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Overview

Multiple Sclerosis - Symptom, Treatment And Causes

What is Multiple Sclerosis?

Multiple sclerosis is a disease that affects the central nervous system namely the spinal cord and the brain. It has the potential to disable a person. If a person has multiple sclerosis, the immune system goes on the offense against myelin the sheath that protects nerve fibers. This results in problems in communication between the brain and the rest of the body. In course of time, the disease causes deterioration of the nerves. The nerves may also get damaged forever. The cure for multiple sclerosis still eludes medical science. But, treatment is available that hastens the recovery of patients from attacks, keep the symptoms within manageable limits and modify how the disease plays out in the patient’s life.

Causes of Multiple Sclerosis

Like its cure, the cause of multiple sclerosis is yet to be determined. It is an autoimmune disease in which the myelin comes under threat from the body’s own immune system. Myelin is analogous to a coat of insulation on wires that conduct electricity. Myelin damage results in nerves vulnerable to damage and dysfunction. The exact reason why multiple sclerosis develop in some while others are spared of the ordeal is not clear. Scientists suspect a combination of genes and the environment to be the culprit behind the disease.

Risk Factors of Multiple Sclerosis

  • Age- though multiple sclerosis has been found to occur in people of all ages those between 16-60 are particularly vulnerable.
  • Gender- Women are two times more likely to be affected by the disease than men.
  • Genetics- If a sibling or a parent has multiple sclerosis the risks of developing the disease are higher.
  • Medical Conditions- Certain infectious viruses have been found to have links with multiple sclerosis. Some autoimmune diseases like type 1 diabetes, thyroid or inflammatory bowel disease increase the risk of having the disease.
  • Race of a person- White individuals particularly those who have descended from Northern Europe have the highest risks of having the disease. African, Asian and native Americans are least likely to develop the disease.
  • Climate- A temperate climate encourages the development of the disease.
  • Smoking- Smokers are more prone to relapse-remitting multiple sclerosis.

Complications

People with multiple sclerosis are at risk of developing the following complications:

  • Stiffness or spasms of muscles.
  • Paralysis particularly in the legs.
  • Bowel, bladder or sexual dysfunction.
  • The disease may also initiate mental changes like mood swings or proneness to forget things.
  • Epilepsy
  • Depression
Treatable by medical professional Require medical diagnosis Lab test sometimes required Chronic: can last for years or be lifelong Non communicable
Symptoms
Weakness and numbness on one or both the limbs Complete or partial loss of vision Continuous double vision Pain on the whole body Tingling sensation on the body Slurred speech Fatigue

Popular Health Tips

Anorgasmia - Causes + Symptoms

Dr. Rahman 92% (731 ratings)
Bachelor of Unani Medicine and Surgery (B.U.M.S)
Sexologist, Chennai
Anorgasmia - Causes + Symptoms
What is anorgasmia? The reduced ability to orgasm or the inability to orgasm post sufficient stimulation is called anorgasmia. This disorder is quite common in women. In fact, most women cannot orgasm with vaginal stimulation alone. Some require clitoral stimulation by rubbing or oral sex. What are the types of anorgasmia? Generalized anorgasmia: Orgasms are not achieved with any partner, be it in any situation Lifelong anorgasmia: No orgasms have ever been felt Acquired anorgasmia: You have climaxed before but due to certain factors, be it emotional or physical, you have stopped getting orgasms Situational anorgasmia: Here you may have been able to orgasm before but only in certain positions or a particular partner. What may cause anorgasmia? Orgasms can be complex things. It involves the combination of physical, emotional and psychological factors. Anorgasmia can occur if any of the above is affected. Physical causes Medical illnesses: Diseases such as diabetes or multiple sclerosis can result in anorgasmia. Medications: Medicines, for example, antidepressants, anti- histamines, cardio-vascular agents can meddle with climaxes. Smoking and Alcohol: Excessive alcohol consumption can mess with the ability to peak; smoking constraints the blood vessels, thus having a similar impact on both the sexes. Gynaecologic issues: Surgeries such as hysterectomy or surgeries of carcinoma can hamper with the capacity to accomplish climaxes. Mental Causes: Poor self-perception Embarrassment Anxiety or dejection Financial issues and stress Fear of Sexually Transmitted Diseases or pregnancy Past passionate or sexual mishandle Relationship issues Fights or clashes in the relationship No fascination toward the partner Lack of association Infidelity Poor association with partner in regards to sexual needs What are the symptoms of anorgasmia? The symptom of anorgasmia is the inability to achieve orgasms in spite of sufficient sexual stimulation. It could be because of your partner or because of the position that does not really hit your spot.
3520 people found this helpful

