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Myopia Tips

All About Myopia And Its Treatment In Homeopathy!

Dr. Swarup Kumar Ghosh 89% (82 ratings)
MD - Bio-Chemistry, MF Homeo (London), DHMS (Diploma in Homeopathic Medicine and Surgery), BHMS
Homeopath, Kolkata
All About Myopia And Its Treatment In Homeopathy!

Myopia -

--> A condition in which close objects appear clearly, but far ones don't.

--> People with myopia can have difficulty clearly seeing a movie or tv screen or the whiteboard in school.

Myopia symptoms and signs:-

If you are nearsighted, you typically will have difficulty reading road signs and seeing distant objects clearly, but will be able to see well for close-up tasks such as reading and computer use.
Other signs and symptoms of myopia include squinting, eye strain and headaches. Feeling fatigued when driving or playing sports also can be a symptom of uncorrected nearsightedness.
If you experience these signs or symptoms while wearing your glasses or contact lenses, schedule a comprehensive eye examination with your optometrist or ophthalmologist to see if you need a stronger prescription.

What causes myopia?

Myopia occurs when the eyeball is too long, relative to the focusing power of the cornea and lens of the eye. This causes light rays to focus at a point in front of the retina, rather than directly on its surface.
Nearsightedness also can be caused by the cornea and/or lens being too curved for the length of the eyeball. In some cases, myopia is due to a combination of these factors.
Myopia typically begins in childhood and you may have a higher risk if your parents are nearsighted. In most cases, nearsightedness stabilizes in early adulthood but sometimes it continues to progress with age.

Myopia treatment:-

Nearsightedness can be corrected with glasses, contact lenses or refractive surgery. Depending on the degree of your myopia, you may need to wear your glasses or contact lenses all the time or only when you need very clear distance vision, like when driving, seeing a chalkboard or watching a movie.

Good choices for eyeglass lenses for nearsightedness include high-index lenses (for thinner, lighter glasses) and anti-reflective coating. Also, consider photochromic lenses to protect your eyes from UV and high-energy blue light and to reduce your need for a separate pair of prescription sunglasses outdoors.

If you're nearsighted, the first number (" sphere") on your eyeglasses prescription or contact lens prescription will be preceded by a minus sign (–). The higher the number, the more nearsighted you are.

The advantage of homeopathic treatment:-
Homeopathy is a wonderful science of treatment with medicines made from natural substances. These medicines are safe from toxic side-effects and make a dynamic impact at the root level to heal the condition and restore good health. A major advantage of the homeopathic mode of treatment in myopia is that it stops further progression of the condition. Homeopathic medicines can thus provide supportive treatment in myopia. They are equally effective in persons of all age groups.

Homeopathic medicines for myopia:-
Top grade homeopathic medicines for myopia are pysostigma, Ruta, Viola odorata, oleum animale, and phosphorus.

  • Pysostigma - Pysostigma is well indicated for nearsightedness which is progressing rapidly, accompanied by pain in the orbits. The person experiences photophobia along with blurred vision. Spasm of the ciliary muscle, irritability of the eyes and dim vision are treated best with pysostigma.
  • Ruta - Ruta is one the most suitable homeopathic medicines for myopia with a severe headache. The person experiences pain while reading, sewing and performing other near-sighted activities. The weakness of the ciliary muscles and blurred vision are the signs to look out for prescription of Ruta. Ruta acts very well for eyestrain occurring from overuse of eyes.
  • Viola Odorata - Another of the useful homeopathic medicines for myopia is viola odorata. Myopia, where it is accompanied by severe pain in the eyes, is treated most effectively with homeopathic medicine viola odorata. In such cases, the person complains of severe pain in the eyes which radiates to the top of the head (vertex). The heaviness of the eyelids, flames before the eyes and nearsightedness are other symptoms that merit use of Viola odorata
  • Oleum Animale - Oleum animale is one of the most wonderful homeopathic medicines for myopia where the symptoms include blurred vision with smarting in the eyes. The person often sees glistening bodies before his eyes and complains of dim vision. Nearsightedness accompanied by twitching of the eyelids is also treated well with homeopathic medicine oleum animale.
  • Phosphorus - Phosphorus is one of the most highly recommended homeopathic medicines for myopia. Fatigue of the eyes and head even when the eyes are not being overused is a key symptom for prescription of phosphorus. It is one of the best indicated homeopathic medicines for myopia with weak eyesight and an aversion to light. A feeling of having sand in the eyes which gets better by rubbing may also be present. Frequent itching in the eyes with profuse lachrymation is also present. Nearsightedness with atrophy of optic nerve is treated well with homeopathic medicine phosphorus as well.
2 people found this helpful

