Chronic pyelonephritis is characterized by renal inflammation and fibrosis induced by recurrent or persistent renal infection
, vesicoureteral reflux
, or other causes of urinary tract obstruction. .Chronic pyelonephritis is continuing pyogenic infection of the kidney that occurs almost exclusively in patients with major anatomic abnormalities. Symptoms may be absent or may include fever
, malaise, and flank pain
. Diagnosis is with urinalysis, culture, and imaging tests.