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Myopia - Symptom, Treatment And Causes

What is Myopia?

Myopia is also known as nearsightedness. Myopia is defined as a refractive disorder of the eye. It has become more common in recent years. The exact cause of myopia is not yet known but studies suggest that eye fatigue due to excessive computer usage, genetic predisposition, other prolonged near vision tasks or spending longs hours in front of the television are leading causes of myopia.

What usually causes myopia?

Myopia generally occurs if the eyeball is excessively long which makes it relative to the concentrating power of the lens and the cornea of the eyes. This makes the light rays focus at a point in the front portion of the retina, rather than on the surface. Myopia usually begins during childhood. If one or both your parents have myopia, you are at a higher risk of developing myopia. It also progresses and worsens with age if proper care isn’t taken.

Treatment for myopia:

Myopia or nearsightedness can be treated by wearing contact lenses or glasses. Though this doesn’t cure myopia completely, but it prevents the power from increasing. If your degree of myopia is high, it is advisable to opt for a refractive surgery. This surgery usually eliminates the need for contacts or glasses. Excimer laser s the most common laser used for correcting vision. Contact lenses and glasses need not be worn every time of the day. It can only be worn when you want clear distance vision, like while watching a movie, looking at a chalkboard or while driving.

Types of surgery to treat myopia:

  • PRK- In this form of treatment, the laser starts to remove the corneal tissue and flattens the cornea allowing light rays to focus properly on the retina of the eye.
  • Lasik- This is the most common form of refractive procedure opted by people with myopia. In this procedure, a flap is created on the cornea surface and the laser starts removing corneal tissue till the thin flap goes back to its original position.
  • Orthokeratology- This is a non surgical procedure where you are supposed to wear special rigid gas permeable (GP or RGP) contact lenses during night which reshape your cornea while you’re asleep. This form of treatment is temporary and used to correct moderate levels of myopia. Both these procedures are great alternatives to surgery for people who are not suitable for a LASIK or a refractive surgery.
  • Phakic IOLs- These work as contact lenses, but they are surgically placed inside the eyes and are permanent. No maintenance is required for Phakic IOLs.
Treatable by medical professional Require medical diagnosis Lab test not required Chronic: can last for years or be lifelong
Far away objects seem blurry Need to close or squint eyelids to see more clearly Headaches because of eye strain Need to be seated close to the chalkboard, television or movie screen Blinking excessively Rubbing the eyes frequently

Popular Health Tips

Blurry Vision & Bloodshot Eyes - Things You Must Know About It!

DOMS(gold Medal);guru Nanak Eye Centre;University Of Delhi, MBBS
Ophthalmologist, Delhi
Blurry Vision & Bloodshot Eyes - Things You Must Know About It!

Do you wake up to see red shot eyes every morning? Along with this, if you are experiencing trouble, you might want to know if it is necessary to visit an ophthalmologist. Known as blurred vision and bloodshot eyes, these are two of the most common symptoms of many health conditions. From eye infection to eye injury, allergies, or any other physical condition can be the root cause behind them.

Read on further to understand how to proceed in such case:

What is redness of eyes?
The redness of eyes refers to a condition where the blood vessels, which are there right at the surface of the eyes, expand excessively and becomes congested with blood, turning the white areas of the eyes look reddish. It can be a physical condition or the presence of some irritants or infection causing the outer membrane of the eyeball to swell. Usually painless, in the majority of the cases it doesn't require medical attention.

What is blurry vision?
The term blurry vision usually refers to the loss of clarity in one’s eyesight. When someone's vision gets blurry, he or she fails to see the objects clearly, as they appear hazy and out of focus. One can have a dim or clouded vision in either any one of his eyes or in both of them. When left untreated for long, blurry vision can affect part or whole of vision.

What are the causes?
There are a number of factors that can cause redness of eyes that include allergies, inflammation affecting the eyelids, use of certain eye drops, foreign objects getting in the eye, decreased tear production or dry eyes, various corneal condition, any kind of injury to the eyes, conjunctivitis, inflammation of the eye’s middle layer, any condition damaging the optic nerve and others.

Just like the bloodshot eyes, there can be various reasons behind blurred vision as well. Some of the most common causes are cataracts, injury or trauma to the eyes, optic neuritis, corneal scarring, corneal abrasions, retinopathy, migraine headaches, significantly fluctuating blood sugar levels and more.

