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Ovarian Cysts: Treatment, Procedure, Cost And Side Effects

Last Updated: Sep 30, 2023

What is Ovarian Cysts?

Ovaries are the female reproductive system part, which located on both sides of the uterus in the lower abdomen. Ovaries produce eggs along with hormones estrogen and progesterone. Cysts is a fluid filled sacs, which is developed in one of the ovaries. In most of the cases, cysts don’t develop any symptoms and cause no pain. There various types of cysts such as dermoid cysts, endometrioma cysts, follicle, corpus luteum cysts and polycystic ovary syndrome which can cause infertility in woman.

What are the types of ovarian cysts?

The main factor causing ovarian cysts is your menstrual cycle. We refer to these as functioning cysts. Cysts of other kinds are substantially less common.

Functional cysts

Your ovaries create little cysts known as follicles each month. A follicle ruptures to release an egg during ovulation, along with the hormones progesterone and estrogen.
A functional cyst is a monthly follicle that keeps expanding. Two categories of functional cysts are:

  • Follicular cyst: A follicle and an egg separate in the middle of your menstrual cycle. The egg then moves down a fallopian tube after that. If the follicle does not rupture, a follicular cyst will form. Instead of releasing its egg, it matures while keeping it inside.
  • Corpus luteum cyst: After releasing its egg, a follicle closes and begins to produce oestrogen and progesterone, which is known as a corpus luteum cyst. These hormones are important for fertilisation. Sometimes the entrance of the egg can become clogged. A cyst develops when fluid collects inside the corpus luteum.

Other cysts

Cysts of other forms are not related to menstrual cycles:

  • Dermoid cyst: This cyst, also referred to as a teratoma, forms from ovarian reproductive cells that create eggs. The cyst may contain tissue from the lips, the scalp, or the teeth.
  • Cystadenoma: Cells on an ovary's surface form this particular type of cyst. The cyst may have a fluid or mucous substance inside of it. They are able to get very big.
  • Endometrioma: The development of cells outside the uterus is a symptom of a condition known as endometriosis. In some instances, the tissue may fuse with the ovary and form a cyst.

Can ovarian cysts lead to cancer?

Ovaries are the organ located deep within the pelvis. In a maximum number of cases, cysts don’t develop any kind of pain. But cysts is something which has fluid and sac filled.

Fluid, follicle or tumor in the cysts doesn’t mean it lead to cancer. It is a kind of condition which affects almost every woman, ones in their life. But most of it doesn’t develop ovarian cancer.

What is the cause of Ovarian Cysts?

Ovarian Cysts are sacs filled with fluid, occurring in women mainly during their ovulation period. These Cysts commonly don’t have any symptoms and are usually harmless. The basic function of the ovaries is to produce an egg every month, this is called ovulation. During this time, a cyst like structure gets formed inside the ovary. This is known as a Follicle. The mature follicle fractures when an egg is released during ovulation. The empty follicle leads to the formation of a corpus luteum and, if pregnancy does not arise, the corpus luteum dissolve. Yet, sometimes, this process does not complete accordingly, lead to the most common type of ovarian cyst which is the functional ovarian cysts. Along with this, cysts can also occur because of reasons such as Endometriosis in which women suffering from endometriosis can flourish a type of ovarian cyst called an endometrioma and Severe pelvic infections which can spread to the ovaries or fallopian tube resulting in the formation of cysts.

What are the symptoms of Ovarian Cysts?

  1. Nausea and vomiting
  2. Breast tenderness
  3. Painful sex
  4. Pelvic pain
  5. Bloating
  6. Inflammation
  7. Lower back pain

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What are the risk factors of Ovarian Cysts?

Ovarian cyst risk factors include:

  • Hormonal issues: These include using a fertility medication that induces ovulation, such as clomiphene or letrozole.
  • Pregnancy: The follicle that develops when you ovulate remains on your ovary as long as you are pregnant. It may occasionally get bigger.
  • Endometriosis: A cyst might form when some of the tissue affixes to your ovary. Cysts may develop in the ovaries if the infection gets there.
  • Previous ovarian cysts: You're more prone to get further ovarian cysts if you've already had one.

What are the treatment of Ovarian Cysts?

The ovaries are part of the female reproductive system. They’re located in the lower abdomen on both sides of the uterus. Women have two ovaries that produce both eggs and progesterone and hormones estrogen.

Sometimes, a fluid-filled sac called a cyst will develop on one of the ovaries. Most of the women will grow at least one cyst during their lifespan. In most cases, ovarian cysts are painless and cause no conditions.

Treatment for an ovarian cyst are mentioned below:

The doctor may advise treatment to reduce the size or remove the cyst if it doesn’t go away on its own or if it grows further.

  1. Birth control pills: If you have recurring ovarian cysts, the doctor may specify an oral contraceptive to stop ovulation and prevention for the development of new cysts. Oral contraceptives can also decrease your possibilities of ovarian cancer. The possibility of ovarian cancer is higher in postmenopausal women.
  2. Laparoscopy: If your cyst is small in size and results from an imaging test to rule out cancer, the doctor can perform a laparoscopy to surgically remove the cysts. The method involves your doctor making a small incision close to your navel and then implanting a small instrument into your abdomen to remove the cyst.
  3. Laparotomy: If you contain a large cyst, your doctor can surgically remove the cyst through a large incision in your abdomen. apart from this, they will conduct an urgent biopsy, and if they determine that the cyst is cancerous, they may perform a hysterectomy to remove your ovaries and uterus.