Symptoms And Treatment Of Myopia - Things You Should Know

Dr. Dipankar Anand 92% (10 ratings)
MBBS, MS - Ophthalmology, DNB, FICO(UK)
Ophthalmologist, Noida
Symptoms And Treatment Of Myopia - Things You Should Know

Myopia is also known by the name of nearsightedness. It is one of the most common refractive disorders of the eye. Over the years, it has become more prevalent. According to a recent study conducted by the National Eye Institute (NEI), myopia has grown more prevalent from 25 percent in 1972 to around 40% percent in 2004 in United States.

The exact cause of the prevalence of this disorder in USA is not known. However, many doctors are of the opinion that eye fatigue due to overuse of computers can be the primary reason behind the spread of this disorder. It could also be affected by genetical links.

Myopia Symptoms And Signs:

It is time to take care of your eyes if you have difficulty in reading the sign boards on road or seeing objects from a distance. This could be a sign for myopia if you are able to see things clearly from a closer distance. There are several symptoms of myopia, including strain on eyes, headaches and squinting. If these signs don’t vanish after wearing lenses or spectacles, you must visit your ophthalmologist.

What are the factors that cause Myopia or Nearsightedness?

It occurs at a time when the eyeball of the patient is too long. The lens of the patient will be too long as compared to the focusing power of the cornea or the eye lens. This condition leads to the focusing of light rays at a point in front of the retina. The rays don’t focus directly on the retina’s surface. Myopia can also be caused if the lens of the eye is too curved. Myopia can also be caused due to a combination of factors. The problem may start from childhood. You are also at the risk of developing the problem if your parents have had the problem.

Myopia Treatment:

Myopia is not a rare disorder of the eye. People living with myopia have several options of its treatment. It can be rectified or corrected with the help of spectacles and contact lenses. It can also be corrected by refractive surgery. The kind of treatment to be chosen depends upon the degree of your myopia. You will be asked to wear lenses or spectacles for a prescribed amount of time, depending upon the degree of your disorder.

If you are suffering from myopia, the doctor will prescribe you to wear spectacles or lenses of a certain power that will be preceded by a minus (-) sign.

3586 people found this helpful

Treating Myopia - Ways It Can Be Done

Dr. Monika Jethani 87% (13 ratings)
MS - Ophthalmology, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, Certificate Course In Contact Lens Dispensing, DNB - Opthalmology
Ophthalmologist, Vadodara
Treating Myopia - Ways It Can Be Done

Myopia is a common refractive error of the eye that makes it difficult to focus on far away objects. People who are nearsighted will see objects close to them clearly, while those further away appear blurry. Myopia is natural. An overall longer shape of the eye usually causes myopia, so it is a naturally occurring visual problem that cannot be prevented. Nearsightedness tends to run in families, but you don't need to have a myopic parent to develop it. Myopia begins at an early age and worsens in the teenage years, but generally stabilizes in adulthood.

Here are the most common signs and symptoms of myopia:

  1. Objects far away, like a chalkboard or road signs, appear blurry
  2. Persistent need to squint or close eyelids to see clearly
  3. Headaches due to eyestrain
  4. Difficulty seeing while driving a vehicle, especially at night (night myopia)
  5. Need to sit closer to the television, movie screen or the front of the classroom
  6. Holding books very close while reading
  7. Not able to notice distant objects

Causes of Myopia

Nearsightedness happens when your eye is longer than normal, or, less often, when your cornea is too curved. It’s a problem in the focusing mechanism of the eyes. However, the exact cause of myopia is not known. Research about myopia supports two key risk factors:

  1. Family history. If one or both parents are nearsighted, the chance of their children developing it increases.
  2. Working up close. Myopia may be helped along by how a person uses their eyes. Intense detail work, long hours in front of a computer or reading can also increase the chances of developing myopia.

Treatment Options for Myopia (Nearsightedness)

When treating myopia, the goal is to help your eyes focus on far away objects. The most common way to achieve this is through

  1. Corrective glasses
  2. Contact lenses
  3. Refractive eye surgery, such as LASIK, is available for adults and those with moderate to high levels of nearsightedness

Adults who have developed cataracts may also have their myopia corrected with an intraocular lens (IOL) that replaces the human lens during cataract surgery. The most appropriate treatment depends on your eyes and your lifestyle. Nearsightedness can also be corrected as part of the cataract surgery procedure.

