Azithromycin belongs to a group of Macrolide Antibiotics useful for treating numerous infections caused by bacteria like middle ear infections, traveler's diarrhea. Along with other medications, it is sometimes used for malaria. It is also used to treat a number of intestinal infections and sexually transmitted infections including gonorrhea and chlamydia. Administration of the medicine takes place either by mouth or intravenously with doses once per day.
You should not use Azithromycin without consulting a doctor if you :
Few common side effects of this medicine include nausea, vomiting, stomach upset and diarrhoea. An allergic reaction can be caused by Clostridium difficile. It?s usage is mostly considered to be safe even during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Azithromycin is an azalide so it works by putting an end to bacterial growth by cutting down protein synthesis entirely.
Your dosage and how often you take the medicine will depend on your age, the condition being treated and its severity, other medical conditions and how you react to the first doze. Azithromycin is a prescription drug and its available as an oral tablet, oral suspension, eye drop, intravenous form that a healthcare provider cam give. Treatment from Azithromycin is short term and it becomes very risky if not taken as prescribed.
What is typhoid fever?
Typhoid fever or enteric fever is a digestive tract infection in which there is fever, headache, and abdominal pain or discomfort. It is very common in developing countries like india.
What are the causes and risk factors?
Typhoid fever is caused by a bacterium called salmonella typhi which is transmitted through contaminated water or food (feco-oral or urine-oral route).
Risk factors include:
How will you know if you have typhoid fever?
Signs and symptoms develop gradually over the period of 10-14 days after exposure to the bacteria.
Signs and symptoms include an irregular fever that can go up to 104.9 ?f (40.5 ?c), headache, pain in abdomen, tiredness, muscle pain, loss of appetite, nausea, constipation or diarrhoea, skin rash.
How is typhoid fever diagnosed?
Your doctor will do a physical examination and carry out some tests.
Physical findings in early stages include abdominal tenderness, enlarged spleen and liver, enlarged lymph nodes, and development of a rash (also known as rose spots because of their appearance).
What is the treatment for typhoid fever?
What are the complications of typhoid fever?
If not treated and sometimes even after treatment, there can be serious complications due to typhoid like pneumonia, meningitis (inflammation of meninges of brain), infection in bones (osteomyelitis), intestinal perforation and intestinal haemorrhage.
A doctor needs to be consulted if a person starts developing the symptoms few days after travelling to a place where typhoid is prevalent.
How can typhoid fever be prevented?
Caused by Bacteria M. avium "M.A.C." / M. intrracelulare "M.A.I"
As advised by consulting physician ( Clarithomycin, Azithromycin, Etambutol , Rifampin, Rifabutin, Ciprofloxacin, Amikacin
Sinusitis: Management and Prevention
Sinusitis is infl ammation of the mucous membranes lining one or more of the paranasal sinuses. The various presentations are as folllows:
? acute sinusitis: infection lasting less than 30 days, with complete resolution of symptoms
? subacute infection: lasts from 30 to 90 days, with complete resolution of symptoms
? recurrent acute infection: episodes of acute infection lasting less than 30 days, with resolution of symptoms, which
Recur at intervals of at least 10 days apart
? chronic sinusitis: infl ammation lasting more than 90 days, with persistent upper respiratory symptoms
? acute bacterial sinusitis superimposed on chronic sinusitis:
New symptoms that occur in patients with residual symptoms from prior infection (s). With treatment, the new symptoms resolve but the residual ones do not.
Physical findings and clinical presentation
? patients often give a history of a recent upper respiratory illness with some improvement, then a relapse.
? mucopurulent secretions in the nasal passage
? purulent nasal and postnasal discharge lasting more than 7 to 10 days
? facial tightness, pressure, or pain
? nasal obstruction
? decreased sense of smell
? purulent pharyngeal secretions, brought up with cough, often worse at night
? erythema, swelling, and tenderness over the infected sinus in a small proportion of patients
? diagnosis cannot be excluded by the absence of such findings.
? these fi ndings are not common, and do not correlate with number of positive sinus aspirates.
