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Overview

Azithromycin

Prescription vs.OTC: Prescription by Doctor required

Azithromycin belongs to a group of Macrolide Antibiotics useful for treating numerous infections caused by bacteria like middle ear infections, traveler's diarrhea. Along with other medications, it is sometimes used for malaria. It is also used to treat a number of intestinal infections and sexually transmitted infections including gonorrhea and chlamydia. Administration of the medicine takes place either by mouth or intravenously with doses once per day.

You should not use Azithromycin without consulting a doctor if you :

  • have suffered from allergy, jaundice or other liver problems caused by taking azithromycin or other similar drugs such as clarithromycin and erythromycin sometime in the past; or
  • have myasthenia gravis, a heart rhythm disorder or a history of long QT syndrome(Long QT syndrome refers to a heart rhythm disorder that can potentially cause rapid heartbeats, irregular heart rhythms and even dealth).
  • Few common side effects of this medicine include nausea, vomiting, stomach upset and diarrhoea. An allergic reaction can be caused by Clostridium difficile. It?s usage is mostly considered to be safe even during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Azithromycin is an azalide so it works by putting an end to bacterial growth by cutting down protein synthesis entirely.

    Your dosage and how often you take the medicine will depend on your age, the condition being treated and its severity, other medical conditions and how you react to the first doze. Azithromycin is a prescription drug and its available as an oral tablet, oral suspension, eye drop, intravenous form that a healthcare provider cam give. Treatment from Azithromycin is short term and it becomes very risky if not taken as prescribed.

Community acquired pneumonia
Azithromycin is used to treat community-acquired Pneumonia which is the most common type of Pneumonia. The most common symptoms include cough, fever with chills and difficulty in breathing.
Ear Infection (Otitis Media)
Azithromycin is used to treat Otitis Media which is an ear infection. The most common symptoms include headache, ear pain, ringing ear and loss of balance.
Pharyngitis/Tonsillitis
Azithromycin is used to treat sore throat or Pharyngitis (an inflammation of the throat caused by bacteria or smoking). The most common symptoms include cough, running nose, difficulty in swallowing and fever with chills.
Skin and soft tissue infections
Azithromycin is used to treat skin and soft tissue infections caused by bacteria. Fever with chills, redness around hair follicles, yellowish rash and muscle pain are the most common symptoms.
Hypersensitivity
Avoid, if you have a known allergy to Azithromycin.
Liver damage
Avoid, if you are suffering from any liver disease.
In addition to its intended effect, Azithromycin may cause some unwanted effects too. In such cases, you must seek medical attention immediately. This is not an exhaustive list of side effects. Please inform your doctor if you experience any adverse reaction to the medication.
Diarrhea Major Common
Contact your doctor if you have this symptom
Dry or scaly skin Major Less Common
Contact your doctor if you have this symptom
Abdominal Pain Major Less Common
Contact your doctor if you have this symptom
Difficult or painful urination Major Rare
Contact your doctor if you have this symptom
Vomiting Major Rare
Contact your doctor if you have this symptom
Fever Major Rare
Contact your doctor if you have this symptom
Acid or sour stomach Minor Rare
Contact your doctor if you have this symptom
Aggression or anger Minor Rare
Contact your doctor if you have this symptom
Excessive air or gas in stomach Minor Rare
Contact your doctor if you have this symptom
Heartburn Minor Rare
Contact your doctor if you have this symptom
How long is the duration of effect?
The effect of this medicine lasts for an average duration of 2 to 4 days.
What is the onset of action?
The effect of this medicine can be observed within 2 to 3 hours of dose administration.
Are there any pregnancy warnings?
Use of this medicine is not recommended in pregnant women.
Is it habit forming?
No habit forming tendency has been reported.
Are there any breast-feeding warnings?
As low levels of this medicine is excreted through human breast milk monitoring of possible side effects like Diarrhoea, Candidiasis is necessary.
Missed Dose instructions
The missed dose should be taken as soon possible. It is advisable to skip the missed dose if it's already time for your next scheduled dose.
Overdose instructions
Seek emergency medical attention or contact your doctor in case of over dose.
India
United States
Japan
Whenever you take more than one medicine, or mix it with certain foods or beverages, you're at risk of a drug interaction.
Interaction with Disease
QT Prolongation Major
Inform your doctor if you have arrhythmia, any heart disease or drugs that prolong QT interval such as psychiatric drugs, anti-arrhythmic drugs.
Liver Disease Moderate
Inform your doctor if you have any liver disease and drugs that cause liver damage (Eg: TB drugs, HIV drugs).
Myasthenia Gravis Moderate
Inform your doctor if you are suffering from thyroid disease or Myasthenia Gravis (Double vision, drooping of eyelids, difficulty in swallowing, unsteady walk). You are also at risk if you are taking any medicines that cause Myasthenia Gravis (Eg: D-Penicillamine, Fluoroquinolones etc).
Interaction with Alcohol
Alcohol
Interaction with alcohol is unknown. It is advisable to consult your doctor before consumption.
Interaction with Lab Test
Lab
Information not available.
Interaction with Food
Food
Information not available.
Interaction with Medicine
Atorvastatin Moderate
Contact your doctor if you have dark colored urine, muscle pain, tenderness, or weakness.
Amiodarone Major
Contact your doctor if you have lightheadedness, fainting, shortness of breath. Usage of other medicines should be reported to the doctor.
Pimozide Major
Contact your doctor if you notice irregular heartbeat, nausea, tightness in the chest or blurred vision. Also, inform your doctor about all your medications.
Aluminium Hydroxide/Magnesium Hydroxide Moderate
Take Azithromycin at least 1 hour before or 2 hours after Azithromycin. Usage of other medicines should be reported to the doctor.

