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Last Updated: Sep 07, 2020
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Measles - Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatments and Prevention

About Symptoms Mode of transmission Transmission Incubation period Causes Measles in pregnancy Measles in children Diagnosis Treatment Side effects Complications Prevention

What is Measles?

Measles is a highly communicable illness caused by morbillivirus. This virus replicates in the nose or pharynx of an infected child or adult. If an infected person coughs, sneezes or talks, the droplets spread in the air and other people may inhale them.

The infected droplets may also drop onto surfaces where they remain active and contagious for hours. People get infected by touching these surfaces and then putting the infected fingers in their mouth, nose or rubbing their eyes following contact with the surfaces.

Anyone who hasn’t been immunised or hasn’t had the infection in the past can get the infection. It is found that the infection clears in around seven to ten days. Once you have had measles, your body develops resistance and so you don’t really get re-infected. But, it may at times cause serious complications like encephalitis and pneumonia.

What does measles look like?

The measles looks like flat red spots, although raised bumps may present sometimes. If the bumps appear, it doesn’t have any fluid in it. The spots rash may begin to run together as the rash spreads. The virus grows in the cells lining the throat and lungs.

How dangerous is measles?

Measles can be a dangerous illness which may cause death, especially among young and malnourished children.

What are the symptoms of measles?

Measles starts with cold-like symptoms that starts around 10 days after getting infected. This is followed by a rash about a couple of days later. In the majority of patients, the ailment lasts for about seven to nine days.

The initial Symptoms are:

  • Runny or blocked nose
  • Sneezing
  • Watery eyes
  • Puffy eyelids
  • Red and sore eyes that are sensitive to light
  • High grade fever
  • Small greyish-white spots in the mouth
  • Aches and pains
  • Loss of appetite
  • Tiredness, irritability and generalised malaise

After few days you may also experience the following symptoms:

  • Spots in the mouth: Some people develop small greyish-white spots in the mouth a day or two before developing the typical rash. Not everyone gets these spots but if they do develop in addition to other symptoms, they are more diagnostic of the infection. These spots may last for a couple of days before disappearing.
  • Measles rash: These rashes appear in 2 to 3 days after the infection and go away in a week. Measles Rash occurs as flat red-brown spots which can join together to form larger blotchy patches. It generally appears on the head and neck before spreading out to the rest of the body. Itching may be felt by some people. Rash is rare if the person has been immunised. Rashes that appear in measles look similar to roseola or rubella and slapped cheek syndrome.

How long does measles last?

Measles lasts between 10 days to 14 days. After the initial period, you may begin to experience nonspecific symptoms, such as fever, cough, and runny nose. The rash will begin to develop several days later.

What is the mode of transmission for measles?

Measles is highly contagious and spreads through coughing or sneezing. This is because the virus lives in the mucosae of nose and throat. The virus lives for about 2 hours in the atmosphere where an infected patient has sneezed or coughed.

If anyone else inhale the contaminated air or touch the infected surface, then they can also get infected from the virus. Measles is contagious and 90% of the people who are close to an infected individual and not immune to the virus can get infected. Measles is a human infection and is not spread by any animal species.

Is measles airborne?

Measles can be spread through the air in the form of respiratory droplets. An infected person can release the virus into the air when they sneeze or cough. These particles can settle down on the objects and surfaces.

If you become infected, you may have come into contact with contaminated objects like door handles, and then you might have touched your face, nose, or mouth.

The virus can live outside of the body for longer than you may think. In fact, it can remain infectious in the air or on the surface touched by the infected person and can last up to 2 hours.

How is measles transmitted?

Measles is a highly contagious illness and is caused by morbillivirus. The virus replicates in the nose or pharynx of the patient and spreads through coughing or sneezing by an infected person. This disease occurs among poorly nourished children and adults who have a nutritional deficiency of vitamin A.

Women infected with measles while pregnant may also develop complications and may result in stillbirth or miscarriage or even preterm birth. People who develop measles once are usually immune for the rest of their lives.

Is measles contagious?

Yes, measles is a contagious disease. Measles infection can spread very easily from person to person. An infected person is contagious for up to 4 days before the rash appears. After the rash appears, the person is still contagious.

The main risk factor for catching viruses is not known. Young children, people with weak immunity and pregnant women are at higher risk of developing complications from the measles infections.