  1. Contacts and Glasses: Eyeglasses and contact lenses can correct myopia. However, they cannot stop the eye from growing longer or cure the irregular curve of the cornea that causes your blurry vision.
  2. Surgery: Surgery can decrease or eliminate dependency on eyeglasses and contact lenses. LASIK surgery is the most common type of surgery to correct myopia.
  3. ICL (intraocular collamer lenses) or phakic lensesIn adults with cataracts, is an option for those myopic patients who are not suitable for lasik surgery due to either less corneal thickness or very high myopia.
  4. Orthokeratology: A new type of treatment which offers an alternate solutions to people who are suffering from myopia. This is also known as Ortho-K. As a part of this procedure a person has to wear specialized lens overnight, to correct the vision for the next day. Orthokeratology is a process that uses specially designed GP contact lenses to temporarily reshape the contour of the cornea to reduce myopia (nearsightedness). In addition to the benefit of lens-free daytime vision, orthokeratology is starting to be appreciated for its ability to slow the progression of myopia. A number of published clinical studies have found that orthokeratology lens designs inhibit the growth of the eye's axial length, which determines the degree of myopia.
4 people found this helpful

Refractive Surgery For Myopia And ICL - What All Should You Know?

Dr. Ashok Hansaria 87% (63 ratings)
MBBS, M S (Ophthalmology )
Ophthalmologist, Delhi
Refractive Surgery For Myopia And ICL - What All Should You Know?

Myopia is a refractive defect in vision, which mainly occurs when light does not focus on the retina of the eye. Myopia, also called shortsightedness is the condition where distant objects look obscure or are blurred. This is because light is focused in front of the retina rather than onto it, which causes blurring of the distant objects.

American Optometric Association estimates that almost 30% of people suffer from myopia globally.

Causes-

  1. Children are diagnosed with myopia usually between 8 to 12 years of age. During this phase, a child experiences a growth spurt, and the body undergoes several changes. The eyes are no exception to this rule as the shape of the eyes change too. However, in some children this change can manifest as eye problems like myopia.
  2. In Adults, myopia is a secondary problem caused by primary problems like diabetes.
  3. Constantly staring at a computer/mobile screen at a stretch can tire out your visual apparatus. Once this happens, the eyes will try to adjust and consequently, myopia occurs.
  4. Genetic predisposition

Refractive Surgery-
Refractive surgery is an effective method, used for correcting your vision. There are various surgical procedures meant for adjusting the eye's focusing capability. This is done by altering the shape of the cornea (the transparent layer forming the front of the eye), or clearing the front portion of your eye. Another procedure includes embedding a lens inside your eye. LASIK (laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis) is a widely performed surgery used to reshape the cornea of the eyes. Other procedures include Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK), Laser-assisted sub epithelial keratomileusis (LASEK) and Epithelial laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (Epi-LASIK).

This is further divided into two main procedures-

  1. Surface Treatment where the skin on the surface of the cornea is removed and then the laser is applied on the surface of the stroma. The laser corrects myopia and modifies the shape of the cornea.
  2. Flap treatment also called laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK), employs a blade or a special laser in order to cut a thin flap on the surface of the cornea, which is then peeled backwards, and the laser is applied on the body of the cornea. At the end, the flap is replaced.

While suffering from myopia, the images are focused in front of the retina due to a longer eye or steeper corneal curve. After surgery, the images are pushed directly onto the retina or closer.

Complications-

  • Scarring
  • Infections
  • Overcorrected or undercorrected vision
  • Loss of the corneal flap or the need of a corneal graft

Benefits of the Surgery-
Refractive surgery is a good option for the patients because-

  1. It reduces the dependence on glasses or contact lens
  2. They do not cause any eye disease
  3. Offers a safe and stable refractive eyesight

Post-Operative Care-
A comprehensive eye evaluation is to be done to evaluate the physiological and anatomic condition of the eye. The doctor also prescribes certain eye drops that should be routinely applied.

Implantable Contact Lens-
The ICL (Implantable Contact Lens) is a ‘refractive error solution’ for those who wish to remove power for high quality vision correction. It is also used to correct the widest range of myopia.
ICL is a soft contact lens implanted into the eye through a small incision. The procedure takes only 5-10 minutes. Since it is like a permanent fixture of the eye, there is no need to remove it frequently, unlike any normal contact lens, which requires a lot of maintenance.