Home remedies for Ovarian Cysts:

  • Utilize over-the-counter painkillers
  • Take a bath with Epsom salts
  • Apply heat therapy
  • Drink chamomile tea
  • Take dong quai supplements
  • Snack on almonds
  • Drink ginger tea
  • Adjust your diet
  • Consider black cohosh supplements

What to Eat in Ovarian Cysts?

Foods to eat in Ovarian Cysts include:

  • High-fibre foods
  • Omega-3 containing foods
  • Lean protein foods
  • Foods rich in I3C
  • Magnesium-rich foods

What not to eat in Ovarian Cysts?

Foods to avoid in Ovarian Cysts include:

  • Fried foods
  • Alcohol
  • Red meats
  • Refined-sugar rich foods
  • Caffeine

Which doctor should you consult for Ovarian Cysts?

You should consult a Gynecologist or an OBGYN doctor for Ovarian Cysts. They primarily focus on reproductive health in women.

Which are the best medicines for Ovarian Cysts?

Ovarian cysts are treated with narcotic analgesics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including acetaminophen (Tylenol), naproxen (Aleve), and ibuprofen (Advil).

How long does it take to recover from Ovarian Cysts?

Recovery after ovarian cyst removal may take about 12 weeks. You can continue your regular and daily activities after that. However, you can feel little pain for some days after the treatment.

Are the results of the treatment permanent?

No, the treatment's effects are not irreversible. Some people may experience recurrent ovarian cysts. The risk factors for the recurrence of ovarian cysts include preoperative pain, age, dysmenorrhea, larger cyst size and preoperative cyst rupture.

Who is eligible for Ovarian Cysts treatment?

People with large or persistent ovarian cysts or cysts causing symptoms are eligible for the treatment. Usually, surgery is needed for these cysts.

Who is not eligible for Ovarian Cysts treatment?

People with functional ovarian cysts can go away on their own. They don't require any special treatment as a result.

What are the post-treatment guidelines for Ovarian Cysts?

Treatment of ovarian cysts depends on various factors, such as the size and type of cyst, the woman's age and general well being, future pregnancy intentions of the patient. The earlier these cysts are observed, the less difficult the treatment would be. In some cases, the ovarian cysts do not require any treatment. In a postmenopausal patient, a repeated simple cyst smaller than 10 cm in size, along with the presence of a normal CA125 value may be followed with serial ultrasonographic examinations. If the cysts are less than 5 cm in size, no further investigation is required and there is no risk. If the size is 5-7 cm, these ovarian cysts detected in premenopausal women are functional and most of the functional cysts will have resolved within 2 months. Therefore, an ultrasound should be repeated at 6 months, with CA 125 only if a cyst is still there. CA 125 is not required at present. Non-functional benign cysts usually remain unchanged.

What is the price of Ovarian Cysts treatments in India?

The cost of Ovarian Cysts treatment depends upon various factors. However, the estimated price is between Rs. 40,000 to Rs. 1,00,000.

What are the Side effects of Ovarian Cysts treatment ?

Most ovarian cysts are benign and go away on their own without the proper treatment. These cysts cause little if any, symptoms. But in some cases, doctors may discover a cancerous cystic ovarian mass during a periodic examination.

Ruptured cysts, can cause intense pain and bleeds internally. This complication the risk of an infection and can be very dangerous if not treated.

Ovarian torsion is another severe complexity of the ovarian cysts treatment. This is when a large cyst causes an ovary to twist or move from its own original state. Blood supply to the ovary is cut off, and if not treated, it can cause injury or death to the ovarian tissue. apart from this, exceptional, ovarian torsion reports for nearly 3 percent of emergency gynecologic surgeries.

Conclusion

On an ovary, fluid-filled sacs called ovarian cysts can form. Ovarian cysts typically do not cause any symptoms and might disappear on their own. Symptoms of ovarian cysts include painful sex, pelvic pain, bloating, inflammation, lower back pain, nausea and vomiting. Functional cysts and other cysts unrelated to menstrual cycles are the different types of cysts. Treatment alternatives for ovarian cysts include medications, laparoscopy and laparotomy.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Who is affected by ovarian cysts?

Women with hormonal problems, pregnancy issues or pelvic infections are mostly affected by ovarian cysts.

Are ovarian cysts serious?

Ovarian cysts typically pose no risk and can disappear on their own.

What does it feel like when you have a cyst on your ovary?

You will experience pelvic pain, bloating and fullness if you have ovarian cysts.

Can you gain weight with an ovarian cyst?

Yes, Ovarian cysts can cause weight gain.

References

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Written ByDr. Irina DeyMBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery,Diploma In Gynaecology & Obstetrics,DGO,DNB - Obstetrics & GynecologyGynaecology
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