Azithromycin belongs to a group of Macrolide Antibiotics useful for treating numerous infections caused by bacteria like middle ear infections, traveler's diarrhea. Along with other medications, it is sometimes used for malaria. It is also used to treat a number of intestinal infections and sexually transmitted infections including gonorrhea and chlamydia. Administration of the medicine takes place either by mouth or intravenously with doses once per day.
You should not use Azithromycin without consulting a doctor if you :
Few common side effects of this medicine include nausea, vomiting, stomach upset and diarrhoea. An allergic reaction can be caused by Clostridium difficile. It?s usage is mostly considered to be safe even during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Azithromycin is an azalide so it works by putting an end to bacterial growth by cutting down protein synthesis entirely.
Your dosage and how often you take the medicine will depend on your age, the condition being treated and its severity, other medical conditions and how you react to the first doze. Azithromycin is a prescription drug and its available as an oral tablet, oral suspension, eye drop, intravenous form that a healthcare provider cam give. Treatment from Azithromycin is short term and it becomes very risky if not taken as prescribed.
Gonorrhoea is transmitted infection caused when people come in a physically intimate contact. It can affect both male and female. The most vulnerable organs that are susceptible to gonorrhoea infection include rectum, urethra, and throat. In females, gonorrhoea might affect the cervix as well. Since the infection spreads from having sex, there are wide chances that the baby gets affected too. Although there could be no visible symptoms of gonorrhoea, early detection and treatment increase the chances of a permanent cure.
How does gonorrhoea affect the sexual life?
Once a person gets affected, gonorrhoea may wreak havoc on the sex life of both a male and female. In males, there could be swelling and pain in one testicle leading to difficulty in having sex. Additionally, urination after sex becomes painful. There could be a pus-like discharge from the penis thereby completely obstructing the chances of sex.
In females, there could be abdominal pain during the intercourse. Intercourse itself could be extremely painful. Apart from this, the urination after sex could be very painful. Additionally, there are chances of vaginal discharge after sex. There are high chances of vaginal bleeding after sex followed by itching of the anus. If the bacteria are very active, lymph nodes of the throat getting swollen after oral sex.
The treatment plan for gonorrhoea in adults
Regular consultation with the doctor is necessary till the condition gets cured for good.
Typhoid is as an acute illness commonly characterized by high fever and an impaired digestive system. This illness is caused by the bacterium ‘Salmonella Typhi’ and generally spreads from one person to another by means of food or water.
Causes of typhoid
The symptoms generally appear within 1-3 weeks, after coming in contact with the already infected individual. The ensuing fever and discomfort remains for about 3-4 weeks. The symptoms are:
However, in most of the cases, the symptoms tend to improve from the third week itself.
The following treatments can be implemented in order to cure typhoid fever:
Needs and Indications for Hospitalization-
Hospital admission is usually recommended if you have severe symptoms of typhoid fever, such as persistent vomiting, severe diarrhoea or a swollen stomach. As a precaution, young children who develop typhoid fever may be admitted to hospital. In hospital, you'll have antibiotic injections and you may also be given fluids and nutrients directly into a vein through an intravenous drip. Surgery may be needed if you develop life-threatening complications of typhoid fever, such as internal bleeding or a section of your digestive system splitting. However, this is very rare in people being treated with antibiotics. Most people respond well to hospital treatment and improve within three to five days. However, it may be several weeks until you're well enough to leave hospital.
Two types of vaccines are available
The injected vaccine is more commonly used and is also known as inactivated typhoid shot . It is injected in one single shot an it can easily provide protection against typhoid. This type is widely prevalent in cases where one has to travel to a typhoid infected place. However, one must be careful and should keep a tab as to what they eat or drink at the time of travelling. Also, this type of vaccine should not be administered on kids below 2 years old.
If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor.
What is typhoid fever?
Typhoid fever or enteric fever is a digestive tract infection in which there is fever, headache, and abdominal pain or discomfort. It is very common in developing countries like india.
