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Overview

Ischemic Heart Disease: Treatment, Procedure, Cost and Side Effects

What is the treatment?

Ischemic Heart Disease, also known as Coronary Artery Disease, is a condition that affects the supply of blood to the heart. The blood vessels are narrowed or blocked due to the deposition of cholesterol on their walls. This reduces the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscles, which is essential for proper functioning of the heart. This may eventually result in a portion of the heart being suddenly deprived of its blood supply leading to the death of that area of heart tissue, resulting in a heart attack.

The major risk factors of ischemic heart disease include smoking, diabetes, and high levels of cholesterol in the blood. Those with Hypercholesterolemia have a much higher tendency to develop the disease. Additionally, genetic and hereditary factors may also be responsible for the disease, and stress is often a risk factor as well.

There are a variety of treatments for ischemic heart disease, which include heart-healthy lifestyle changes, medicines, medical procedures and surgery, and cardiac rehabilitation. The treatment is aimed to help lower the risk of formation of blood clots, which can cause a heart attack, and to reduce risk factors in an effort to slow, stop, or reverse the buildup of plaque. Treatment for ischemic heart disease also aims to prevent any complications that might lead to coronary heart disease, as well as to help widen or bypass clogged arteries, which can also result in heart attacks.

How is the treatment done?

Ischemic heart disease, of coronary artery disease can be treated in a number of ways, which include heart-healthy lifestyle changes, medicines, medical procedures and surgery, and cardiac rehabilitation.

Heart healthy lifestyle changes include eating food that is healthy for the heart, managing stress levels, maintaining a healthy weight, doing regular physical exercise, and quitting habits such as drinking and smoking. While following a heart healthy diet, the patient is advised to eat fat-free or low-fat dairy products, such as fat-free milk; fish high in omega-3 fatty acids; fruits, vegetables and whole grains. Intake of sodium has to be restricted as well.

Maintaining a healthy weight is important for overall health and can lower the risk for ischemic heart disease. Patients are required to maintain healthy BMI levels, as well as to try and lose weight, escepically for patients who are obese. Managing stress and taking part in routine physical activity are additionaly ways to help prevent onset of ischemic heart disease.

Medical procedures and suregries to treat ischemic heart disease include Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI), and Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG). Percutaneous coronary intervention, commonly known as angioplasty, is a nonsurgical procedure that opens blocked or narrowed coronary arteries. CABG is a type of surgery in which arteries or veins from other areas in your body are used to bypass the affected narrowed coronary arteries.

Lastly, your doctor may prescribe cardiac rehabilitation (rehab) for angina or after CABG, angioplasty, or a heart attack. Nearly everyone who has coronary heart disease can benefit from cardiac rehab. Cardiac rehab is a medically supervised program that may help improve the health and well-being of people who have heart problems.

Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)

Ischemic heart disease means that the heart muscle is being deprived of the oxygen-rich blood it needs to function, as a result of clogged coronary arteries. People who experience chest pain during exercise or any kind of strenuous activity are at a risk of developing ischemic heart disease, and need to get themselves checked by a doctor.

Who is not eligible for the treatment?

Heavy or irregular breathing during exercise of any kind of strenuous activity is normal, and if you don not experience any chest pains, there is no need to get yourself checked or treated for ischemic heart disease.

Are there any side effects?

Side effects while treating ischemic heart disease are generally side effects of medicines prescribed by the doctor. Many different types of medications are used to treat coronary heart disease, each of which have different kinds of side effects. Antiplatelet drugs can cause diarrhea, rash, or itching, abdominal pain, headache, chest pain, muscle aches, and dizziness. Side effects of anticoagulants are bleeding and necrosis (gangrene) of the skin. Side effects of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors include cough, elevated blood potassium levels (hyperkalemia), low blood pressure, dizziness, headache, drowsiness, weakness, abnormal taste, and rash. Taking vasodilators may cause lightheadedness or dizziness, increased or irregular heart rate, or headache. Side effects of calcium channel blockers include constipation, nausea, headache, rash, edema, low blood pressure, drowsiness, and dizziness. Anti-arrhythmics may cause dizziness, blurred vision, anorexia, unusual taste, fatigue, nausea and vomiting.

