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Last Updated: Jan 10, 2023

Causes and Symptoms of Endometriosis

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Dr. Veena VidyasagarGynaecologist • 49 Years Exp.MBBS, MS - Obstetrics & Gynaecology
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Endometriosis is a disorder, which is characterized by abnormal growth of the endometrial tissue (lining of the uterus) outside the uterus. In this disorder, the abnormal tissue breaks down but is unable to exit the body. This may cause the surrounding tissue to get irritated and as a result lead to the formation of scar tissue.

The various symptoms of endometriosis are:

  1. Pain during sexual intercourse
  2. Pain during periods: One of the major symptoms of this disorder is pelvic pain, especially during periods. You may also experience lower back pain and abdominal pain.
  3. Excessive bleeding: The amount of bleeding during your periods may increase.
  4. Other symptoms: You may experience fatigue, constipation and bloating.
  5. Infertility: Inability to conceive

The various causes of endometriosis are:

  1. Retrograde menstruation: In retrograde menstruation, the blood flows back into the pelvic region through the fallopian tubes instead of exiting the body. These cells may attach themselves in the pelvic cavity and cause endometriosis.
  2. Embryonic cell transport: These cells may be transported to other parts of the body by the blood vessels which may lead to endometriosis.
  3. Immune system disorder: Complications in the immune system may prevent the immune system from destroying the endometrial tissue that grows outside the uterus.
  4. Surgical scar implantation: Certain surgeries such as a C-section may result in attachment of endometrial cells to the incision area. The major complication of this disorder is fertility problems. Endometriosis may prevent fusion of egg and sperm and thus impair your ability to conceive. It is recommended not to delay pregnancy if you have endometriosis. This disorder is usually confused with other disorders, such as ovarian cysts and pelvic inflammatory disease. This happens as these disorders too cause pelvic pain.

Endometriosis is sometimes accompanied by irritable bowel syndrome. In the latter condition, there is recurrent abdominal pain and diarrhoea or constipation, often associated with stress, depression, anxiety, or previous intestinal infection.


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