Advantages-

  1. It is less painful and needs no hospital stays
  2. Provides good quality and sharp vision
  3. Can be easily removed or replaced
  4. It is invisible from the outside
  5. Recovery and healing is faster

Implanted in over thousands of people worldwide, the amazing improvement in vision quality after using ICL has proved its capability over the last 15 years. Some people also consider ICL as an alternative to LASIK because the ICL takes refractive surgery beyond the limits of LASIK. Hence, the ICL is not just an alternative; it is a good choice for superior quality of vision.

3547 people found this helpful

Myopia - Most Common Signs That Indicate It!

Dr. Rashi Jain 87% (170 ratings)
MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, MS - Ophthalmology
Ophthalmologist, Faridabad
Myopia - Most Common Signs That Indicate It!

What Is Myopia (Nearsightedness)?

Myopia is a common refractive error of the eye that makes it difficult to focus on far away objects. People who are nearsighted will see objects close to them clearly, while those further away appear blurry. Myopia is natural. An overall longer shape of the eye usually causes myopia, so it is a naturally occurring visual problem that cannot be prevented. Nearsightedness tends to run in families, but you don't need to have a myopic parent to develop it. Myopia begins at an early age and worsens in the teenage years, but generally stabilizes in adulthood.

Here are the most common signs and symptoms of myopia:

  1. Objects far away, like a chalkboard or road signs, appear blurry
  2. Persistent need to squint or close eyelids to see clearly
  3. Headaches due to eyestrain
  4. Difficulty seeing while driving a vehicle, especially at night (night myopia)
  5. Need to sit closer to the television, movie screen or the front of the classroom
  6. Holding books very close while reading
  7. Not able to notice distant objects

Causes of Myopia

Nearsightedness happens when your eye is longer than normal, or, less often, when your cornea is too curved. It’s a problem in the focusing mechanism of the eyes. However, the exact cause of myopia is not known. Research about myopia supports two key risk factors:

  1. Family history. If one or both parents are nearsighted, the chance of their children developing it increases.
  2. Working up close. Myopia may be helped along by how a person uses their eyes. Intense detail work, long hours in front of a computer or reading can also increase the chances of developing myopia.

Treatment Options for Myopia (Nearsightedness)

When treating myopia, the goal is to help your eyes focus on far away objects. The most common way to achieve this is through

  1. Corrective glasses
  2. Contact lenses
  3. Refractive eye surgery, such as LASIK, is available for adults and those with moderate to high levels of nearsightedness

Adults who have developed cataracts may also have their myopia corrected with an intraocular lens (IOL) that replaces the human lens during cataract surgery. The most appropriate treatment depends on your eyes and your lifestyle. Nearsightedness can also be corrected as part of the cataract surgery procedure.

  1. Contacts and Glasses: Eyeglasses and contact lenses can correct myopia. However, they cannot stop the eye from growing longer or cure the irregular curve of the cornea that causes your blurry vision.
  2. Surgery: Surgery can decrease or eliminate dependency on eyeglasses and contact lenses. LASIK surgery is the most common type of surgery to correct myopia.
  3. ICL (intraocular collamer lenses) or phakic lensesIn adults with cataracts, is an option for those myopic patients who are not suitable for lasik surgery due to either less corneal thickness or very high myopia.
  4. Orthokeratology: A new type of treatment which offers an alternate solutions to people who are suffering from myopia. This is also known as Ortho-K. As a part of this procedure a person has to wear specialized lens overnight, to correct the vision for the next day. Orthokeratology is a process that uses specially designed GP contact lenses to temporarily reshape the contour of the cornea to reduce myopia (nearsightedness). In addition to the benefit of lens-free daytime vision, orthokeratology is starting to be appreciated for its ability to slow the progression of myopia. A number of published clinical studies have found that orthokeratology lens designs inhibit the growth of the eye's axial length, which determines the degree of myopia.
2368 people found this helpful

Difference Between Myopia And Hypermetropia!

Dr. Ashok Hansaria 87% (63 ratings)
MBBS, M S (Ophthalmology )
Ophthalmologist, Delhi
Difference Between Myopia And Hypermetropia!