What are the complications of eye redness?
Most causes of eye redness will not result in serious complications. If you have an infection that causes vision changes, this may affect your ability to perform basic tasks such as cooking or driving. Vision impairments in these areas can result in accidental injury. Infections that are not treated may also result in permanent damage to the eye. For example:

  1. Infection could spread to other parts of eye and body
  2. Loss of vision may occur, possibly leading to blindness
  3. Scarring of the eye
  4. Loss of the eye
  5. Passing the condition on to others (such as in cases of conjunctivitis)

If eye redness does not resolve in two days, you should call your doctor.

What is the treatment?
While it might be just the rough handling of eyes that cause these symptoms, they may also be due to a condition that needs medical attention. When the blurred vision and the redness of the eyes are indeed due to some underlying medical condition, such as a migraine, or stroke, or blood sugar, etc., first treating those conditions is important.

Apart from the medical treatment, incorporating few practices such as avoiding rubbing the eyes, ensure the environment is allergen-free, or rinsing the eyes with cool water can help in preventing the condition from deteriorating further.

Remember, while some of the health conditions causing bloodshot eyes and blurry vision can be benign, others can be severe and may need immediate medical attention. Therefore, whenever experiencing any of these two conditions, don’t hesitate in consulting with an ophthalmologist right away. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2691 people found this helpful

7 Warning Signs You Must Visit Your Ophthalmologist!

DOMS(gold Medal);guru Nanak Eye Centre;University Of Delhi, MBBS
Ophthalmologist, Delhi
7 Warning Signs You Must Visit Your Ophthalmologist!

When was the last time you visited an ophthalmologist? Chances are that unless you faced a problem in your eyes recently, it must have been months or even years. Most people only visit an eye specialist’s clinic when they experience some eye problem. This is not a good practice since the best way to avoid severe eye complications is to detect them in their early stages. Since some eye conditions are asymptomatic in their early stages, these conditions cannot be detected without a comprehensive eye exam. Either you must be aware of warning signs or visit an ophthalmologist once a year to avoid eye problems getting severe.

Warning signs that need immediate attention

  1. Blurry Vision: If your vision has suddenly got blurry or you are not able to focus clearly on objects, then this can be due to an underlying health issue. In case the blurry vision is in any one eye, and it comes and goes, an eye examination must be scheduled as soon as possible.
  2. Obstructed Vision: If you are experiencing any visual disturbances in the form of flashes of light, floaters or obstruction of vision, then you need to visit an eye specialist within 24 hours. Such symptoms may be the result of some underlying retinal pathology or may lead to retinal detachment, retinal tear or retinal hole.
  3. Far or near sight: Over time, some people tend to shift their books or computer screens a little further away from their usual reading distance to improve clarity. This can be a sign of gradual blurring of vision, and it indicates that it’s time to have your eyes examined. The reverse also calls for the same. If you are reading a book or viewing the TV or computer screen closer than usual, then you need to visit an eye specialist.
  4. Headaches: Another sign that indicates vision problems is headaches. If you are experiencing frequent headaches, then this is a sign of vision problem. Since vision change is usually slow and imperceptible in its initial stage, a frequent headache serves as a warning sign.
  5. Ear pain: Temporary eye pain or strain is normal and is not a cause of worry since it usually occurs during seasonal changes or cold and flu. However, persisting eye pain or fatigue that last for over a few days is an indicator of some eye infection or serious health condition.
  6. Squinting: Other than that, squinting is one of the most common warning signs of future eye problems. Squinting reduces extraneous light from entering the eye and reduces light scattering. This act helps improve vision but is an unnatural reaction and is one of the first signs for children who need prescription glasses. If you squint more than normal, then it is time for you to have your eyes checked.
  7. Irritation and redness: If you are experiencing itchiness, redness, and discharge from your eyes, then you may have an eye infection. Consult your eye specialist and have the infection treated as soon as possible to avoid further complications.

Prevention is always better than cure and eyes are one part of your body that you most likely ignore unless the problems start looming large. When the warning signs are felt, it is better to seek medical attention to rule out any sort of complication.

2620 people found this helpful

Myopia or Nearsightedness - How It Can Be Treated?