Hirsutism - 4 Ways it Can be Treated!

Dr. Shaivalini Kamarapu 92% (287 ratings)
MBBS, MS - Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Gynaecologist, Warangal
Hirsutism - 4 Ways it Can be Treated!
There are women who feel their looks are spoilt because of the presence of excessive body hair. While hair on women's body is common, excessive body hair isn't a normal condition and must be taken seriously. Women are generally unaware that the condition is known as Hirsutism. What is Hirsutism? Hirsutism can be defined as growth of excessive facial and body hair in women. With the world obsessed with flawless skin, such changes from feminine hair pattern (soft, fine, vellus hair) to masculine hair pattern (hard, dark, terminal hair) in a woman is generally unwelcoming and, hence, very distressing for the woman. Why do some women develop Hirsutism? In order to understand the reasons for such excessive growth in some women, it is important to understand the differences in the physiology of men and women. The male or female appearance of one's body is dependent on a delicate balance between male and female sex hormones. There is a predominance of the hormone estrogen in a woman's body, whereas androgens (testosterone) are the predominant sex hormones among men. However, some amount of androgens is secreted by the ovaries and adrenal glands (located next to kidneys) in women also. But, an excessive production of these hormones results in Hirsutism. Hormonal imbalance is by far the most common cause of Hirsutism. Causes of Hirsutism The common causes of hirsutism include: 1. Endocrine causes Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) - PCOS is a condition of hormonal imbalance in the body, which can result in an irregular menstrual cycle, enlarged ovaries with a cystic appearance on USG, infertility, obesity and hirsutism. For more information on the causes and management of PCOS. Cushing's syndrome - Excessive production of hormone Cortisol by the adrenal glands can lead to symptoms such as high blood pressure, abdominal obesity, skin discoloration, muscle weakness, irregular menstruation, and hirsutism etc. This syndrome is known as Cushing's syndrome. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) - CAH is a condition of excessive production of hormones Androgens and Cortisol by the adrenal glands and generally manifests in childhood in the form of virilization. In such cases, CAH can present with symptoms such as ambiguous genitals, obesity, hypertension etc. However, sometimes the manifestation of CAH is deferred to early adulthood and results in milder symptoms, hirsutism being one of them. 2. Tumors - Tumors in ovary or adrenal glands can again cause hirsutism due to excessive production of androgens 3. Medications Long term steroid consumption (commonly used for immunosuppression, rheumatoid arthritis, and multiple sclerosis) Performance enhancing drugs (often used by athletes) 4. Idiopathic - The woman may be having hirsutism despite normal hormone levels Treatments There are essentially two lines of treatment for hirsutism - one is medical management and the other is a cosmetic treatment. Medical treatments for hirsutism - 1. Birth control pills - It's possible to reduce the severity and intensity of hair growth using birth control pills- the most commonly prescribed medical intervention! The birth control pills help by decreasing the production of androgens by ovaries. Besides this, estrogen present in the pills also helps the liver to produce more of sex hormone binding protein- these proteins bind to circulating androgens, thereby reducing their action on the body. Both these actions help in reducing the growth of hair on the body. 2. Anti-androgen medications - There are three categories of anti-androgen medications, which are commonly used for the treatment of hirsutism. - Spironolactone - Spironolactone is a diuretic medicine, which blocks the effects of androgens on the hair follicles, thus controlling hair growth. - Finasteride - Finasteride works by blocking the conversion of body testosterone into its more potent chemical entity, thereby limiting the effect of testosterone on hair growth. - Flutamide - Flutamide is a potent anti-androgen, which blocks the actions of androgens and helps in controlling the hair growth. However, we have to ensure that the woman is not pregnant when taking any of these three medications. These medicines are often combined with oral contraceptives, which also have a synergistic effect in reducing the severity of hirsutism. One should also seek an expert opinion before starting these medications as there can be serious side effects, especially on liver. 3. Steroids - Low dose dexamethasone can be used to control the overactive adrenal glands when used carefully. However, long-term steroid therapy has got its own side effects and this therapy should only be considered under expert care and guidance. 4. Insulin sensitizing medicines - Medicines such as Metformin and Pioglitazone (Basically these are anti-diabetic medications) help in reducing insulin resistance in the body, which, in turn, helps in controlling the effects of excessive circulating androgens. Cosmetic treatment for hirsutism - One very important aspect of cosmetic management of hirsutism is self-care. This can include shaving, waxing, use of depilators and bleaching creams. All these measures help to reduce the amount of visible hair in undesired parts of the body. But, this needs to be done very frequently for a sustained visible effect. Permanent hair removal is also possible using electrolysis or LASER treatment. In electrolysis treatment, electric current is passed into the hair follicle using a needle, which damages the root of the hair permanently. Similarly, LASER treatment uses LASER to destroy the hair follicle. Both these are effective methods to get rid of the undesired hair. However, we do not yet know if there are any long-term complications or side effects of these methods and these methods are not yet approved by the US FDA.
4029 people found this helpful