What are the post-treatment guidelines?

Treating ischemic heart disease is not a one-time process. Apart from changing your lifestyle and indulging in heart healthy eating, even if your doctor has performed surgical procedures to help treat the disease, following it up is very important. Keep a lookout for any complications, including heart failure or arrhythmias. Also, patients need to keep an eye on risk factors such as cholesterol levels, blood pressure, and diabetes control. Make sure you follow the medication plan prescribed to you by your doctor. Order a stress test if you are having problems with new or worsening symptoms, such as chest pain or shortness of breath.

How long does it take to recover?

In case your doctor has only prescribed lifestyle changes and medicines for treatment of your heart disease, then there is no recovery time as such. But in case you have to undergo surgical treatment, then a full recovery after CABG or PCI takes around 12 to 15 weeks, or even more.

What is the price of the treatment in India?

While lifestyle changes don’t require any money, treatment of ischemic heart disease via medicines or surgical procedures is an expensive treatment, and cost anywhere between Rs. 2 to Rs. 10 lakhs.

Are the results of the treatment permanent?

If your doctor has prescribed medicines for the patient, and has asked him to maintain a proper and healthy lifestyle, then it is actually up to the patient to make sure that they do not develop symptoms of ischemic heart disease again. In case the patient has undergone surgery for ischemic heart disease, then the results are generally permanent, unless the patient goes back to their previous unhealthy lifestyle, and fails to follow up on medications and further visits to the doctor.

What are the alternatives to the treatment?

Ischemic heart disease treatment does not always require surgery. There are other methods to help treat coronary artery disease, such as heart-healthy lifestyle changes, maintaining a healthy weight. managing stress and taking part in routine physical activity, as well as quitting habits such as smoking and drinking. Surgical procedures such as PCI and CABG are always the last resort when it comes to treating ischemic heart disease.

Safety: Low Effectiveness: Medium Timeliness: Medium Relative Risk: High Side Effects: High Time For Recovery: High Price Range:

Rs 2 to 10 lakhs

Popular Health Tips

Ischemic Heart Disease - Symptoms, Risk Factors and Diagnosis

MBBS, PG Diploma in Clinical Cardiology, Fellowship in Non invasive cardiology
Cardiologist, Gurgaon
Ischemic Heart Disease - Symptoms, Risk Factors and Diagnosis

Ischemic heart disease is also known as ischemic cardiomyopathy in medical lingo. It generally results from weakened heart muscles due to previous conditions such as heart attack or other coronary diseases. The left ventricle of an IC patient tends to enlarge and gets dilated. As a result of this, the heart fails to pump an adequate amount of blood into the body resulting in a heart failure.

A doctor typically tries to find out the underlying cause of the condition and evaluate the extent of damage that has already happened. A combination of surgery, lifestyle changes, medication and other methods could be recommended to fix the condition.

Symptoms of Ischemic Heart Disease:

An early stage ischemic heart disease could not show any symptom at all. However, if the IC results from diseases related to the coronary artery, some of the common symptoms that are encountered include dizziness and fainting, unexplained weight gain, fatigue, congestion in the lungs, chest pain, swelling in the abdomen, sleeping problems, swelling of the feet and the leg, shortness of breath etc.

Risk Factor of Ischemic Heart Disease:

IC is typically caused by coronary artery diseases and heart attacks. Some of the other risk factors of this disease include diabetes, high cholesterol, long history of drug abuse, obesity, family history of cardiac diseases, amyloidosis, blood pressure, long history of smoking and bad lifestyle. Men are at increased risk of developing ischemic heart disease. Women above the age of 30 who is an active smoker and consume contraceptive pills are also at a high risk of developing ischemic cardiomyopathy.

How Is IC Diagnosed?

A cardiologist will perform a physical exam and conducts one or several tests to diagnose the condition. A blood work measuring the level of triglyceride and cholesterol is the first step towards it. This can be followed up by several imagery tests such as MRI and CT scan to examine the internal tissues. Some other tests that could be done by a cardiologist include ECG, angiography, EKG and radionuclide studies.