What is the incubation period for measles?

Around 90% of susceptible individuals who come in contact with someone with the virus, develop the infection. The virus remains active on a surface for about 2 hours where an infected patient has sneezed or coughed. Measles remain active for at least 4 days before the typical rash appears and stay contagious for the next few days.

When the virus enters the system, replication of virus takes place in the lungs, throat and lymphatic system. The virus also multiplies in the eyes, central nervous system, urinary tract and blood vessels. The virus stays for about 1 to 3 weeks in the system after the initial infection.

What causes measles?

The measles virus is able to live on the surface for several hours, causing the infected particles to remain in the air and as such any person within its vicinity may get infected. Sharing utensils like spoons, towels, brush etc. with an infected person increases the risk of infection.

The World Health Organization (WHO) reported that most of the victims in its reports were children under the age of 5. The disease is found to mostly occur in unvaccinated children.

Some parents have a wrong notion that vaccination can lead to certain side effects in their children. It is not entirely true. Only in the rarest of cases the vaccine has been found to cause deafness, brain damage, coma, deafness and autistic characteristics. Children who lack Vitamin A in their diet are at an increased risk of measles.

Measles in pregnancy

Measles during pregnancy can have significant negative health effects on both mother and fetus. Pregnant women are at high risk of complications from the measles virus such as pneumonia. Measles while pregnancy can lead to the following complications:

  • Miscarriage
  • Low birth weight
  • Preterm labour

Measles can also be transmitted from mother to child if the mother has infected close to her delivery date. This is called congenital measles.

Measles in children

Vaccine of measles isn’t given to the children until they’re at least 12 months old. Before receiving their first dose of vaccine is the time when they have chances to be infected with the measles virus. Babies receive some protection from the measles through passive immunity, which is provided from the mother to child through breastfeeding.

More complications can be seen due to the measles virus for the children under 5 years of age. A child with measles can develop a bacterial infection and may have the following symptoms:

  • Shortness of breath
  • Sharp chest pain which may worsen with every breath
  • Coughing up blood
  • Drowsiness
  • Confusion
  • Convulsions

Diagnosing Measles

An experienced doctor would be able to tell the case by examining rashes on your skin and checking for characteristic symptoms of the disease such as whitish spots in and around the mouth, cough and sore throat. A blood test may be conducted for further affirmation.

As such, there is no prescription medication to treat measles. The symptoms of the virus appear within two or three weeks. The doctor may prescribe medications and supplements to ease the symptoms and help your immune system.

How to treat measles?

1.Vaccine:

Measles infection can be prevented by taking the MMR vaccine (Measles, Mumps, Rubella). If the MMR vaccine is not appropriate, human normal immunoglobulin(HNIG) can be used.

Routine Vaccine: There are 2 vaccines available - The MMR vaccine and the MMRV vaccine. Children can receive their first vaccination at 12 months and their second dose between the age of 3 and 6 years old. Both adults and children can be vaccinated at anytime if they have not been fully vaccinated before. If you are not sure whether you have been vaccinated or not before, getting immunised again will do no harm.

A dose of the MMR vaccine can also be given to anyone over the age of 6 months if they are at risk of getting infected as in:

  • Case of outbreak of measles in your local area
  • Close contact with an infected individual
  • Travelling to an area where the infection is widespread.

2. Human Normal Immunoglobulin(HNIG)

This is basically a mixture of antibodies that have the ability to give short-term but immediate protection from measles. It is recommended to:

  • Babies less than 6 months of age.
  • Pregnant women who are either not immunised or not exposed to the virus.
  • Susceptible individuals like those with HIV or Leukemia.

How long does the measles vaccine last?

2 doses of MMR vaccine is necessary and the person is protected for life and doesn't require a booster dose.

What are the side effects of measles?