While Myopia and Hypermetropia are refractive defects in vision, they are diametrically opposite in nature. The former is about distant vision problems while in the latter, you have trouble with nearby objects.
Both are common eye conditions that mainly occur when light does not focus on the retina of the eyes.

Myopia-
Also called nearsightedness, in this condition a distant object is not easily discernible. There is no problem while looking at closer or nearby objects. This is because light gets focused onto the front portion of the retina rather than onto it. Due to this, things in the distance appear fuzzy or blurred.

The retina, located at the back of the eye, is the screen upon which the lmage/light reflection falls. The light is then converted into electrical signals and sent to the brain. The brain then decoded these images.
A myopic or nearsighted eye has incorrect focus because of its abnormal shape. Sometimes it is too long, while sometimes the cornea (the transparent covering on the front of the eye which is rounded) itself is rounded.

Hypermetropia-
Hypermetropia or farsightedness is a condition when you can see distant objects clearly but nearby objects appear blurred.

A flat cornea is a major cause of farsightedness. This can also happen if your eyeball is shorter than normal. Because of this, light focuses beyond your retina instead of on it.

Symptoms-
Signs of nearsightedness are-

  • Headache
  • Squinting of the eyes
  • Eyes that hurt occasionally
  • Children have problem seeing the blackboard

The signs of farsightedness are-

  • Squinting while trying to see better
  • Aching or burning feeling in the eye
  • Headache or too much stress on the eyes while focusing on something close

Diagnosis and Treatments-
An Optometrist can correct both myopia and hypermetropia by advising patients to use prescription glasses or contact lenses specifically designed to counteract these abnormalities.

For shortsightedness, a minus powered concave lens (curved inwards) is used which is placed in front portion of the myopic eyes and the image is gradually moved back to the retina. As a result, the image clarifies. Some patients use contact lenses that provide clearer and wider vision glasses.

For long-sightedness, a convex lens (bend outward) is placed in front of a hypermetropic eye and the image is re-positioned to allow the image to focus correctly on the retina.

It is therefore, necessary to adhere to proper care and health standards to safeguard your health of your eye. Contacting a good eye doctor will enable you to determine which method will work the best, according to your own circumstances and condition.

3691 people found this helpful

Know Keratoconus!

Dr. Ikeda Lal 89% (24 ratings)
MBBS, MS - Ophthalmology, Fellowship in Cornea and Anterior Segment
Ophthalmologist, Delhi
Know Keratoconus!

Keratoconus leads to distortion of visionand ghost images. There is increase in cylindrical power, frequent change of glasses prescription with absence of sharp clear vision inspite of glases.

3 people found this helpful

Myopia - What's The Best Line Of Treatment For It?

Dr. Ravindra M.S. 84% (251 ratings)
MBBS, MD - Ophthalmology, Fellowship in Vitreo Retina, Fellowship in Cornea
Ophthalmologist, Bangalore
Myopia - What's The Best Line Of Treatment For It?

Myopia is also known by the name of nearsightedness. It is one of the most common refractive disorders of the eye. Over the years, it has become more prevalent. According to a recent study conducted by the National Eye Institute (NEI), myopia has grown more prevalent from 25 percent in 1972 to around 40% percent in 2004 in United States.

The exact cause of the prevalence of this disorder in USA is not known. However, many doctors are of the opinion that eye fatigue due to overuse of computers can be the primary reason behind the spread of this disorder. It could also be affected by genetical links.

Myopia Symptoms And Signs:

It is time to take care of your eyes if you have difficulty in reading the sign boards on road or seeing objects from a distance. This could be a sign for myopia if you are able to see things clearly from a closer distance. There are several symptoms of myopia, including strain on eyes, headaches and squinting. If these signs don’t vanish after wearing lenses or spectacles, you must visit your ophthalmologist.

What are the factors that cause Myopia or Nearsightedness?

It occurs at a time when the eyeball of the patient is too long. The lens of the patient will be too long as compared to the focusing power of the cornea or the eye lens. This condition leads to the focusing of light rays at a point in front of the retina. The rays don’t focus directly on the retina’s surface. Myopia can also be caused if the lens of the eye is too curved. Myopia can also be caused due to a combination of factors. The problem may start from childhood. You are also at the risk of developing the problem if your parents have had the problem.

Myopia Treatment:

Myopia is not a rare disorder of the eye. People living with myopia have several options of its treatment. It can be rectified or corrected with the help of spectacles and contact lenses. It can also be corrected by refractive surgery. The kind of treatment to be chosen depends upon the degree of your myopia. You will be asked to wear lenses or spectacles for a prescribed amount of time, depending upon the degree of your disorder.