? intermittent low-grade fever in about one half of adults with acute bacterial sinusitis
? toothache is a common complaint when the maxillary sinus is involved.
? periorbital cellulitis and excessive tearing with ethmoid sinusitis
? orbital extension of infection: chemosis, proptosis, impaired extraocular movements.
Characteristics of acute sinusitis in children with upper respiratory tract infections:
? persistence of symptoms
? bad breath
? symptoms of chronic sinusitis (may or may not be present)
? nasal or postnasal discharge
? facial pain or pressure
? nosocomial sinusitis is typically seen in patients with nasogastric tubes or nasotracheal intubation.
? each of the four paranasal sinuses is connected to the nasal cavity by narrow tubes (ostia), 1 to 3 mm in diameter; these drain directly into the nose through the turbinates. The sinuses are lined with a ciliated mucous membrane (mucoperiosteum).
? acute viral infection
? infection with the common cold or infl uenza
? mucosal edema and sinus infl ammation
? decreased drainage of thick secretions, obstruction of the sinus ostia
? subsequent entrapment of bacteria
A. Multiplication of bacteria
B. Secondary bacterial infection
Other predisposing factors
? foreign bodies
? congenital choanal atresia
? other entities that cause obstruction of sinus drainage
? dental infections lead to maxillary sinusitis.
? viruses recovered alone or in combination with bacteria (in 16% of cases):
? parainfluenza virus
? respiratory syncytial virus
? the principal bacterial pathogens in sinusitis are streptococcus pneumoniae, nontypeable haemophilus influenzae, and moraxella catarrhalis.
? in the remainder of cases, fi ndings include streptococcus pyogenes, staphylococcus aureus, alpha-hemolytic streptococci, and mixed anaerobic infections (peptostreptococcus, fusobacterium, bacteroides, prevotella).
Infection is polymicrobial in about one third of cases.
? anaerobic infections seen more often in cases of chronic sinusitis and in cases associated with dental infection; anaerobes are unlikely pathogens in sinusitis in children.
? fungal pathogens are isolated with increasing frequency in immunocompromised patients but remain uncommon
Pathogens in the paranasal sinuses. Fungal pathogens include aspergillus, pseudallescheria, sporothrix, phaeohyphomycoses, zygomycetes.
? nosocomial infections occur in patients with nasogastric tubes, nasotracheal intubation, cystic fi brosis, or those who are immunocompromised.
? s. Aureus
? pseudomonas aeruginosa
? klebsiella pneumoniae
? enterobacter spp.
? proteus mirabilis
Organisms typically isolated in chronic sinusitis:
? s. Aureus
? s. Pneumoniae
? h. Infl uenzae
? p. Aeruginosa
? migraine headache
? cluster headache
? dental infection
? trigeminal neuralgia
? water’s projection: sinus radiograph
? ct scan
? much more sensitive than plain radiographs in detecting acute changes and disease in the sinuses
? recommended for patients requiring surgical intervention, including sinus aspiration; it is a useful adjunct to
? used for diagnosis of frontal and maxillary sinusitis
? place transilluminator in the mouth or against cheek to assess maxillary sinuses, and under the medial aspect of the supraorbital ridge to assess frontal sinuses.
? absence of light transmission indicates that sinus is filled with fluid.
? dullness (decreased light transmission) is less helpful in diagnosing infection.
? used to visualize secretions coming from the ostia of infected sinuses
? culture collection via endoscopy often contaminated by nasal flora; not nearly as good as sinus puncture
? sinus puncture
? gold standard for collecting sinus cultures
? generally reserved for treatment failures, suspected intracranial extension, nosocomial sinusitis.
Treatment Nonpharmacologic therapy
? sinus drainage
? nasal vasoconstrictors, such as phenylephrine nose drops, 0.25% or 0.5%
? topical decongestants should not be used for more than a few days because of the risk of rebound congestion.
? systemic decongestants
? nasal or systemic corticosteroids, such as nasal beclomethasone, short-course oral prednisone
? nasal irrigation, with hypertonic or normal saline (saline may act as a mild vasoconstrictor of nasal blood fl ow)
? use of antihistamines has no proved benefi t, and the drying effect on the mucous membranes may cause crusting,
Which blocks the ostia, thus interfering with sinus drainage.