How Is The Condition Treated?

There is a step approach to treatment for ischemic heart disease. The first is lifestyle related. A healthy diet must be followed on a regular basis. Diet should be free from cholesterol, sodium and processed fat. Quitting smoking and drinking is a key lifestyle change that a person will have to undergo. In the medication front, a cardiologist might prescribe beta blockers, blockers of calcium channels, aldosterone inhibitor and blood thinners. The idea behind every medication is to ensure that the heart muscle works at the optimum level. If medication doesn’t work, a doctor might suggest procedures such as stent insertion, pacemaker implant, angioplasty and radiation therapy. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Cardiologist.

3193 people found this helpful

Living With a Heart Patient - 5 Things You Must Know!

Fellowship In Electrophysiology, Fellowship In Interventional Cardiology, DM - Cardiology, MD - Medicine, MBBS
Cardiologist, Delhi
Living With a Heart Patient - 5 Things You Must Know!

The heart is a muscle that pumps blood to the body through a network of arteries and veins controlled by valves. A heart disease could mean a problem in any of these organs, heart per se, the blood vessels, or the valves. Like it or not, heart problem is a chronic condition. It starts without any notice, and for sure, it is not going to go away completely. What can be done, though, is to manage it beautifully and lives and enjoy life so that the heart disease is not stopping you.

When there is a person with the chronic condition, it is not just that person who is affected, but the near and dear ones as well. When heading out for a dinner or when planning a gathering, there would be certain things that need to be accounted for and considered to accommodate the needs of the affected person. These very soon become a way of life and can be done effortlessly.

The following are some things to bear in mind when living with a heart patient.

  1. Diet: Heart patients would have some dietary preferences based on the heart condition per se. This may include a need for more whole grains and vegetables, need for specific types of oils, specific cooking methods, etc. At home, it is essential to ensure these things are always stocked up. When heading out, whether it is to visit someone or out for a meal, take into account whether these would be available. The next best option should be kept in mind so that dietary intake is not affected. Gradually, with time, substitutes can be identified with which they could manage in most places.
  2. Medications: Make sure the medication kit is always readily available. Make sure the person does not miss any medications, whether at home or outside. Ensure the regular medicines are in stock and some common emergency ones are also readily available.
  3. Routine: Whether it is their morning walk or yoga or meditation, it is better to stick to the routine as much as possible. The person also should learn to adapt based on circumstances; however, to the maximum extent possible, these should be continued without major interruption.
  4. Monitoring: Be it blood pressure, sugar levels or weight, these need to be monitored regularly and any deviations should be brought to the notice of the doctor immediately.
  5. Other equipment: Whether it is a walker, inhaler, or a wheelchair, these should be functional and available. The home or the living place should not be cluttered to allow for the easy use of this equipment.

While these may initially require some effort, with time, it would just happen naturally. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a cardiologist.

2260 people found this helpful

5 Tips to Keep Your Heart Fit!

DM - Cardiology, MD - Internal Medicine, MBBS
Cardiologist, Delhi
5 Tips to Keep Your Heart Fit!

The heart is one part of your body that pumps blood relentlessly; to be grateful to the most important organ, it’s your duty to look after its health. Cardiovascular diseases and heart ailments can be prevented by making minor changes in your lifestyle.

Here are a few tips to keep your heart healthy:

  1. Add fiber to your diet: Making fiber a part of your regular diet is a great idea as the heart works best when it runs on natural fuel. You can achieve this by adding more raw fruits and vegetables in your meals as they are an excellent source of fiber and nutrients.
  2. Engage in physical activity: Your heart is a muscle and to make it healthier, you need some form of physical exercise. Engaging in cardiovascular forms of exercise for an hour daily keeps your heart in good condition. Engaging in physical activity also reduces the risk of getting a heart disease and acts as a stress buster.
  3. Cut down on the salt intake: The sodium content in salt disrupts the balance of fluids in your body leading to high blood pressure. This can affect the functioning of the heart; that is to pump blood, which is a major cause of a heart attack. So, cutting down on salt can reduce stress and the risks of heart attacks.
  4. Manage your weight: People on the overweight side run a risk of getting heart diseases more often than fit and leaner ones as they tend to be more inactive and sluggish. The heart diseases caused due to obesity can be avoided by making minor changes to your diet and exercising on a daily basis.
  5. Quit smoking: If you are a regular smoker, quitting is the best thing you can do for your heart. The main reason for coronary heart diseases is nicotine present in the cigarette. Once, you quit smoking completely, you will be 50% less likely to run the risks of a heart attack as compared to a regular smoker. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a dietitian-nutritionist and ask a free question.
1988 people found this helpful

Cardiomyopathy - Types, Causes and Treatment

DM Cardiology
Cardiologist, Delhi
Cardiomyopathy - Types, Causes and Treatment

Our heart is basically a muscle. So when this muscle weakens the heart is unable to do its function i.e., to pump blood throughout our body and keep us alive.

The heart muscle gets progressively weak due to a disease called cardiomyopathy.

There are different types of cardiomyopathy caused by different causes. Untreated cardiomyopathy can lead to heart failure or early death. Treatment can’t cure the condition but can give you extra healthy years of life and prevent serious complications.

Cardiomyopathy has 4 main types, they are:

  1. Dilated Cardiomyopathy: This is the most common form and its principal cause is that your heart muscle becomes too weak to pump blood. The heart muscles stretch and become thinner in this case leading to the four chambers of the heart to expand causing a pathology called an enlarged heart.

  2. Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: This happens due to genetics. It occurs when the walls of your heart thicken and prevent the flow of blood through this natural pump.

  3. Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia: This is a rare form of cardiomyopathy. It causes sudden deaths of athletes and is caused when fat and fibrous tissues replace muscle in the right ventricle of the heart.

  4. Restrictive Cardiomyopathy: This is the least common form of the disease. The cause is the stiffening of the ventricles, the part of the blood which receives blood. When these stiffen, the heart doesn’t get enough blood to oxygenate. Scarring of the heart due to heart disease and a heart transplant operation can be a cause of this stiffening.

  5. Ischemic Cardiomyopathy: Ischemic cardiomyopathy is caused due to coronary artery disease which causes blood vessels supplying blood to the heart to become narrow. The heart doesn’t get enough oxygen and a person can die due to a heart attack.

  6. Other types of cardiomyopathy are grouped into this category and can include:

    • Left ventricular noncompaction happens when the left ventricle has trabeculations, projections of muscle inside the ventricle.

    • Peripartum cardiomyopathy, another form of the disease can occur during or after pregnancy. This is a form of dilated cardiomyopathy and can be fatal. There’s no documented cause.

    • Alcoholic cardiomyopathy is caused due to alcoholism causing an enlargement of the heart.

    • Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, or broken heart syndrome, happens when extreme stress leads to heart muscle failure. Though rare, this condition is more common in post-menopausal women.

Treatment

Doctors will decide the treatment after finding out the extent of damage due to cardiomyopathy.

Few people will not require treatment till symptoms like chest pain, dizziness, shortness of breath and edema appear.

Others whose life is affected due to symptoms are treated with lifestyle changes and medicines. The bad news is that cardiomyopathy can’t be cured but can only be managed and controlled by doing the following:

  1. Heart-healthy lifestyle changes are key. You will be advised to maintain a healthy weight, eat a modified diet, get enough sleep, manage stress, and quit smoking.

  2. Exercise is also crucial to keep the heart healthy and maintain a healthy weight through regular bouts of low-intensity exercise.

  3. Medications for high blood pressure will be prescribed to prevent water retention, keep the heart beating normally, prevent blood clots and reduce inflammation.

  4. Pacemakers and defibrillators can be implanted.

  5. Surgery like heart transplant can be done as a last resort. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a homeopath.