Popular Questions & Answers

One of my nostrils gets blocked at night from last 3 months. From a few days I am having itchy throat and slight pain in left ear. My throat and mouth gets dry. Please suggest some remedy. I already took azithromycin 500 few days back.

Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS), MD - Physiology
Ayurveda, Pune
One of my nostrils gets blocked at night from last 3 months. From a few days I am having itchy throat and slight pain...
You seem to have sinisitis. Apply a warm paste of dry ginger powder (take 1/2 tsp of dry ginger in a big spoon and add 2 tsp of water to it and heat it over the flame till it becomes a paste. Apply this warm paste over the nose, cheeks and forehead) remove with warm water after 20 minutes. This might sting a bit. But do it daily. It will reduce the swelling inside your sinuses. If you take ayurvedic medicines along with this it will help you better. Kindly consult privately for medications.
1 person found this helpful

I have severe cough from 3 weeks. Not relieved by azithromycin, cetrizine,montelukast, serratiopeptidase,cough syrups. please help me doctor.

MBBS, MD TUBERCULOSIS AND CHEST DISEASES, Diploma in Tuberculosis & Chest Diseases, Diploma in Tropical Medicine Health
Pulmonologist, Kolkata
The predominant cause of cough in your case is ASTHMA. Wear face mask when going outdoors. Avoid irritants, allergens, pets,smoke. No cough syrups will ever help you. Consult a Pulmonologist who'll guide you with the treatment regime. On taking inhaler medicines meticulously and continuously you'll get complete relief. Adherence is the key. Wish you good health.

I engaged in oral sex a few days back. Now I have oral infection. There are white patches in my throat. I have fever and chills and sometimes I feel tiredness in my legs. I have to wait for sometime while urinating. I took moxikind 650 mg and combiflam but no use. I started azithromycin 500 mg antibiotic now. How to cure?

BASM, MD, MS (Counseling & Psychotherapy), MSc - Psychology, Certificate in Clinical psychology of children and Young People, Certificate in Psychological First Aid, Certificate in Positive Psychology, Positive Psychiatry and Mental Health
Psychologist, Palakkad
I engaged in oral sex a few days back. Now I have oral infection. There are white patches in my throat. I have fever ...
Symptoms depend on the type of STD contracted. Oral gonorrhea, as described by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), is also called pharyngeal gonorrhea because it typically affects the pharynx. Symptoms that could indicate an oral STD include: Sores in the mouth, which may be painless.

4 days ago I went to barber to cut my my hair, I got a bit of cough (wet) starting from that night, took azithromycin 500. After 2 days, I felt a bit of fever, took 1 paracetamol. Yesterday I got lose motion. Can it be something caused by the shaving blade barber used?