Mood Swings - Can You Treat it With Homeopathy?

Dr. Ankush Rai 88% (75 ratings)
BHMS
Homeopath, Delhi
Mood Swings - Can You Treat it With Homeopathy?
What are mood swings? There are days when you feel a sudden surge of excitement and days when you find yourself beating the blues and on those days you struggle. You will be surprised to know that even emotional problems have a cure that is natural and without any side effects. What causes Mood Swings? Most people know that our brain produces a good mood hormone called serotonin. If we do not produce enough of it or it gets broken down too quickly, then a low mood results. Various genetic factors and your surroundings also play a huge role in determining your mood, but the way you perceive things can change your attitude towards them. Physical Illness: A physical illness can be followed by depression, esp. those like cancer, AIDS, and heart diseases etc which carry serious implications.. Result of diseases: Depression or mania could be the presenting feature of cerbrovascular disease, neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis. Symptoms of Depression Depression of mood is the primary symptom. There may be a diurnal variation of mood, depression being most distressing early in the morning or at the end of the day. Loss of pleasure in life (anhedonia) Loss of interest in oneself and others Low self esteem Self blame Hopelessness Suicidal thinking Feeling of guilt and worthlessness Sleep disturbance (initial insomnia, early morning wakening or hypersomnia) Poor concentration Fatigue How can you treat depression with Homeopathy? Most treatments comprise of drugs and other anti depressants that take a toll of a person s mental and physical health because of this various side effects. Therefore treatment like these may not always solve your issue completely, this is when homeopathy comes to your rescue. Homeopathy offers very good treatment possibilities for depression with good results. There are a large number of medicines which can be used and the selection of medicine depends not just on the symptoms, but also on the cause. Like all psychological disorders, depressive illness also requires good case study and continuous monitoring by a competent homeopath. One should not try any form of self-medication Some of the commonly indicated medicines are anacardium, arsenic-alb, aurum-met, ignatia, acid-phos, pulsatilla, natrum-mur, sepia, antim-crud, naja, nux-vom, stann, psorinum etc. The selection of medicine varies from case to case.
3222 people found this helpful