? analgesics, antipyretics.
? most cases of acute sinusitis have a viral cause and will resolve within 2 weeks without antibiotics.
? current treatment recommendations favor symptomatic treatment for those with mild symptoms.
? antibiotics should be reserved for those with moderate to severe symptoms who meet the criteria for diagnosis of
? antibiotic therapy is usually empirical, targeting the common pathogens.
? first-line antibiotics include amoxicillin, tmp-smz.
? second-line antibiotics include clarithromycin, azithromycin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefuroxime axetil, loracarbef, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin.
? for patients with uncomplicated acute sinusitis, the less expensive first-line agents appear to be as effective as the
Costlier second-line agents.
? surgical drainage indicated
? if intracranial or orbital complications suspected
? for many cases of frontal and sphenoid sinusitis
? for chronic sinusitis recalcitrant to medical therapy
? surgical débridement imperative for treatment of fungal sinusitis
One of the most common physically transmitted diseases is chlamydia. Chlamydia is a type of infection caused by the bacteria "Chlamydia trachomatis". The symptoms of Chlamydia are similar to the symptoms of Gonorrhoea (a bacterial sexually transmitted infection). Chlamydia infection causes permanent fallopian tube damage in women, leads to future ectopic pregnancy (the fertilised egg attaches itself outside the uterus) and infertility.
Symptoms of Chlamydia:
Men and women afflicted with chlamydia exhibit different symptoms.
The symptoms of chlamydia in women include:
Men usually display the following symptoms if they have chlamydia:
Treatment options available:
Your partner needs testing and treatment as well to avoid further spread and reinfection. It is vital not to engage in any sexual activity while the treatment is ongoing. A further retest should be done three months later to make sure the infection is rectified. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.
Pinta is a skin disease caused by a bacterial infection. It is usually acquired during childhood and contracted through the skin to skin contact with an infected person. The disease is endemic to Mexico, Central America and South America. About One million of cases with Pinta were reported in Central and South America in the year 1950. The disease sets in within an incubation period of two to three weeks. It affects mostly the exposed areas of the skin including the arms, legs and face. The word ‘Pinta’ is a Spanish word which means ‘painted’. Pinta is classified under a treponemal disease because it is contagious and is caused by treponemes, a genus of spiral-shaped bacteria. Recent reports suggest the occurrence of disease in the Philippines and some areas of the pacific region.
The bacterium enters the skin through a cut, scratch or a lesion and causes a red scaly bump called the primary lesion. Other lesions may start to form surrounding the primary lesion usually in exposed surface of arms and legs. Local lymph nodes also become enlarged. Within three to nine months, these thick flat lesions called pintados spread all over the body. Sometimes the disease spreads to eyes causing eyelid deformities. The last stage of the disease is characterised by pigment changes in the skin including a combination of hyperpigmentation and depigmentation causing permanent discoloration. However, many patients get treated successfully before they reach the last stage.
Clinical Diagnosis of the infection is usually done through a blood sample showing bacterial infection or through diagnosing the scrapings of the lesion. The patient is subjected to an antibiotic treatment of drugs like penicillin, tetracycline, azithromycin and chloramphenicol. If prescribed dose of antibiotics is followed regularly, the cure is possible, however, skin damage caused due to lesions remain irreversible.
The disease is prevalent in rural and poverty-stricken areas and thus holds a strong connect with the socio-economic life of people. The living conditions, adequate water supply, domestic, personal and community hygiene, a proper waste disposal system and mosquito prevention and control play an important role in the prevention of the disease.
Prevention and control programs for Pinta must focus on awareness generation among high-risk groups. Though community hygiene is covered under many state health programs, for many communities, personal hygiene and the safe domestic environment remains far from satisfactory. Thus, first and foremost intervention must include building knowledge about maintaining proper hygiene and inculcating good habits for health and disease prevention. Since the disease is generally acquired in childhood, educating the parents about the early signs and symptoms of infection can also go a long way in ensuring that timely medical help is provided. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.