MS - Ophthalmology, MBBS, FRCS
Ophthalmologist, Gurgaon
Myopia or Nearsightedness - How It Can Be Treated?

The most common vision problems are shortsightedness and farsightedness. Shortsightedness is when a person sees close objects clearly while distant objects appear blurry. It is more common than farsightedness and affects about 70% of the Asian population.

When there is a refractive issue, the prescription usually has a plus/minus with it and also a number. A ‘minus’ symbol is used to represent shortsightedness; the greater the number of the glasses, the higher the shortsightedness. High myopia is a more severe form of shortsightedness where the power is -6.0 or higher.


As mentioned, the person will be able to see nearby objects but will have difficulty seeing far off objects.

  1. Difficulty reading signs and boards
  2. Squinting
  3. Straining to reduce the strain on the eye
  4. Tired and fatigue due to this eye strain, especially when in constant move like playing sports or travelling

How it happens?

Vision can be explained by a physical process where light passes through a lens and falls on the retina in the posterior portion of the eye where it forms an image. This is then sent to the brain where it is read and interpreted as a particular object. When the lens becomes elongated, the image that is formed is distorted in that it is formed in front of the retina and not on the retina. Though it gradually settles down with adulthood, in most cases, it progresses and requires corrective lenses. The corrective lenses ensure the image falls on the retina and visual perception is improved.


  1. Corrective glasses are the most commonly used measure for nearsightedness. The lenses could be used either as spectacles or as contact lenses.
  2. Laser surgery can also be used to correct the problem. A thin layer of the cornea is removed and the image formation is corrected.
  3. Artificial intraocular lenses are also being used to treat this condition. They work like contact lenses and may need periodic replacement.
  4. The most common technique, especially for high myopia is the use of surgery to correct the problem. This is a one-time correction and is a more durable solution than the earlier mentioned options.
  5. Appropriate calculations are done to identify the lens to be used so that proper vision is restored.


  1. Though not common, retinal detachment and variable postoperative refractive error can occur during the surgery.
  2. It is very important to set realistic expectations with the patient in terms of what to expect before, during, and after surgery. If only one eye is going for repair, the chances of mismatch in vision could be present in the early stages. Being clear about what to expect will help in successful correction. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an Ophthalmologist.
3643 people found this helpful

Headache - Can Eyestrain Be the Reason Behind it?

MBBS, MS - Ophthalmology, Diploma in Ophthalmology , Fellowship in Cornea and Anterior Segment
Ophthalmologist, Ahmedabad
Headache - Can Eyestrain Be the Reason Behind it?

Eye Strain is an umbrella term that denotes a number of symptoms that relate to the extended use of eyes as well as discomfort that may come from excessive smartphone and computer use. This condition may or may not lead to significant eye damage and is usually characterised by blurry vision, headaches and a feeling of dryness in the eye as you blink less which creates less tears. This may happen due to the extended use of the eye when you are following objects on a screen or staring at a screen for too long. So, is eye strain the cause of your headaches?

Find out more in this article.

Causes: Eye Strain or Asthenopia is caused by concentrating on visually intense tasks like reading from texts that have a fine print, the use of computers and other screens for prolonged periods, and trying to focus on objects in the dark. This can lead to distress of the muscles in this area which can also cause eye strain leading to a variety of symptoms including double imagery and even headaches and mild migraine like conditions.

Eye Muscle Imbalance: When there is eye strain which leads to headaches, it can also give rise to eye muscle imbalance which makes it difficult to concentrate with both eyes at the same time. In such cases, one may need bifocal glasses so as to fix the issue and prevent such debilitating headaches to remain on a persistent basis.

Diagnosis: Digital eye fatigue and ocular eye strain leading to headaches can be diagnosed by a doctor with the help of regular eye examinations. In any case, one should have the eyes checked at least once a year. This is especially important if your job involves sitting in front of the computer screen for prolonged hours.

Symptoms: There are a variety of symptoms of these headaches that are caused by eye strain. Apart from blurry vision which does not allow the patient to see properly and clearly without glasses, it can also cause headaches with symptoms like nausea and sensitivity to light. Retinal or eye migraines do not necessarily have to come with headaches, but the pressure can be painful enough.