If you are suffering from myopia, the doctor will prescribe you to wear spectacles or lenses of a certain power that will be preceded by a minus (-) sign. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

4384 people found this helpful

Myopia - Factors That Increase Your Risk!

Dr. Ashok Hansaria 87% (63 ratings)
MBBS, M S (Ophthalmology )
Ophthalmologist, Delhi
Myopia - Factors That Increase Your Risk!

Myopia is also known by the name of nearsightedness. It is one of the most common refractive disorders of the eye. Over the years, it has become more prevalent. According to a recent study conducted by the National Eye Institute (NEI), myopia has grown more prevalent from 25 percent in 1972 to around 40% percent in 2004 in United States.

The exact cause of the prevalence of this disorder in USA is not known. However, many doctors are of the opinion that eye fatigue due to overuse of computers can be the primary reason behind the spread of this disorder. It could also be affected by genetical links.

Myopia Symptoms And Signs:

It is time to take care of your eyes if you have difficulty in reading the sign boards on road or seeing objects from a distance. This could be a sign for myopia if you are able to see things clearly from a closer distance. There are several symptoms of myopia, including strain on eyes, headaches and squinting. If these signs don’t vanish after wearing lenses or spectacles, you must visit your ophthalmologist.

What are the factors that cause Myopia or Nearsightedness?

It occurs at a time when the eyeball of the patient is too long. The lens of the patient will be too long as compared to the focusing power of the cornea or the eye lens. This condition leads to the focusing of light rays at a point in front of the retina. The rays don’t focus directly on the retina’s surface. Myopia can also be caused if the lens of the eye is too curved. Myopia can also be caused due to a combination of factors. The problem may start from childhood. You are also at the risk of developing the problem if your parents have had the problem.

Myopia Treatment:

Myopia is not a rare disorder of the eye. People living with myopia have several options of its treatment. It can be rectified or corrected with the help of spectacles and contact lenses. It can also be corrected by refractive surgery. The kind of treatment to be chosen depends upon the degree of your myopia. You will be asked to wear lenses or spectacles for a prescribed amount of time, depending upon the degree of your disorder.

If you are suffering from myopia, the doctor will prescribe you to wear spectacles or lenses of a certain power that will be preceded by a minus (-) sign.

Myopia is increasing worldwide probably because of wider use of mobile, including junk food or fast food consumption, inadequate sleep and ocular hygiene etc., apart from genetic aetiology. Various treatment are available and refractive surgery result are approved worldwide with progressive improvements in technology. There is no conservatives treatment to get rid of glasses like eye excercises. Walking bare foot on grass or applying saliva etc. Only recommended treatment of myopia is laser surgery for removal of glasses. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3383 people found this helpful

Myopia - Symptoms, Types, Treatment And More!

MBBS
Internal Medicine Specialist, Delhi
Myopia - Symptoms, Types, Treatment And More!

Myopia:

Myopia, also known as nearsightedness is a prevalent refractive disorder of the human eye, i.e. a disorder related to the abnormalities in the shape and size of the eyeball (or other parts of the eye), due to which the eye is not able to correctly focus light on the retina. 

In this condition, people are not able to see clearly objects that are far but can see close. Those having myopia usually find it difficult to watch TV or read the blackboard in school. 

Symptoms 

The most apparent symptom is that distant objects look blurred. Apart from this, some people may also have: 

• Squinting 

Headaches 

• Eye strain 

Fatigue while driving or during sports activities 

• Difficulty in reading road signs or blackboard in schools (for children with myopia)

 Causes: 

People with myopia have either extra-long eyeballs or their cornea is more curved due to which the light rays do not bend correctly into the eye, focusing in front of the retina, which is light-sensitive, instead of focusing directly on the retina, thus leading to blurred vision. 

Myopia can be inherited in families and its symptoms start appearing in childhood. It may improve or worsen with age if left untreated. 

While there is no proper evidence of whether myopia is a inheritable disease, but chances are that children whose parents are nearsighted, either one or both, may develop myopia.  

In fact, most of the times, the development of myopia in a person depends on how much care he/she takes of his/her eyes. People who work long hours at a computer, do extensive reading, or perform intense visual activities have greater chances of developing myopia. 

