Common Specialities
Common Issues
Common Treatments


Flap Surgery: Treatment, Procedure, Cost and Side Effects

What is the treatment?

Flap surgery is also known as flap operation.

How is the treatment done?

Flap surgery is a type of gum procedure in which the gums are separated from the teeth and folded backwards temporarily in order to allow the dentist to reach the root of the tooth and the bone. Flap surgery is basically used for the treatment of periodontitis.

In case of the gingival flap surgery, the dentist is supposed to get rid of all the accumulated plaque and tartar from around the teeth and make sure that your oral hygiene conditions are good.

Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)

The periodontist will used a local anesthetic to numb the area in order to minimize the pain you might undergo during the surgery. With the use of a scalpel, gums are separated from the teeth and then folded in the back in the form of a flap. With direct access to the roots and bone that are supporting the teeth, the inflamed tissue is removed. A procedure called scaling and root planning takes place afterwards to get rid of the tartar and deposited plaque. In case of any bone defects, the dentist eliminates them with a procedure called osseous recontouring which helps in smoothening the edges of the bone using files or rotating burs. Once this procedure is completed, the gums are placed back against the teeth and kept in place with the help of stitches. Some periodontists use stitches that are dissolvable on their own while others tend to use stitches that have to be removed a week after the surgery. At times, the periodonist might also cover the surgical site with an intraoral bandage known as periodontal pack or dressing.

Who is not eligible for the treatment?

The flap surgery is used to treat gum disease known as periodontitis. It is mostly recommended for people with moderate or advanced periodontitis. Mostly, a treatment devoid of surgery is performed first which is also known as root planning and scaling.

Are there any side effects?

People who are active smokers will have difficulties during the surgery since smoking enhances the chances of the disease to reoccur. Moreover, people with mild periodontitis do not need to go for the surgery.

What are the post-treatment guidelines?

As such there are no side effects to the surgery; however some risk factors are involved in any operation. After the surgery, patients might encounter some bleeding and swelling. The chances of developing an infection are also high.

The teeth that were treated have a tendency to become more sensitive to hot and cold. The gums in the treated area are more likely to recede with the passage of time. Furthermore, the teeth also have more tendencies to develop cavities in the roots.

How long does it take to recover?

It hardly takes a few days to recover from the process. If you take the prescribed painkillers and other medications regularly then the chances of another visit to the dentist decline significantly. Other pointers to keep in mind after the treatment are: avoid physical exertion activities as it may contribute to an increase in bleeding, do not lie flat after the surgery as this may prolong the bleeding. Patients who undergo flap surgery need to be very careful about regularly and perfectly brushing their teeth and cleaning their tongue.

Since your mouth is the root of the treatment here, soft foods should be taken instead of something hard in order to avoid extra pressure on the teeth and gums. Use lukewarm water to gently rinse the mouth as it helps in reduction of swelling and pain. You should also avoid smoking after the surgery.

What is the price of the treatment in India?

It takes hardly 10-12 days to recover from the surgery. The dentist will remove the stitches after a week or 10 days.

Are the results of the treatment permanent?

Depending upon the case and the procedure involved, the price of flap surgery falls between 10,000 – 20,000 INR.

What are the alternatives to the treatment?

Since the treatment deals with the gums part of the mouth, its results are not permanent and often another visit to the dentist has to be made. With regular check up and proper cleanliness of the oral systems, the reoccurrence of the disease can be avoided.

Safety: Treatment Effectiveness: High Timeliness: High Relative Risk: Low Side Effects: High Time For Recovery: High Price Range:

Rs10,000 - Rs 20,000

Popular Health Tips

Fight Hair Loss with Cosmetic Procedures

Fue Hair Transplantation, Advanced Aesthetics, RPSLH, SHS, MBBS
Cosmetic Physician, Hyderabad
Fight Hair Loss with Cosmetic Procedures

Hair loss may happen due to a variety of reasons including hereditary issues as well as aging and skin or scalp problems. A poor diet and inappropriate lifestyle choices like excessive drinking and smoking can also lead to hair loss. Many people also experience hair loss due to hormonal changes. Also, hair loss may happen as a side effect of certain types of medication as well as surgery related to cancer, which includes chemotherapy. Yet, genetic reasons for hair loss remain the most common cause when it comes to both men and women. Cosmetic procedures can often be used to fix severe hair loss issues. Know more about Healthy Skin.