Types, Causes And Symptoms of Myelopathy

Dr. Khalid Fiyaz 88% (10 ratings)
MBBS, Diploma In Orthopaedics (D. Ortho), DNB (Orthopedics)
Orthopedist, Bangalore
Types, Causes And Symptoms of Myelopathy
Myelopathy refers to any neurological deficit pertaining to the spinal cord. The three most common types of myelopathy are Cervical myelopathy, Lumbar myelopathy and Thoracic myelopathy. Here are the causes and symptoms of myelopathy. Causes: Injury: This is a very common cause of myelopathy. Any type of accident or even a traumatic event can cause myelopathy and perhaps even paralysis. Spinal stenosis: This is a condition in which the spinal cord narrows and is one of the leading causes of myelopathy. Degenerative disc disorders: As you get older, disc disorders are more likely to occur, as well as other conditions which affect the spinal column, such as osteoporosis, etc. Tumor: It is a little known fact that tumors very often do cause myelopathy. Multiple sclerosis: There are many other diseases, which may cause myelopathy and multiple sclerosis is one of them. Symptoms: There are many indications that you are suffering from myelopathy and should consult a medical expert. Here are some of them: Change in coordination: It refers to the state, wherein, all of a sudden you may find it harder to move certain limbs the way you want to. Sometimes, it may affect your whole body as well. Sudden muscle weakness: It is highly likely, that if you have myelopathy then you will experience sudden weakness in your muscles. Decreased hand-eye coordination: This is perhaps the biggest indicator of myelopathy since hand-eye coordination is directly linked to your spinal cord and brain and if they are not functioning properly then hand-eye coordination will be affected. These are just some of the symptoms of myelopathy, however, the doctor cannot diagnose myelopathy until he conduct certain tests. These tests include MRI scans and other tests as well as a regular physical check-up along with a check of your medical history.
2317 people found this helpful

Erectile Dysfunction - 12 Shocking Causes Behind it

Dr. Shamik Das 92% (165 ratings)
MD - Dermatology, MBBS
Sexologist, Kolkata
Erectile Dysfunction - 12 Shocking Causes Behind it
There is a general misconception about impotence and erectile dysfunction being two separate conditions. In fact, impotence is just another term for erectile dysfunction. If you have a problem in achieving an erection more than 70% of the times when you want to have sex, you are suffering from erectile dysfunction. Impotence is the same thing, but it also encompasses other concerns related to sexual health such as low libido and issues with ejaculation. Causes of erectile dysfunction Disruption of blood flow in the body or disruption in hormonal secretion and nerve supply to the body Vascular and neurological causes Occurrence of a disease known as atherosclerosis, which is caused due to smoking and diabetes. In this case, the arteries in the penis get narrowed and clogged. Neuropathy, which occurs because of diabetes or diabetic neuropathy Nerve damage because of a previous surgery around the pelvis area High blood pressure or hypertension also result in damaged arteries throughout the vascular system. Blood flow gets impaired and proper erection is hampered. Physical causes such as high cholesterol and obesity, Parkinson s disease and multiple cases of sclerosis Smoking, excessive drinking and substance abuse The reactions and side effects of certain medicines Several psychological factors such as depression, excessive stress, tension, and performance anxiety, which reduce libido Poor communication with the sexual partner Intake of several medicines such as alpha adrenergic blockers, beta blockers, chemotherapy medications and central nervous system depressants Treatment for erectile dysfunction Different treatments may be used to treat erectile dysfunction. These include the following: Medication: A group of drugs known as PDE-5 or phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors are used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. Vacuum devices: Vacuum erection devices help in providing an erection in men. A mechanical procedure is involved where the penis is made rigid using a vacuum pump sealed around it. This device draws blood and an erection becomes possible. Surgical treatment: Penile implants can be used to treat erectile dysfunction. Mechanical implants are used, which help to keep the penis hard. A vascular surgery is another option, which incorporates the correction of blood vessels responsible for erectile dysfunction. Natural treatment: There are a number of lifestyle changes that help a man naturally treat erectile dysfunction. Regular exercising, especially weight-bearing ones, not only aids in increasing blood flow, but also improves production of testosterone. Following a balanced diet with more intake of fruits and vegetables, limiting alcohol and avoiding smoking also generate positive results. The term impotence and erectile dysfunction are quite related as they indicate the same conditions. However, today the term erectile dysfunction is more popular over the term impotence. In case you experience any of the symptoms of this condition, you should consult a doctor immediately.
5739 people found this helpful