Usually, myopia/nearsightedness starts during childhood and gradually worsens around the age of 20. This doesn’t mean that myopia can’t occur in adults. In fact, it can also develop in adults because of eye stress or due to underlying diseases like diabetes

Complications/Types of Myopia 

Myopia can occur in varying degrees depending on: 

• the length of the eyeball, 

• how curved the cornea is, and 

• how strong the eye lens are. 

An eye test by the optometrist (optician) will show how much focusing power your eye has. Optometrists use Diopters to measure the focusing power of eyes. This shows how strong a lens needs to be to produce focused vision.  

It is generally written as “-5.00 dioptres (D)”. A minus sign on your glasses or contact lens prescription shows that you have myopia. A higher number means you have greater degree of near sightedness. Lens powers up to -3.00 dioptres (D) come under mild myopia. 

• Powers of -3.00 to -6.00D are considered moderate  

• Over and above -6.00D is taken as high myopia. 

Generally, people have myopia below -6.00D, but sometimes there may be cases of people having higher levels of myopia. The degree of their myopia can decide if there are further complications related to their eyes. People with myopia of up to -6.00D can easily deal with it with help of glasses or contact lenses, and they do not face further problems with their eyes. This is referred to as simple myopia. 

 High Myopia

In people with high myopia of more than -6.0 diopters or more, there is the risk of retina being detached. Retina is the tissue present at the back of the eye that sends image signals to the brain when light rays fall on it. If it is detached, it will be torn away from the choroid, the tissue lying under it. Retina gets its oxygen supply and other nutrients from the choroid. 

People with high myopia have the risk of developing cataract and glaucoma diseases. Cataract is the darkening of eye’s lens. Glaucoma is a set of diseases that impair the optic nerve, which transmits signs from the retina to the brain. Any of these conditions can lead to loss of sight. 

 Degenerative or pathological myopia  

People having higher than -6.00D myopia are at risk of few eye conditions that require more extensive treatment rather than correcting it with just contact lenses or glasses. This is called degenerative or pathological myopia, which is a rare condition. 

In this condition, the eyeball becomes excessively long that impairs the proper functioning of the retina, the optic nerve, the choroid, and other components of the eyes.  

Symptoms of degenerative myopia first emerge in childhood and gradually worsen once adolescence and adulthood is reached. There is no treatment to stop the elongation of the eye; but other complications like retinal detachment, macular edema (which happens due to building up of fluid in the center of the retina), and glaucoma can be corrected. 

Diagnosis/Treatment 

An eye test by an optometrist can detect if you have myopia. In general cases, contacts lenses, glasses or refractive surgery can easily treat your myopic condition. 

The prescription glasses or lenses are meant to support the eye in focusing light on your retina. That corrects your vision. 

Nowadays, people opt for eye surgery to correct their as they do not want to wear glasses or contact lenses. Common procedures for treatment of myopia are: 

• PRK (Photorefractive keratectomy): In this procedure, a laser is used to shape the mid layer of the cornea of the eye. This helps to flatten/correct the cornea’s curve which was preventing light rays to focus on the retina. After the correction of the cornea curve, the light rays can focus directly on the retina thus producing accurate images. 

LASIK surgery: This is a popular procedure and most preferred surgery for myopia. In this procedure, a laser is used to make a thin flap on the top of the cornea. The cornea is then shaped with another laser and the flap is brought back into its position. 

• Orthokeratology: This is a non-surgical method in which a person is made to wear specially designed Rigid Gas Permeable (RGP) or gas permeable contact lenses during the night. These lenses reshape the cornea while sleeping. Once the lenses are removed in the morning, the cornea retains the new shape for a temporary period, and the person is able to see clearly during the day without the help of any eyeglasses or corrective lenses. Orthokeratology also known as corneal refractive therapy (CRT) is effective only for improving mild to moderate levels of myopia for a temporary period. These procedures are used as alternatives to surgery for those persons who are not fit for LASIK or any other refractive surgery due to other health conditions. 

• Phakic intraocular lenses (IOLs) are another exclusive alternative for people who have high myopia and whose corneas, being very thin, do not permit LASIK and PRK surgeries. In this condition, Phakic lenses are surgically inserted into the eye to correct the focus of light on the retina. 

 Risk Factors 

Myopia is usually diagnosed around the ages of 8 to 12 (as per the National Eye Institute). At this age, the eyes are in the growth stage and the shape of the eyes may also change. A person diagnosed with myopia in childhood may remain nearsighted till adulthood.  Other people with diseases like diabetes may also become nearsighted at later stages. 