DHMS (Hons.)
Homeopath, Patna
Hello, Cough might associate with fever irrespective of barbers natural action. Tk, plenty of water. Go for meditation to nourish your air pipe to relieve cough problem. Avoid, junkfood, nicotine, dust. Tk, homoeopathic medicine:@ Rhus tox 200-6 pills, twice. Tk, care.
1 person found this helpful

Popular Health Tips

All About Typhoid Fever!

MBBS
General Physician, Chittorgarh

What is typhoid fever?
Typhoid fever or enteric fever is a digestive tract infection in which there is fever, headache, and abdominal pain or discomfort. It is very common in developing countries like india.

What are the causes and risk factors?
Typhoid fever is caused by a bacterium called salmonella typhi which is transmitted through contaminated water or food (feco-oral or urine-oral route).

Risk factors include:

  • Travelling to areas where typhoid fever is a common disease.
  • Being in a profession where contamination with bacteria is likely. Like those working in laboratories.
  • Coming in close contact with a person suffering from typhoid.
  • Drinking/ eating contaminated water or food.

How will you know if you have typhoid fever?
Signs and symptoms develop gradually over the period of 10-14 days after exposure to the bacteria.
Signs and symptoms include an irregular fever that can go up to 104.9 ?f (40.5 ?c), headache, pain in abdomen, tiredness, muscle pain, loss of appetite, nausea, constipation or diarrhoea, skin rash.

How is typhoid fever diagnosed?
Your doctor will do a physical examination and carry out some tests.
Physical findings in early stages include abdominal tenderness, enlarged spleen and liver, enlarged lymph nodes, and development of a rash (also known as rose spots because of their appearance).

Investigations include:

  • Blood tests: typhidot test igm and igg antibodies, blood culture to test for salmonella typhi.
  • Stool and urine analysis
  • Bone marrow culture: it is the most sensitive test, but it is rarely required except in patients who have already received antibiotics and not getting any better.
  • Widal antigen test: this test can be done, but there is a longer waiting phase of about 10 days till results can be seen, it is time-consuming and could give false positive results.

What is the treatment for typhoid fever?

  • Antibiotics are the only effective treatment option for typhoid fever.
  • Due to increased resistance to ciprofloxacin the new drugs of choice are azithromycin and ceftriaxone.
  • In some cases, chloramphenicol, co-trimoxazole and amoxicillin may also be effective.
  • Fluid intake should be increased to prevent dehydration.

What are the complications of typhoid fever?
If not treated and sometimes even after treatment, there can be serious complications due to typhoid like pneumonia, meningitis (inflammation of meninges of brain), infection in bones (osteomyelitis), intestinal perforation and intestinal haemorrhage.

A doctor needs to be consulted if a person starts developing the symptoms few days after travelling to a place where typhoid is prevalent.

How can typhoid fever be prevented?

  • Typhoid fever can be prevented by improving sanitation facilities and drinking clean drinking water.
  • Always wash your hands with soap and warm water after using restrooms, before eating or cooking food.
  • Maintaining optimum personal hygiene is the key to preventing this disease.
  • Travellers should not drink untreated water; avoid adding ice to their drinks and should not eat ice creams or milk products or street foods that are a rich source of the infection.
  • Vaccines are available that give partial protection. Vaccines usually are reserved for those who may be exposed to the disease or are travelling to areas where typhoid fever is common.
8 people found this helpful

Mycobacterium Avium Complex

MBBS, D.P.H
General Physician, Gurgaon
Mycobacterium Avium Complex

MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX

  • Caused by Bacteria M. avium "M.A.C." / M. intrracelulare "M.A.I"

  • MAC is a AIDS-defining condition.
  • MAC is common in persons having CD4 count <50 cell/mm.
  • Respiratory symptoms are not common in HIV -related MAC.
  • Mycobacterium avium complex or M. kansasii  dessiminated  or extramulmonary, almost any internal organ especially the Liver, Spleen, and Bone marrow
  • SYMPTOMS