4002 people found this helpful

Link Between Heart Diseases and High Blood Pressure

PhD, Human Energy Fields, Diploma in PIP, EFI, Aura scanning for Health evaluation; Energy field assessment, Fellowship Cardiac Rehabilitation, Cardiac Rehabilitation, MD (Ayur - Mind Body Med), Mind Body Medicine
Non-Invasive Conservative Cardiac Care Specialist, Pune
Link Between Heart Diseases and High Blood Pressure

Blood pressure is the measure of the resistance to the natural flow of blood in the blood vessels. The major, minor and few smaller blood vessels themselves have a thin muscular lining that keeps the vessel supple and aids the flow of nutritious blood within its tube-like structure. The vessel walls resist the free flow causing a reverse pressure that is referred to as Blood Pressure. This pressure strains the heart muscles (Left Ventricle more) to contract strongly to push the nutritious blood into the body circulation system.

Due to numerous factors, there is an increase of resistance within the blood vessels that leads to an increase in blood pressure. At a later stage, this results in lack of adequate blood flow to the end tissues and an accumulation of fluids in the various tissues/organs and a mismanagement of the nutrition-detoxification rhythmic cycle of the body. This takes a long time to develop and unless the last stage hampers body functions, it is not detected. Hence, blood pressure is known as a silent disease.

Systolic and diastolic are the two rhythms corresponding to the expansion and contraction of the heart chambers during pumping of blood into the body. This rhythm creates two distinct pressures within the blood vessels. Systolic is when the heart ventricular chamber contract to pump blood into the body, so the pressure is higher. This indicated the force or strain on the heart to push blood into the circulatory system. Hence, this count is considered significant in evaluating health parameters.

High BP as a disease is declared when three or more readings taken at different times of a day or on consecutive days shows increase in BP. Higher the BP, more strain is exerted by the heart. Since the heart is essentially a muscular organ, the muscles of the heart get affected. Sometimes, the heart muscles increase in mass and size making the heart chambers smaller in volume. This further deteriorates the circulation capability leading to numerous diseases. The strain of pumping nutrition to different body organs is also felt by the heart itself. Lack of nutrition can lead to death of cardiac tissue leading to heart failure. High blood pressure makes the heart walls thicken and becomes stiffer which makes it even more difficult to pump blood. Thickening of the heart muscles is also known as left ventricular hypertrophy and cause heart failure.

A systolic blood pressure reading that is higher than 140 mm Hg or a diastolic blood pressure higher than 90 mm Hg characterizes by high blood pressure. High blood pressure is said to be responsible for 50% of the recorded cases of ischemic strokes and also increases the risk of hemorrhagic strokes.

When heart cannot pump with enough force, there is a mismanagement in the intra-cellular and tissue fluid restoration. This puts a great strain on the kidney function. In due course of time, numerous organs of the body suffer and depending on the body constitution, immunity for rejuvenation and restoration of order, the person suffer from numerous diseases.

Diabetes worsens the situation of BP and adds to the deterioration of heart health, blood vessel health. Poor heart functioning leads to different symptoms like:

  1. Shortness of breath
  2. Swollen ankles or feet
  3. Difficulty lying flat on your back
  4. Bloating and nausea
  5. Irregular pulse
  6. Frequent urge to urinate at night
  7. Fatigue

Due to disturbances in BP and other factors leading to lacking of nutrition to the heart tissue. Heart Disease complications are commonly seen with symptoms as follows:

Radiating or dull pain, especially in the chest, radiating in the arms, especially left arm, neck, back and in the stomach especially in women.

  1. Shortness of breath; change in breathing patterns and heaviness in chest
  2. Dizziness and fainting sometimes
  3. Irregular pulse and palpitations
  4. Sudden onset of excessive sweating
  5. Unexplained fatigue, weakness and depression

Heart Disease can be treated with natural ayurvedic medicaments successfully in more than 80% of patients. Numerous ayurvedic medicines have been clinically evaluated to show positive changes supported with clinical investigation. Since ayurvedic medicines are targeted to reaching the root cause of the disturbances and to reduce the burden of the disease they go beyond the relief of symptoms.