Common Side Effects:

  • Diarrhea and vomiting leading to dehydration
  • Conjunctivitis
  • Middle ear infection (otitis media) which can cause earache
  • Laryngitis
  • Bronchitis, croup and pneumonia
  • Febrile seizures(fits caused by fever)

Uncommon Side Effects:

  • Hepatitis
  • Squint if the virus affects the muscles and nerves of the eyes
  • Meningitis and encephalitis

Rare Side Effects:

  • Optic neuritis(infection of the optic nerve) leading to vision loss
  • Heart and nervous system problems
  • Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis(SSPE),a fatal brain complication which occurs years after the measles infection(occurs in 1 in 25,000 cases)

Complications surrounding Measles

  • Severe complications:

    Some people suffer from severe complications like pneumonia & encephalitis and they may even die because of these complications. Out of these, pneumonia has been the causative factor for death in about 1 out of every 20 children. Also, measles causes encephalitis in about 1 out of 100 patients which further cause convulsions, deaf ear and intellectual disability.

  • Long term complications:

    Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare ailment of the central nervous system that can occur due to measles infection of the brain. It occurs about 7 years after measles infected the person. Approximately five to ten cases per million are reported for Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis.

How to prevent measles?

There are few ways to prevent and becoming ill with measles:

  • Vaccination: 2 doses of measles vaccine are effective in preventing the measles infection.
  • Practice good hygiene.
  • Don’t share personal items with the people who may be ill.
  • Avoid coming into contact with people who are sick.

Popular Questions & Answers

Hello doctor, I had unprotected sex with a girl. She is known to me, but has had many partners in the past few years. I got scared, went to see a doc and he advised to take viraday for pep for 28 days. It's been 14 days. Can I stop this medicine cause it causes severe dizziness. I am just taking this medicine for caution as I cannot ask the girl directly. Also will there be any long term side effects of viraday. I really want to stop this medicine immediately if possible.

MBBS, M.S Obstetrics & Gynaecology, F.MAS FELLOWSHIP IN MINIMAL ACCESS SURGERY, D. MAS Dipolma in MINIMAL ACCESS SURGERY, FICRS, Fellowship in COSMETIC GYNAECOLOGY, Diploma in advanced Laparoscopy for Urogynaecology & Gynaec oncology, Basic training course in minimal invasive surgery in Gynaecology, Basics of Colposcopy, Fellowship in Cosmetic Gynaecology, Certificate course in diagnostic ultrasound imaging, Certificate of hands on training in hysteroscopy, Certificate course in diabetes, Fellowship in assisted reproductive technology, Certificate program in aesthetic Medicine, Certificate of operative Hysteroscopy, Certificate course in clinical embryology
Gynaecologist, Chennai
yes you can stop the medicine if you are not willing to proceed on because it is just an anti viral and it is known to cause side effects

Actually I want to know hpv vaccine details for women in hyderabad. Is this necessary to take vaccine before marriage. If we dint take this medicine before sex life, is there any problem for women's life after sex.

MD - Obstetrtics & Gynaecology, FCPS, DGO, Diploma of the Faculty of Family Planning (DFFP)
Gynaecologist, Mumbai
There is nothing necessary, but vaccination is taken to prevent certain problem in future. Among women one of the most common cancer is of cervix (mouth of uterus) and among them hpv infection is common. By taking this vaccination you reduce a lot...
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Cough and cold problems 1 from last five days I have cold problems 2 from last two days I have cough problem also. 3 sometimes I have temple problem also due to cold weather please tell me which problem I have and best suitable medicine forit.

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ENT Specialist, Lucknow
Dear lybrate-user, for your cold problem take tab. Augmentin duo 625 mg thrice daily for 7 days and also tab. Sinarest thrice daily with cap. Becosule once daily for 7 days. Use nasivion spray 2 puffs in each nostril twice daily for 5 days with he...

How many dosages (times) of this vaccine has to be given to baby and in what proposition like 0.25 ml or 0.5 ml? Printed on vaccine as "inactivated influenza vaccine (split virion) i.p.(tetravalent) vaxiflu - 4" -- whether it is tetravalent or quadrivalent?

MD - Paediatrics, MBBS, FPEM, Post Graduate Program in Pediatric Nutrition (PGPN, PGDMLE
Pediatrician, Bangalore
It is an tetravalent inactivated influenza vaccine. Dosage- 6 moths to 3 years- 0,25 ml and 2 Nd dose after 4 weeks > 3 years - 0.5 ml Repeat injection every year till 5 years
1 person found this helpful