  •  Night sweats

  • Fever
  • Weight loss
  • Diarrhoea
  • Low level of red and white blood cells.
  • High blood level of liver enzyme ( alkaline phosphatase)
  • Painful intestines.
  • Almost half of those with late -stage HIV disease (AIDS) are infected with the MAC bacteria, not all of those show symptoms of MAC.
  • Elevated alkaline phosphatase levels in blood tests can indicate MAC.
  • TREATMENT:

  • As advised by consulting physician  ( Clarithomycin, Azithromycin, Etambutol , Rifampin, Rifabutin, Ciprofloxacin, Amikacin

5 people found this helpful

Sinusitis: Management and Prevention

MBBS, Fellowship In Endocrinology
Endocrinologist, Tumkur
Sinusitis: Management and Prevention

Sinusitis: Management and Prevention

Sinusitis is infl ammation of the mucous membranes lining one or more of the paranasal sinuses. The various presentations are as folllows:
? acute sinusitis: infection lasting less than 30 days, with complete resolution of symptoms
? subacute infection: lasts from 30 to 90 days, with complete resolution of symptoms
? recurrent acute infection: episodes of acute infection lasting less than 30 days, with resolution of symptoms, which

Recur at intervals of at least 10 days apart
? chronic sinusitis: infl ammation lasting more than 90 days, with persistent upper respiratory symptoms
? acute bacterial sinusitis superimposed on chronic sinusitis:

New symptoms that occur in patients with residual symptoms from prior infection (s). With treatment, the new symptoms resolve but the residual ones do not.
Physical findings and clinical presentation
? patients often give a history of a recent upper respiratory illness with some improvement, then a relapse.
? mucopurulent secretions in the nasal passage
? purulent nasal and postnasal discharge lasting more than 7 to 10 days
? facial tightness, pressure, or pain
? nasal obstruction
? headache
? decreased sense of smell
? purulent pharyngeal secretions, brought up with cough, often worse at night
? erythema, swelling, and tenderness over the infected sinus&nbsp;in a small proportion of patients
? diagnosis cannot be excluded by the absence of such findings.
? these fi ndings are not common, and do not correlate with number of positive sinus aspirates.
? intermittent low-grade fever in about one half of adults with acute bacterial sinusitis
? toothache is a common complaint when the maxillary sinus is involved.
? periorbital cellulitis and excessive tearing with ethmoid sinusitis
? orbital extension of infection: chemosis, proptosis, impaired extraocular movements.

Characteristics of acute sinusitis in children with upper respiratory tract infections:
? persistence of symptoms
? cough
? bad breath
? symptoms of chronic sinusitis (may or may not be present)
? nasal or postnasal discharge
? fever
? facial pain or pressure
? headache
? nosocomial sinusitis is typically seen in patients with nasogastric tubes or nasotracheal intubation.

Cause
? each of the four paranasal sinuses is connected to the nasal cavity by narrow tubes (ostia), 1 to 3 mm in diameter; these drain directly into the nose through the turbinates. The sinuses are lined with a ciliated mucous membrane (mucoperiosteum).
? acute viral infection
? infection with the common cold or infl uenza
? mucosal edema and sinus infl ammation
? decreased drainage of thick secretions, obstruction of the sinus ostia
? subsequent entrapment of bacteria

A. Multiplication of bacteria
B. Secondary bacterial infection

Other predisposing factors
? tumors
? polyps
? foreign bodies
? congenital choanal atresia
? other entities that cause obstruction of sinus drainage
? allergies
? asthma
? dental infections lead to maxillary sinusitis.
? viruses recovered alone or in combination with bacteria (in 16% of cases):
? rhinovirus
? coronavirus
? adenovirus
? parainfluenza virus
? respiratory syncytial virus
? the principal bacterial pathogens in sinusitis are streptococcus pneumoniae, nontypeable haemophilus influenzae, and moraxella catarrhalis.
? in the remainder of cases, fi ndings include streptococcus pyogenes, staphylococcus aureus, alpha-hemolytic streptococci, and mixed anaerobic infections (peptostreptococcus, fusobacterium, bacteroides, prevotella).