Natural Ayurvedic medicines also participate in the rejuvenation of the heart muscles, the blood vessels, the detoxification of the body and re-balancing of health parameters, Ayurvedic treatment options are gaining great relevance and patient opt for such treatment in greater numbers from all over the world. These treatments are non-invasive and very cost effective. They are good to be taken from prevention to after angioplasty, stent or bye-pass to treat the cause of disease.

Ayurveda is a health science that takes into consideration lifestyle modifications, adequate detoxification, re-balancing body element and strengthening the system from all aspects. Ayurvedic medicines have proved useful in the treatment of Blood Pressure, Diabetes, Vascular disease (leading to atherosclerosis, blockages, wear-tear of blood vessels) and Heart disease. Today, these treatment options are gaining importance and acceptance in our society. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an ayurveda and ask a free question.

3587 people found this helpful

Popular Questions & Answers

My TMT test is mild positive. However ECG, Echo, BP, Sugar, Uric Acid and Cholesterol are all within normal range. Sometimes I feel breathlessness and also slight pain in left arm. Please advise what should be the next course of action? Regards Radha Roy.

MD - General Medicine, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
Endocrinologist, Indore
Planning Angiogram after positive TMT is a standard practice. So don't worry about that. About 15% of positive TMT are false positives (can have no blockages). Coronary Angiogram is relatively very safe procedure.
1 person found this helpful

Hi Sir, Feeling uneasiness and discomfort in chest since June 10th, always increase towards my jaw and feeling pain when I try to do work or anything. When if relaxed it's not bother much, I had ecg and echo done that is normal. CT angiogram showing Calcium score 20, om2 - moderate stenosis. ST. thallium SHOWING 15 % Ischemia I don't know what to do, really worried and please advise.

MD - Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Post-Graduate Diploma In Rheumatology, Post-Graduate Diploma In Sports Injury Rehabilitation, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
Pain Management Specialist, Delhi
Hello, Nothing to worry about, it is not a serious issue and also there is no need to do all these clinical tests. These are basically muscular issues, showing it's pressure effects. If possible come to our clinic in dwarka, new Delhi, we will be able to sort out your issue in one single visit or come online for video consultation. War Regards.
1 person found this helpful

Hello, I am suffering from non obstructive HCMP. I am taking dilzem cd 90 bd and concor 5 od. Am I getting the right treatment?

MBBS, MD - Internal Medicine, DM - Cardiology, Cardiac Device Specialist (CCDS - Physician )
Cardiologist, Delhi
Please consult with your complete Echo report, ECG, BP readings and symptoms and any family history of HCMP or sudden cardiac arrest in family. We will be able to advise only after looking at the above information.
7 people found this helpful

My TMT test reports are negative for exercise induced Ischemia. My Lipid Profile reports: Triglycerides 401, Total Cholesterol 182, LDL Cholesterol 125, HDL Cholesterol 29, Total Cholesterol/HDL Cholesterol Ratio 6.28, Total Cholesterol/HDL Cholesterol Ratio 4.31. Can I have any advice in this regard?

Masters In Clinical Nutrition & Dietitics
Dietitian/Nutritionist, Bangalore
Hello Lybrate user High blood lipid profile can be caused by: Sedentary Lifestyle Physically in active diabetes hypothyroidism metabolic syndrome Cushing’s syndrome Bad dietary pattern kidney disease Drinking and smoking High protein intake We have diet which which can reduce the lipid profile naturally. But before prescribing any thing we need some information like. Vitals.Purpose of joining gym. Medical history. Family history. Occupation.Physical activity. Daily routine And many more So, if you want to contact us, you can contact us directly thru Lybrate.

Table of Content

What is the treatment?
How is the treatment done?
Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)
Who is not eligible for the treatment?
Are there any side effects?
What are the post-treatment guidelines?
How long does it take to recover?
What is the price of the treatment in India?
Are the results of the treatment permanent?
What are the alternatives to the treatment?
Play video
Heart Disease Prevention
Though we may lack the power to change some risk factors , such as family history, sex or age ; however there are some key heart disease prevention steps one can take to reduce the risks associated with the same.
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