Here is a list of cosmetic procedures available for the same:

  1. Hair Transplant: This procedure is also known as hair grafting and is often used to treat male pattern balding. This is an outpatient and relatively uncomplicated procedure that can be conducted at the clinic of a dermatologist surgeon. The process consists of the application of micro grafts where one or two hair can be contained in each graft. Strip grafts containing 30 to 40 strands of hair can also be applied in such a procedure. The doctor will usually administer local anaesthesia into the scalp so as to ensure that the patient feels minimum discomfort during the procedure.

  2. Scalp Reduction: In this procedure, the dermatologist surgeon will usually remove the skin which is not bearing hair any longer. The rest of the skin that is capable of growing hair will then be stretched across the scalp so that the bald area can be eliminated. This stretching action is done by loosening the skin of the surrounding area once the non-hair-bearing skin has been removed. In this method too, the doctor will first administer local anaesthesia.

  3. Flap Surgery: In this kind of surgery, the doctor will remove a section of the bald area and replace it with a flap of skin that is capable of sprouting hair. This hair bearing skin flap is positioned properly before being stitched into place during the surgery. While this is a challenging procedure, one will see immediate results as the remaining skin is still connected to the original blood supply that will promote hair growth for the flap as well.

  4. Laser Assisted Grafting: While there are many kinds of hair grafting techniques, laser assisted grafting is one of the most commonly used ones in today's day and age. Before the surgery, the doctor will prepare the area by trimming the donor area. This will allow easy application and access to the grafts. Site holes will be closed with stitches which will in turn, be concealed with the hair that surrounds the area.

5427 people found this helpful

Nasal Reconstruction Surgery - Types And Symptoms

MCh - Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, MS - General Surgery, MBBS
Cosmetic/Plastic Surgeon, Chennai
Nasal Reconstruction Surgery - Types And Symptoms

A Nasal reconstruction surgery is required to correct deformities in the nasal area formed as a result of birth defects, injuries, trauma etc. It is also used to correct missing parts of the nasal anatomy if required. Recent developments in techniques such as microsurgery, expansion of the tissue and so on, have helped surgeons improve the methods of nasal reconstruction surgery to a great extent. At this point, a patient has a great number of reconstruction methods to choose from, depending on his/her particular case.

Types of Nasal Reconstruction Surgery:

  1. Local flaps
  2. Regional flaps
  3. Secondary Intention Healing
  4. Simple Suture closure
  5. Skin grafts
  6. One stage nasolabial flap
  7. Two stage nasolabial flap
  8. Forehead flap
  9. Bone and Cartilage frame work reconstruction

Indicators of the need for Nasal Reconstruction surgery

  1. One indicator of the need for this type of surgery is fractures in the nose that have changed the shape of the organ. Patients opt for this kind of surgery in order to improve their overall appearance.
  2. Another indicator is fractures or other deformities that lead to breathing problems. Living with such problems is difficult; hence it is important to get nasal reconstruction surgery.
  3. The presence of the Deviated Nasal Septum prevents proper breathing and increases vulnerability to ENT infections. Nasal reconstruction surgery can be used to fix this problem.
  4. Deformities formed as a result of treatment of skin cancer can be fixed with the help of nasal reconstruction surgery.

Things to know about recovering from Nasal Reconstruction Surgery

  1. Medication taken orally can help to counter the discomfort experienced right after a nasal reconstruction surgery.
  2. Usually, splints are used inside the nose during the surgery. These are generally removed within a week.
  3. Patients are able to get up and walk about within a few days. Normal daily activities may be resumed upon the doctor's instructions.
  4. At times, a swelling may be observed in the nasal area, but this goes away within a few weeks. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a cosmetic surgeon.
3168 people found this helpful

Popular Questions & Answers

I am a diabetic patient I did my flap sugary 20 years back now I a not perfect about. Upper right is very worst.

MBBS, CCEBDM, Diploma in Diabetology, Diploma in Clinical Nutrition & Dietetics, Cetificate Course In Thyroid Disorders Management (CCMTD)
Endocrinologist, Hubli-Dharwad
Hello, Thanks for the query. First thing is you should control blood glucose effectively, because if that is not done, then oral hygiene is badly affected. Ideally fasting glucose should be < 100 mg, PP 150 to 160 mg & HbA1c% <6.8. Then you should consult a good competent dental surgeon (periodontologist). Thanks.
1 person found this helpful

Table of Content

What is the treatment?
How is the treatment done?
Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)
Who is not eligible for the treatment?
Are there any side effects?
What are the post-treatment guidelines?
How long does it take to recover?
What is the price of the treatment in India?
Are the results of the treatment permanent?
What are the alternatives to the treatment?
Play video
Lasik Surgery
I am Dr Sunita Lulla Gur, senior consultant eye specialist in Sarita Vihar. Today, I will speak about the topic LASIK.