Treatment: To begin with, the best form of treatment for headaches born from eye strain includes prevention which can be done by getting plenty of rest and sleep even as we limit the hours spent in front of the screen. One can also lower the resolution of the screen and make it more ambient. Also, the screen should be placed at a considerable distance from the eyes. The doctor can also prescribe glasses and eye drops for better eye lubrication. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an Ophthalmologist.

4896 people found this helpful

Myopia - Know The Ways It Can Be Treated!

Fellowship In Comprehensive Ophthalmology, DOMS
Ophthalmologist, Sangrur
Myopia - Know The Ways It Can Be Treated!

What Is Myopia (Nearsightedness)?

Myopia is a common refractive error of the eye that makes it difficult to focus on far away objects. People who are nearsighted will see objects close to them clearly, while those further away appear blurry. Myopia is natural. An overall longer shape of the eye usually causes myopia, so it is a naturally occurring visual problem that cannot be prevented. Nearsightedness tends to run in families, but you don't need to have a myopic parent to develop it. Myopia begins at an early age and worsens in the teenage years, but generally stabilizes in adulthood.

Here are the most common signs and symptoms of myopia:

  1. Objects far away, like a chalkboard or road signs, appear blurry
  2. Persistent need to squint or close eyelids to see clearly
  3. Headaches due to eyestrain
  4. Difficulty seeing while driving a vehicle, especially at night (night myopia)
  5. Need to sit closer to the television, movie screen or the front of the classroom
  6. Holding books very close while reading
  7. Not able to notice distant objects

Causes of Myopia

Nearsightedness happens when your eye is longer than normal, or, less often, when your cornea is too curved. It’s a problem in the focusing mechanism of the eyes. However, the exact cause of myopia is not known. Research about myopia supports two key risk factors:

  1. Family history. If one or both parents are nearsighted, the chance of their children developing it increases.
  2. Working up close. Myopia may be helped along by how a person uses their eyes. Intense detail work, long hours in front of a computer or reading can also increase the chances of developing myopia.

Treatment Options for Myopia (Nearsightedness)

When treating myopia, the goal is to help your eyes focus on far away objects. The most common way to achieve this is through

  1. Corrective glasses
  2. Contact lenses
  3. Refractive eye surgery, such as LASIK, is available for adults and those with moderate to high levels of nearsightedness

Adults who have developed cataracts may also have their myopia corrected with an intraocular lens (IOL) that replaces the human lens during cataract surgery. The most appropriate treatment depends on your eyes and your lifestyle. Nearsightedness can also be corrected as part of the cataract surgery procedure.

  1. Contacts and Glasses: Eyeglasses and contact lenses can correct myopia. However, they cannot stop the eye from growing longer or cure the irregular curve of the cornea that causes your blurry vision.
  2. Surgery: Surgery can decrease or eliminate dependency on eyeglasses and contact lenses. LASIK surgery is the most common type of surgery to correct myopia.
  3. ICL (intraocular collamer lenses) or phakic lensesIn adults with cataracts, is an option for those myopic patients who are not suitable for lasik surgery due to either less corneal thickness or very high myopia.
  4. Orthokeratology: A new type of treatment which offers an alternate solutions to people who are suffering from myopia. This is also known as Ortho-K. As a part of this procedure a person has to wear specialized lens overnight, to correct the vision for the next day. Orthokeratology is a process that uses specially designed GP contact lenses to temporarily reshape the contour of the cornea to reduce myopia (nearsightedness). In addition to the benefit of lens-free daytime vision, orthokeratology is starting to be appreciated for its ability to slow the progression of myopia. A number of published clinical studies have found that orthokeratology lens designs inhibit the growth of the eye's axial length, which determines the degree of myopia. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a ophthalmologist.
2661 people found this helpful

Popular Questions & Answers

I'm 25 and have myopic eyes. But my eye power hasn't stabilised yet. 2 years back, my eyes were perfect when I got -0.5,-0.75.Last year I had -1,-0.75. Today again I got checked and it's -2 in both the eyes. I'm into civil services preparation and have a poor diet and some stress as well. Please guide if it's normal.