What are the causes and risk factors?
Typhoid fever is caused by a bacterium called salmonella typhi which is transmitted through contaminated water or food (feco-oral or urine-oral route).
Risk factors include:
How will you know if you have typhoid fever?
Signs and symptoms develop gradually over the period of 10-14 days after exposure to the bacteria.
Signs and symptoms include an irregular fever that can go up to 104.9 ?f (40.5 ?c), headache, pain in abdomen, tiredness, muscle pain, loss of appetite, nausea, constipation or diarrhoea, skin rash.
How is typhoid fever diagnosed?
Your doctor will do a physical examination and carry out some tests.
Physical findings in early stages include abdominal tenderness, enlarged spleen and liver, enlarged lymph nodes, and development of a rash (also known as rose spots because of their appearance).
What is the treatment for typhoid fever?
What are the complications of typhoid fever?
If not treated and sometimes even after treatment, there can be serious complications due to typhoid like pneumonia, meningitis (inflammation of meninges of brain), infection in bones (osteomyelitis), intestinal perforation and intestinal haemorrhage.
A doctor needs to be consulted if a person starts developing the symptoms few days after travelling to a place where typhoid is prevalent.
How can typhoid fever be prevented?
Caused by Bacteria M. avium "M.A.C." / M. intrracelulare "M.A.I"
Sinusitis: Management and Prevention
Sinusitis is infl ammation of the mucous membranes lining one or more of the paranasal sinuses. The various presentations are as folllows:
? acute sinusitis: infection lasting less than 30 days, with complete resolution of symptoms
? subacute infection: lasts from 30 to 90 days, with complete resolution of symptoms
? recurrent acute infection: episodes of acute infection lasting less than 30 days, with resolution of symptoms, which
Recur at intervals of at least 10 days apart
? chronic sinusitis: infl ammation lasting more than 90 days, with persistent upper respiratory symptoms
? acute bacterial sinusitis superimposed on chronic sinusitis:
New symptoms that occur in patients with residual symptoms from prior infection (s). With treatment, the new symptoms resolve but the residual ones do not.
Physical findings and clinical presentation
? patients often give a history of a recent upper respiratory illness with some improvement, then a relapse.
? mucopurulent secretions in the nasal passage
? purulent nasal and postnasal discharge lasting more than 7 to 10 days
? facial tightness, pressure, or pain
? nasal obstruction
? decreased sense of smell
? purulent pharyngeal secretions, brought up with cough, often worse at night
? erythema, swelling, and tenderness over the infected sinus in a small proportion of patients
? diagnosis cannot be excluded by the absence of such findings.
? these fi ndings are not common, and do not correlate with number of positive sinus aspirates.
? intermittent low-grade fever in about one half of adults with acute bacterial sinusitis
? toothache is a common complaint when the maxillary sinus is involved.
? periorbital cellulitis and excessive tearing with ethmoid sinusitis
? orbital extension of infection: chemosis, proptosis, impaired extraocular movements.
Characteristics of acute sinusitis in children with upper respiratory tract infections:
? persistence of symptoms
? bad breath
? symptoms of chronic sinusitis (may or may not be present)
? nasal or postnasal discharge
? facial pain or pressure
? nosocomial sinusitis is typically seen in patients with nasogastric tubes or nasotracheal intubation.
? each of the four paranasal sinuses is connected to the nasal cavity by narrow tubes (ostia), 1 to 3 mm in diameter; these drain directly into the nose through the turbinates. The sinuses are lined with a ciliated mucous membrane (mucoperiosteum).
? acute viral infection
? infection with the common cold or infl uenza
? mucosal edema and sinus infl ammation
? decreased drainage of thick secretions, obstruction of the sinus ostia
? subsequent entrapment of bacteria
A. Multiplication of bacteria
B. Secondary bacterial infection
Other predisposing factors
? foreign bodies
? congenital choanal atresia
? other entities that cause obstruction of sinus drainage
? dental infections lead to maxillary sinusitis.
