissure. Few doctors believe that the sphincter tension might cause fissures. The inner anal sphincter isn’t controllable whereas the outer sphincter can be controlled at will. Thus this muscle has a lot of tension. If the pressure builds up too much, it may cause a spasm and reduce the blood flow causing a fissure. This pressure might slow the healing process for an existing fissure. Your doctor can help in diagnosing anal fissures depending on a physical exam and the symptoms.
The doctor might wait for the fissure to heal before proceeding with anoscopy or rectal exams. If the exam is critical, local anesthetics may be used for numbing the area. A doctor may also look into any other conditions that may cause the fissure. Having more than one fissures or having it in a region where they don’t usually happen might indicate a graver problem, like an immunocompromised system or IBS.
90% of all short term fissures heal on their own or with Home Remedies. These include the use of fiber supplements and stool softeners and periodic sitz baths. 40% of chronic anal fissures heal with home treatment. Not all home treatments are effective in treating fissures. If the fissure lasts longer than 12 weeks then prescription medicines may be needed. These include high BP medicines, nitroglycerin cream and Botox injections.