Diploma in psychology, PVA ayurveda, bits,pilani
Psychologist, Bangalore
Hi Friend, Good that you are seeking help here. I can understand your concern on increasing power. One of the major reasons for eyesight issues today is exposure to blue screen from gadgets, excess heat in body & stress in mind. Be positive. There are natural remedies, few lifestyle changes, eye exercises, dietary change, self therapies can help you to improve the eye sight. Similar you need avoid too much exposure of electronic gadgets. Feel free to reach me to understand the above solutions in detail, As I am also an Ayurveda wellness counselor, can guide you on the natural alternatives to prevent further increase in power.
1 person found this helpful

I live in a hostel. I was feeling lonely today so I went to a friend's room to talk to him. He bought a new smartphone. He was using his phone. After sometime he turned on the flash light accidentally and in the same time I also got busy with my phone. He was in the chair next to his bed and I was sitting in the bed. He turned on his flashlight of his phone and it's focus was falling on my eyes. I didn't mind it because I was busy on my own phone. For about an hour I was in the same position and the powerful flash light has been falling on my eyes. After one hour I realized that his flashlight was pointing my eyes, then I immediately came out of his room. But for sometime I could see nothing with my eyes. My vision became blurry. Then I slept. Now I can see with my eyes. Will anything happen to my eyes? Has it damaged my eyes?

MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, MD Ophthalmology, Senior Residency
Ophthalmologist, Delhi
Hi lybrate-user, What you experienced was a normal response of the eyes to bright light. For example, when you enter a movie theatre/ dark room, you can't see anything for some time. Then your eyes adjust in 10-20 seconds. Similarly, after being exposed to bright light continuously, once you go to normal light condition, vision will be blurred temporarily till the eyes adjust to it. So you need not worry. In case there is any problem/ symptoms, feel free to contact me. Regards.
2 people found this helpful

What is the approximate cost for squint surgery? Am I become normal like others after the operation? I also want to know the cost of operation for treatment of myopia. My lens power is -3D.

DO, Diploma in Ophthalmology, MBBS
Ophthalmologist, Faridabad
Your squint needs to be evaluated by an eye specialist. The cost will depend on the degree of squint & the no. Of muscles to be operated. Success rate again depends on your vision before surgery. Squint may reappear if you were amblyopic. The cost of myopia surgery depends on the type of surgery you are undergoing. LASIK, being the most common, may cost you between 18000/- to 90000/-(Both Eyes, depending upon the type of LASIK undergone.

I have a eye problem called myopia and wearing glasses from 10 years almost and my eye power is also more ,so can I go for lasik eye surgery if yes then how much its cost?

MBBS, DOMS, MS - Ophthalmology, Fellowship In Phacoemusification, Senior Consultant Surgeon
Ophthalmologist, Patna
LASIK is refractive surgery to correct myopia ,hypermetropia & astigmatism, refractive surgery also include intraocular ocular lens procedure. For LASIK your eyes must be healthy, if you have persistent dry eyes, LASIK surgery may aggravate this condition resulting in burning sensation & blurring of vision after LASIK.   For LASIK cornea must  have sufficient thickness because in reshaping of cornea, you loose the thickness of cornea & if your cornea is too ,you are not  fit case for LASIK.  1D of myopic correction consumes 35 micron of cornea, Average thickness of cornea in Indian is around from 450 micron to 500 micron &after lasik there should be around 300 micron thickness of cornea  for safety of eyes in future.  Pupils are usually large in myopic people &who undergo lasik or smile lasik resulting  in side effects such as  halos, glares especially when driving at night.  Lasik for treatment of high refractive errors are less predictable because very high amount of myopia could require removal of too much corneal tissue putting cornea at high risk of vision complications.     Lasik should not be undertaken before 21 years in male&19 years in female because myopic power increases by that age. You must have stable vision before LASIK.  There is no upper age limit but one should keep in mind that once you are 40 years old, you may still need reading glass due to presbyopia changing every two years till you develop cataract in old age.    Contraindication for lasik-degenerative  disease, sjogren syndrome, type one  diabetes etc.  People who are taking immuno suppressant must think ten times before undergoing for LASIK.   One must go for LASIK screening before taking decision for LASIK.  One who  undergoes  for LASIK  should be fully aware of potential lasik complications & should not hide anything from operating surgeon about health.

Table of Content

What is Myopia?

What usually causes myopia?

Treatment for myopia:

Types of surgery to treat myopia:

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Refractive Error & Myopia
Refractive error is when the shape of your eye fails in bending the light correctly leading to a blurred image. One of the main types of refractive errors are myopia
Having issues? Consult a doctor for medical advice