Infection is polymicrobial in about one third of cases.
? anaerobic infections seen more often in cases of chronic sinusitis and in cases associated with dental infection; anaerobes are unlikely pathogens in sinusitis in children.
? fungal pathogens are isolated with increasing frequency in immunocompromised patients but remain uncommon
Pathogens in the paranasal sinuses. Fungal pathogens include aspergillus, pseudallescheria, sporothrix, phaeohyphomycoses, zygomycetes.
? nosocomial infections occur in patients with nasogastric tubes, nasotracheal intubation, cystic fi brosis, or those who are immunocompromised.
? s. Aureus
? pseudomonas aeruginosa
? klebsiella pneumoniae
? enterobacter spp.
? proteus mirabilis

Organisms typically isolated in chronic sinusitis:
? s. Aureus
? s. Pneumoniae
? h. Infl uenzae
? p. Aeruginosa
? anaerobes

Differential diagnosis
? migraine headache
? cluster headache
? dental infection
? trigeminal neuralgia

Workup
? water’s projection: sinus radiograph
? ct scan
? much more sensitive than plain radiographs in detecting acute changes and disease in the sinuses
? recommended for patients requiring surgical intervention, including sinus aspiration; it is a useful adjunct to
 

Guide therapy:
? transillumination
? used for diagnosis of frontal and maxillary sinusitis
? place transilluminator in the mouth or against cheek to assess maxillary sinuses, and under the medial aspect of the supraorbital ridge to assess frontal sinuses.
? absence of light transmission indicates that sinus is filled with fluid.
? dullness (decreased light transmission) is less helpful in diagnosing infection.
? endoscopy
? used to visualize secretions coming from the ostia of infected sinuses
? culture collection via endoscopy often contaminated by nasal flora; not nearly as good as sinus puncture
? sinus puncture
? gold standard for collecting sinus cultures
? generally reserved for treatment failures, suspected intracranial extension, nosocomial sinusitis.

Treatment Nonpharmacologic therapy
? sinus drainage
? nasal vasoconstrictors, such as phenylephrine nose drops, 0.25% or 0.5%

? topical decongestants should not be used for more than a few days because of the risk of rebound congestion.
? systemic decongestants
? nasal or systemic corticosteroids, such as nasal beclomethasone, short-course oral prednisone
? nasal irrigation, with hypertonic or normal saline (saline may act as a mild vasoconstrictor of nasal blood fl ow)
? use of antihistamines has no proved benefi t, and the drying effect on the mucous membranes may cause crusting,

Which blocks the ostia, thus interfering with sinus drainage.
? analgesics, antipyretics.

Antimicrobial therapy
? most cases of acute sinusitis have a viral cause and will resolve within 2 weeks without antibiotics.
? current treatment recommendations favor symptomatic treatment for those with mild symptoms.
? antibiotics should be reserved for those with moderate to severe symptoms who meet the criteria for diagnosis of

Bacterial sinusitis.

? antibiotic therapy is usually empirical, targeting the common pathogens.
? first-line antibiotics include amoxicillin, tmp-smz.
? second-line antibiotics include clarithromycin, azithromycin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefuroxime axetil, loracarbef, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin.
? for patients with uncomplicated acute sinusitis, the less expensive first-line agents appear to be as effective as the

Costlier second-line agents.

Surgery
? surgical drainage indicated
? if intracranial or orbital complications suspected
? for many cases of frontal and sphenoid sinusitis
? for chronic sinusitis recalcitrant to medical therapy
? surgical débridement imperative for treatment of fungal sinusitis

4 people found this helpful

Symptoms of Chlamydia and Ways to Treat the Disease

M.D.Medicine, Diploma in Diabetology
Sexologist, Jaipur
Symptoms of Chlamydia and Ways to Treat the Disease

One of the most common physically transmitted diseases is chlamydia. Chlamydia is a type of infection caused by the bacteria "Chlamydia trachomatis". The symptoms of Chlamydia are similar to the symptoms of Gonorrhoea (a bacterial sexually transmitted infection). Chlamydia infection causes permanent fallopian tube damage in women, leads to future ectopic pregnancy (the fertilised egg attaches itself outside the uterus) and infertility.

Symptoms of Chlamydia:
Men and women afflicted with chlamydia exhibit different symptoms.