? viruses recovered alone or in combination with bacteria (in 16% of cases):
? parainfluenza virus
? respiratory syncytial virus
? the principal bacterial pathogens in sinusitis are streptococcus pneumoniae, nontypeable haemophilus influenzae, and moraxella catarrhalis.
? in the remainder of cases, fi ndings include streptococcus pyogenes, staphylococcus aureus, alpha-hemolytic streptococci, and mixed anaerobic infections (peptostreptococcus, fusobacterium, bacteroides, prevotella).
Infection is polymicrobial in about one third of cases.
? anaerobic infections seen more often in cases of chronic sinusitis and in cases associated with dental infection; anaerobes are unlikely pathogens in sinusitis in children.
? fungal pathogens are isolated with increasing frequency in immunocompromised patients but remain uncommon
Pathogens in the paranasal sinuses. Fungal pathogens include aspergillus, pseudallescheria, sporothrix, phaeohyphomycoses, zygomycetes.
? nosocomial infections occur in patients with nasogastric tubes, nasotracheal intubation, cystic fi brosis, or those who are immunocompromised.
? s. Aureus
? pseudomonas aeruginosa
? klebsiella pneumoniae
? enterobacter spp.
? proteus mirabilis
Organisms typically isolated in chronic sinusitis:
? s. Aureus
? s. Pneumoniae
? h. Infl uenzae
? p. Aeruginosa
? water’s projection: sinus radiograph
? ct scan
? much more sensitive than plain radiographs in detecting acute changes and disease in the sinuses
? recommended for patients requiring surgical intervention, including sinus aspiration; it is a useful adjunct to
? used for diagnosis of frontal and maxillary sinusitis
? place transilluminator in the mouth or against cheek to assess maxillary sinuses, and under the medial aspect of the supraorbital ridge to assess frontal sinuses.
? absence of light transmission indicates that sinus is filled with fluid.
? dullness (decreased light transmission) is less helpful in diagnosing infection.
? used to visualize secretions coming from the ostia of infected sinuses
? culture collection via endoscopy often contaminated by nasal flora; not nearly as good as sinus puncture
? sinus puncture
? gold standard for collecting sinus cultures
? generally reserved for treatment failures, suspected intracranial extension, nosocomial sinusitis.
Treatment Nonpharmacologic therapy
? sinus drainage
? nasal vasoconstrictors, such as phenylephrine nose drops, 0.25% or 0.5%
? topical decongestants should not be used for more than a few days because of the risk of rebound congestion.
? systemic decongestants
? nasal or systemic corticosteroids, such as nasal beclomethasone, short-course oral prednisone
? nasal irrigation, with hypertonic or normal saline (saline may act as a mild vasoconstrictor of nasal blood fl ow)
? use of antihistamines has no proved benefi t, and the drying effect on the mucous membranes may cause crusting,
Which blocks the ostia, thus interfering with sinus drainage.
? analgesics, antipyretics.
? most cases of acute sinusitis have a viral cause and will resolve within 2 weeks without antibiotics.
? current treatment recommendations favor symptomatic treatment for those with mild symptoms.
? antibiotics should be reserved for those with moderate to severe symptoms who meet the criteria for diagnosis of
? antibiotic therapy is usually empirical, targeting the common pathogens.
? first-line antibiotics include amoxicillin, tmp-smz.
? second-line antibiotics include clarithromycin, azithromycin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefuroxime axetil, loracarbef, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin.
? for patients with uncomplicated acute sinusitis, the less expensive first-line agents appear to be as effective as the
Costlier second-line agents.
? surgical drainage indicated
? if intracranial or orbital complications suspected
? for many cases of frontal and sphenoid sinusitis
? for chronic sinusitis recalcitrant to medical therapy
? surgical débridement imperative for treatment of fungal sinusitis