Menorrhagia refers to very heavy and prolonged menstrual bleeding or periods in women. The bleeding is abnormal in nature, and if this continues for a long time, a hysterectomy surgery needs to be carried out to solve the problem.
Bleeding during the night time and passage of large blood clots during menstruation are other symptoms of Menorrhagia.
The various possible causes of this kind of heavy menstrual bleeding are:
Hormonal imbalance, specifically of estrogen and progesterone is a common cause, which is more likely in adolescents and in women nearing menopause. Dysfunction in the ovaries also causes hormonal imbalance.
Non-cancerous tumors or fibroids may also be responsible for menorrhagia.
Using blood thinners may lead to menorrhagia.
An intrauterine device used for birth control measures can cause disturbance and may lead to heavy menstruation.
A condition known as adenomyosis, where the glands in the uterus lining get embedded in the walls of the uterus, also causes menorrhagia.
Pelvic inflammatory diseases, infection in the uterus or fallopian tubes are other common causes.
Heavy bleeding may occur in patients with ovarian or cervical cancer.
Diseases of the kidney, liver or thyroid diseases may also cause menorrhagia.
Several tests and methods are carried out for the diagnosis of menorrhagia. They are:
A general physical examination.
Bleeding diary of the woman.
Blood tests to detect anemia or thyroid.
Ultrasound for evaluation of pelvic organs like uterus, ovaries and pelvis.
Hysteroscopy, where a camera is inserted into the uterus to observe the linings.
Sonohysterography, where a fluid gets instilled into the uterus along with an ultrasound test.
Certain drugs are used to treat menorrhagia. They include:
Iron supplements for treating anemia.
NSAIDS or non-steroidal anti-inflammatories for treating and reducing blood loss.
Tranexamic acid is used for reducing menstrual bleeding.
Several oral contraceptives are used for regulation of the menstrual cycle. Oral progesterone corrects hormonal imbalance and reduces bleeding.
Surgical procedures for treatment of menorrhagia include:
Hysteroscopy, dilation and curettage, where uterus lining is scraped and evaluated.
Uterine artery embolization treats menorrhagia with fibroids.
Focused ultrasound ablation enables the killing of the fibroid tissue.
Hysterectomy surgery is the penultimate solution, where the uterus, cervix or ovaries are completely removed.
Menorrhagia is characterized by abnormally heavy menstrual bleeding in women. This is quite unhealthy and proper measures must be taken for curing the heavy bleeding. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.