The symptoms of chlamydia in women include:

  1. Abnormal, sometimes foul-smelling, vaginal discharge
  2. Bleeding between menstrual cycles
  3. Painful periods
  4. Abdominal pain, accompanied with fever
  5. Pain during intercourse
  6. Burning or itching around or in the vagina
  7. Painful urination

Men usually display the following symptoms if they have chlamydia:

  1. Minimal amounts of cloudy or clear discharge from the head of the penis
  2. Painful urination
  3. Itching and burning around the slit of the penis
  4. Swollen and painful testicles

Treatment options available:

  1. Chlamydia is diagnosed by taking a swab from the cervix (in women) or the urethra (in men). These swabs will be sent to the laboratory for analysis. Urine samples can also be taken to check for the appearance of bacteria.
  2. Since chlamydia is a bacterial infection, it can be easily treated with antibiotics. Oral antibiotics such as azithromycin or doxycycline are commonly prescribed by doctors. Azithromycin is usually prescribed in a large, single dose. The dose may also be stretched out for five days. Doxycycline is taken two times daily for a week.
  3. With the right antibiotic therapy, the infection will clear up in 1 to 2 weeks approximately. It is very important that you finish the medication course if you wish you heal completely without having to suffer from further bouts of this disorder.
  4. Women with critical chlamydia may need hospitalisation, pain medicine and IV (intravenous, or directly through the vein) antibiotics. Pregnant women with chlamydia infection can be safely cured with antibiotic such as erythromycin ethylsuccinate, amoxicillin and azithromycin.

Your partner needs testing and treatment as well to avoid further spread and reinfection. It is vital not to engage in any sexual activity while the treatment is ongoing. A further retest should be done three months later to make sure the infection is rectified. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.

7414 people found this helpful

All You Want To Know About Pinta

Diploma in Dermatologist, Venereologist and Laparoscopy , MBBS
Dermatologist, Rewari
All You Want To Know About Pinta

Pinta is a skin disease caused by a bacterial infection. It is usually acquired during childhood and contracted through the skin to skin contact with an infected person. The disease is endemic to Mexico, Central America and South America. About One million of cases with Pinta were reported in Central and South America in the year 1950. The disease sets in within an incubation period of two to three weeks. It affects mostly the exposed areas of the skin including the arms, legs and face. The word ‘Pinta’ is a Spanish word which means ‘painted’. Pinta is classified under a treponemal disease because it is contagious and is caused by treponemes, a genus of spiral-shaped bacteria. Recent reports suggest the occurrence of disease in the Philippines and some areas of the pacific region.

The bacterium enters the skin through a cut, scratch or a lesion and causes a red scaly bump called the primary lesion. Other lesions may start to form surrounding the primary lesion usually in exposed surface of arms and legs. Local lymph nodes also become enlarged. Within three to nine months, these thick flat lesions called pintados spread all over the body. Sometimes the disease spreads to eyes causing eyelid deformities. The last stage of the disease is characterised by pigment changes in the skin including a combination of hyperpigmentation and depigmentation causing permanent discoloration. However, many patients get treated successfully before they reach the last stage.

Clinical Diagnosis of the infection is usually done through a blood sample showing bacterial infection or through diagnosing the scrapings of the lesion. The patient is subjected to an antibiotic treatment of drugs like penicillin, tetracycline, azithromycin and chloramphenicol. If prescribed dose of antibiotics is followed regularly, the cure is possible, however, skin damage caused due to lesions remain irreversible.

The disease is prevalent in rural and poverty-stricken areas and thus holds a strong connect with the socio-economic life of people. The living conditions, adequate water supply, domestic, personal and community hygiene, a proper waste disposal system and mosquito prevention and control play an important role in the prevention of the disease.

Prevention and control programs for Pinta must focus on awareness generation among high-risk groups. Though community hygiene is covered under many state health programs, for many communities, personal hygiene and the safe domestic environment remains far from satisfactory. Thus, first and foremost intervention must include building knowledge about maintaining proper hygiene and inculcating good habits for health and disease prevention. Since the disease is generally acquired in childhood, educating the parents about the early signs and symptoms of infection can also go a long way in ensuring that timely medical help is provided. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.

2590 people found this helpful