Nearsightedness often results in visual stress as a risk factor. If a person does extensive reading or uses laptops for long hours, he/she may suffer from eye strain. 

Nearsightedness or myopia can run in families. If your mother or father or both of them are nearsighted, it is much possible that you inherit the condition from them. 

 Preventing/Controlling Myopia 

The fast changing lifestyle and use of more technology and computers has further led to increase in the percentage of people being affected by myopia. Research and studies are ongoing to control the development of myopia in childhood itself. 

A lot of new techniques have been experimented upon — such as progressive lenses for children, bifocals, and gas permeable contact lenses — that have shown mixed results. 

A New Zealand research reported positive results from expressly designed "dual focus" soft contact lenses for controlling nearsightedness in children. These lenses are designed to reduce the inclination for unnecessary lengthening of the eye which causes myopia.  Such experimental lenses are still under research and are not available to use unless proper evidence of positive outcome is achieved. 

 Myths 

 Myth 1: Contact lenses or Glasses will worsen my Myopia

Reality: A common myth is that people think wearing glasses will further degrade their vision. But the truth is that prescription glasses help correct your vision and focus on objects more clearly. If there is any inconvenience like headaches or eye strain while wearing your lenses or spectacles, you need to check the power of your lenses which may be either high or low, thus causing headaches or eye stress. It is suggested that you conduct a comprehensive eye test to know the degree of your nearsightedness and get optimal lens upgrades.

 Myth 2: Using lesser Lens Power will control my Myopia  

Reality: Absolutely wrong! The lens power is determined only after a comprehensive eye exam by an optometrist. The power is prescribed as per the severity of the refractive error. If you use lesser power lens, it will not help see objects correctly as required and may even worsen the condition of your eyes.

 Myth 3: Childhood Myopia will improve with Age

Reality: There is no evidence to this myth. Myopia usually develops in childhood and may continue during adulthood. Also, there is no proof that a person cannot develop myopia in later ages.  Lifestyle irregularities and other diseases can trigger the onset of myopia in adults as well.

 Myth 4: LASIK Surgery will permanently cure Myopia

Reality: Undergoing LASIK is a proven method of correcting myopia. It helps correct the distorted shape of your cornea, leading to improved light focus.  It relieves you from wearing lenses and glasses for long. However, it does not guarantee that myopia will not reoccur in your life. With age and other health conditions, people may experience nearsightedness or other problems in vision.

 FAQs

Q: Why does Myopia occur?

Answer: Myopia occurs when the distance between your eyes’ front and back parts becomes too long. This is a refractive error which also results from incorrect curvature of your cornea or from thickening of your eye lenses. These abnormalities in the shape and size of eye parts cause light rays to be focused in front of the retina rather than directly on it.

 Q: What do I know if I have Myopia?

Answer: Common symptom is when you experience difficulties in understanding or seeing far objects easily.  You will still have no problems in seeing close objects. You may also get eyestrain and headaches while working or doing computer tasks. Street signs may appear blurred while driving. In all such cases, you need to visit your Ophthalmologist to check your eyes.

 Q: Can myopia be inherited?

Answer: Yes, heredity may be one reason in your chances of developing this problem. If your parents are nearsighted, you may develop this problem as well. However, there are other causes that may lead to this condition apart from getting it from your families.

 Q: How is Myopia controlled?

Answer: Getting corrective lenses and eyeglasses can cure the problem that occurs due to myopia. It will help focus light rays correctly on your retina, and you will be able to see better images from a distance.  

You may also consider LASIK and other refractive surgeries. Apart from these, yoga and vision therapy are also becoming popular means of maintaining eye health. These are meant to perform eye exercises, thus inducing enhanced coordination of your eyes with the brain.

 Q: Are reading glasses same as distance glasses or different?

Answer: Reading glasses (with a plus sign) are convex lenses that move objects far away and reduce accommodation (focusing effort). Distance glasses, called minus lenses, are concave lenses that move objects closer and increase accommodation.

 Q: When and for how long should plus lenses be used?

Answer: Plus lenses should be while extensive reading, computer use, while watching TV, and during other activities that require close examination.  

 Q: What to do when eyes become too tired or stressed when wearing plus lenses?

Answer: Stop wearing them for some time and if the problem persists, consult your eye doctor to examine your eyes.

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