I am Dr. Gautam Pinge, Internal Medicine Specialist, Evershine Nursing Home, Mumbai. A physician is basically an internist. An internist sees all the elements of the body from head to toe. Today I will talk about metabolic syndrome. This is the collage of 2-3 diseases. It is a combination of obesity, hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia. 40-50% Of the population in India is suffering from diabetes. While targeting metabolic syndrome, we need to see the patient's BMI. If your BMI falls under 18-24.9, you consider yo be normal. If BMI is between 24-30, you are pre-obese. 31 and above, you fall in obesity. This can be corrected with exercises and proper diet chart. Once your blood pressure and diet are targeted, almost 50% of BP problem comes down. Dietary modification is required. Restricted salt intake. Avoid fried and junk foods. Most important is nicotine. It aggravates the problem of BP.
Once you become obese, you tend to have diabetes, BP. Symptoms of BP is palpitation, occipital headache, loss of sleep, anxiety When it starts presenting with chest pain, breathlessness, it is always more dangerous. 3-6 months BP check-up is mandatory. Uncontrolled BP should be corrected with the help of the medicines. It may cause swelling in feet and breathlessness. Dyslipidemia is an improper level of cholesterol. LDL is bad and HDL is good cholesterol level. Increase in bad cholesterol in the body increases the risk of cardiovascular problem, neurological problem like stroke, angina. In general language, we call it a heart attack. Kidney problems can also occur. Types of diabetes: Type 1 and Type 2. Type 1 is present from the birth in which the body does not produce insulin. Break down of carbohydrates are required. Type 1 is present in adults, usually before the age of 18.
We encounter maximum patients with type 2 diabetes. In this, there is a deficiency of insulin. Type 2 can also start at an early age. Another type is gestational diabetes. It happens during pregnancy. Body starts gaining weight. Another diabetes is diabetes mellitus. We ask the patient to follow a strict diet and exercise. If your fasting and post lunch, both are deranged then we need to do a test HbA1c. Prediabetes - if the HbA1c level is between 6 to 6.5. Prediabetic can be treated with diet and exercises. Medicines are required to support a diabetic patient. In our country, there is always a fear of insulin. And we should never get scared of insulin because it is a kind of hormone which is getting produced in your body. Once the patient comes with the value of 10, it indicates that the body is not producing insulin. Tablets help the human body to produce more insulin. Diabetes and BP are lifestyle diseases. These can be treated with the modification of your lifestyle. Change your lifestyle and sleeping pattern. So that these diseases can be kept at the distance from you. These diseases run in the family.
Modify your lifestyle, diet and do regular exercises. Keep your weight under check. Get your regular check-ups done. These diseases start affecting your brain. Risk of stroke, dementia, cataract, heart deteriorating health. Person starts getting the problem of fatty liver. Patient may develop the problem of hepatitis and cirrhosis. Risk of peripheral neuropathy. The patient starts feeling like walking on cotton. They don't have much sensation. Patient starts getting pain in hand and legs. When the patient is walking, he/she doesn't come to know that they have got the injury in their leg. So, everything should be in control like diabetes, weight, BP. All comes under metabolic syndrome.