Popular Questions & Answers

Is it normal to marry a person who hvin medication of benign multiple sclerosis frm last 5 year, want to known what it is actually and its consequences.

Dr. Prerana Shah 91% (70 ratings)
MASLP
Speech Therapist, Mumbai
Multiple sclerosis is a neurodegenerative disease where myline covering around brain axons gets damaged. It's a progressive disorder which can affect body functions at various levels and degrees.

Sir, I am a 28 year old male. I would like to vaccinate myself for Hepatitis B, but I was diagnosed for sub clinical Hypothyroidism (hashimoto hypothyroidism) from an year with Anti TPO of 282.9 IU/ml. TSH (5.2). T3 (1.11) and T4 (7.0).The tests were of 6 months back. I am not on any medication. I have read in wikipedia that Hep-B vaccine can be a doubted-causative factor to another auto immune disease called Multiple sclerosis. I am little worried to take vaccine for this reason. Please clarify if I can take the vaccine ? Thanks for your help.

Dr. Prabhakar Laxman Jathar 95% (11270 ratings)
MBBS, CCEBDM, Diploma in Diabetology
Endocrinologist, Hubli-Dharwad
Mr. Lybrate-user, millions of people world over have taken hepatitis b vaccine, there no cases seen of multiple sclerosis after the vaccination. A number of studies have ben conducted to see if there is any linkage between hepatitis b vaccine and auto immune disorder. The results are reassuring, there is no such development. So you can go ahead with the vaccination.
6 people found this helpful

I use glycerin suppositories everyday, I cannot push my bowel. My muscles are weak as I have multiple sclerosis. I just cannot poop without suppositories. I walk for 30-50 mins daily, eat veggies n fruits n plenty of liquid. My query is, is it safe to use glycerin suppositories everyday.

Dr. S K Mittal 88% (3411 ratings)
MBBS
General Physician, Faridabad
its safe, Drink 2-3 glass of water in the morning empty stomach, and 3-4 litres of water during the day daily. Walk for minimum 5 minutes. You may also mix two spoons of isabgol in a glass of warm milk and drink it just before you go to bed. It will help. Thank You

Health Quizzes

Living With Schizophrenia

Dr. Anuj Khandelwal 89% (136 ratings)
MBBS, MD - Psychiatry
Sexologist, Mumbai
Genetics strongly determine whether you will have schizophrenia or not. True or false? Take this quiz to know now.
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Myths And Facts About Natural Acne Remedies

Dr. Avinash Bais 87% (217 ratings)
Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)
Ayurveda, Raipur
Chances of developing acne are increased if you have oily skin. True or false? Take this quiz to find out.
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Nature Remedies For Acne - Know The Myths And Facts!

Dr. Ketan Dangat 89% (2268 ratings)
Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS), MD - Ayurveda
Ayurveda, Pune
Natural acne treatments don't work; you need prescription drugs. True or false? Take this quiz to find out.
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Homeopathy And Better Sexual Performance

Dr. Pulak Mukherjee 89% (2033 ratings)
BHMS
Homeopath,
A woman will have little to no desire for sex after hitting menopause. True or False? Take this quiz to know now.
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Extraction - Is It the End or Beginning of Dental Problems?

Dr. Sundeep Khurana 89% (24 ratings)
BDS
Dentist, Faridabad
Healthy teeth are sometimes also extracted and it doesn't cause any dental problems. True or false? Take the quiz now.
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