My free t4 comes in low while my tsh is normal. The initial set of antibody tests have all come back normal as well. I maintain a diet of 1300 calories or less each day, I swim for an hour, I get on the elliptical for 30- 40 min. I’m average on activity but very careful to stay away from carbs yet when I implemented the hour of pool time, while thinking I would lose weight, instead I gained 9 pounds in approximately 2 weeks. I have 3 nodules under 1 cm on my thyroid. My endocrinologist took the first set of labs and said to get off my biotin for 2 weeks so she could retest. Apparently the free t4 was slightly higher but still low and not within normal range. My 2 cousins have thyroid issues and one needed to have her thyroid partially removed. I think something isn’t right but, the Dr. said she will check back in with me in 6 months to see how my nodules are doing. She blames the labs being off a possible lab discrepancy on the ranges. I had a blood test before that at my ob where my free t4 was also showing low. She advised this would be reviewed for trends, but I feel like nothing really will be done. My cousin who has hypothyroid said to make a list of all my oddities and things i’ve noticed. Here it is. Any guesses at what may be wrong beside the fact i’m overweight but have no appetite? I feel like she looks at me now and does’t realize at all what I was like and how suddenly this came about. Any suggestions? I’m at a lose and with the fatigue and countless other issues, I just don’t know what do do or who may actually take the time to help. - [ ] high cholesterol even when I was 100 lbs (since teens) - [ ] always cold - very hard to get warm - [ ] recurrent sinus infections - [ ] fatigue that does’t go away regardless of any amount of sleep I have - [ ] joint pain - [ ] get really sick with colds - [ ] unexplained knee swelling and pain - crutches for a month (6 years ago - xray showed no issue) - [ ] insomnia (about 7 years) - [ ] after accident 7 years ago thyroid comment - appeared large in x-ray - had a Dr. ever mentioned? - [ ] swine flu - [ ] vitamin d deficiency (until recently) - [ ] anemic (until recently) - [ ] brittle nails - won’t grow - [ ] dry skin - [ ] feel puffy around face and eyes usually. - [ ] no appetite - [ ] always feel need to swallow and it’s gotten worse the last couple weeks - [ ] hand tingles - [ ] aches in muscles - [ ] foot cramps - [ ] after prednisone (post swine flu) - unexplained pain like fire shooting up my calves making it unbearable to walk for almost 6 months. Had to use scooter at stores. Told it was water retention - edema calves, feet, arms, face. - [ ] sudden weight gain after this incident. From a size 0 to where I am in 2-3 months. No matter what I do - it will not come off. I popped back from both pregnancies immediately. - [ ] seldom but sudden feeling of deflation - coolness around face (i feel good sometimes) I felt this after a round of corticosteroid shot briefly - [ ] tennis elbow - Dr. said prob water retention - [ ] Dr. zag referred me to psychiatrist for depression/ psyc felt it was add - [ ] no weight loss staying at 1300 cals (approx 2-3 years) - [ ] neck pain - feels swollen from front - [ ] hoarse voice often - [ ] tightness with swallowing - no other cold related symptoms - [ ] recurrent urticaria with fever - one Dr. said it was a man of war bite, another sunburn that I rubbed lemon on, another allergies 2-3 years - [ ] heavy periods over 2-3 years constant spotting / this ended with natazia (started last month) gyn recommenced ablation - [ ] advised by Dr. zag blood test results showed “borderline lupus” - [ ] 3 cousins say they have hypothyroid. One briefly mentioned an operation to one side - [ ] 2 of 5 aunts on mother’s side have thyroid issues. No specifics. - [ ] dad had lyphodema - [ ] rarely have an appetite - [ ] keto didn’t help with weight but helps somewhat with the inflammatory feeling - [ ] even killing myself with exercise makes no difference - [ ] I can juice for a week without losing weight - [ ] constipation - [ ] major pain in shoulders - I do weights, stretches, and have done the physical therapy I did after accident and it’s only gotten worse - [ ] fast weight gain initially - [ ] sudden weight gain over the past couple weeks of 5 pounds despite adding another hour to my workout which is now an hour and 45 minutes - [ ] sudden onset of snoring (feel no more fatigued than the usual) - [ ] waking up early for no reason.

MBBS, MD Internal Medicine, PhD (Endocrinology), FRCP(Edin)
Endocrinologist, Vellore
Dear lybrate-user, going through your very complex list of symptoms, it appears to me that you may only have obesity and may be situational depression along with vitamin d and calcium deficiency. I suggest that you go ona strict paleo diet complet...

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