What do you mean by LASIK?

Lasik is a surgery which stands for Laser-Assisted in Situ Keratomileusis.

Why this surgery is done?

This surgery is done basically to correct the vision and eye power like- near sightedness, far sightedness, astigmatism. LOt many times we do get questions from many people like "I am eligible for LASIK or not?". So just for the short brief I will take you to the journey of LASIK.

As it is one of a cosmetic surgery, I would say but there are other advantages that why one can go for LASIK is;

It corrects the power
It gives good vision
It improves the contarst
These are the advantages which is why one can go ahead with the LASIK surgery.

Sometimes people think that at what age a person can have LASIK surgery?

So the criteria for the LASIK surgery is that;

The age should be more than 18 years.
Your power should be stablized for atleast 1 year
Your cornea should be fit to under take the LASIK surgery.
Another criteria is that the females who are pregnant should not undeergo LASIK at that time.
These are the main 4 selections for the LASIK. Again depending on the number, LASIK can be done from 0.5 to -10 also. Nowadays there are many technologies coming and lot of advances have been done . We are now doing in high powers also. Again we have to select the candidate properly for successfull outcome of LASIK.

The success rate of LASIK is usually 93-95%. Initially the success rate was less and the reasons for improving its success rate is that the selection criteria has improved. Our protocols have improved over the period of time.

There are different types of LASIK which are been done, those are,

C-LASIK - We make a superficially thin flap and the reshaping of the cornea is done as per the number and a person can see a good image after that. When the re shaping is done then the rays which comes focus properly on the retina. So it does the work how we do in practical correction. Here the microkeratome blade where the flap is removed and after that the reshaping of the cornea is done by the laser.
I-LASIK - It is bladeless LASIK surgery where the flap which is being removed is done by the laser itself and no blade is used. The advantage of this is that it can be done in thin cornea also. So, if the person is having thin cornea as per the criteria which we set, then I-LASIK can be done in these type of cases.
Contoura vision LASIK - This is an advanced surgery which has come in which the computerized topography is done and which is attached to LASIK which can pick up the minor abrasion which are present in the cornea so that it can correct the vision to its fullest. So sometimes we do have patients who are completely satisfied with the change in their vision. It also reduces the chances of dryness which is there after LASIK surgery.
So, when we plan for LASIK, there are certain criteria for the selection as I have explained. But for the successfull result,

You have to follow the advices that are been given by the doctor.
You should not put any water in the eyes after LASIK surgery.
You should not rub your eyes.
You should use the eye drops as suggested by the doctor.
Follow the protocol atleast for one month.

The precautions are;

Water should not go inside the eyes.
Avoid swimming atleast for 3 months.
Avoid going to gym atleast for 1-3 months.
Otherwise, you can go to the office next day. Initially you may feel discomfort but you can see the improvement in the vision the very next day. Every season is suitable for LASIK sugery and rest it depends on the fitness of a person for the surgery.

If you want to contact for any LASIK appointment, you can do it through Lybrate.

Thank you

Play video
Preparing For Brain Surgery

My name is much that you tell and I am a neurosurgeon at Wockhardt hospitals in Mumbai central as well as an assistant professor at the grant Medical College and sir JJ group of hospitals. I am going to talk to you about how can one prepare for brain surgery once one is diagnosed with a problem that requires a brain operation.

You could be even having a brain tumor or a vascular problem in the brain or refractory epilepsy requires something called as a craniotomy. It can be Priya Nursing for the patient is well as for the family we usually do all investigations on an outpatient basis and ensure that the patient is fit for surgery to undergo a pre-anesthetic evaluation and make sure that all the blood tests are in order typically used something called as neuronavigation.

At surgery which enables us to approach the exact location of the problem in a three-dimensional space in gases towards that location of patients ask me if there will head is going to be saved before surgery news me that's not the case which is save strip of hair along which where we meet me in station. So what typically happens is patience cremated one day prior to surgery the anaesthesia doctor takes 1 final look at them to make sure that heart rate blood pressure everything is under control and the next morning there being into the operating room xxvi anaesthesia doctors will wake you up a certain monitors the ECG leads extra before putting a tube done your throat to give you something college general anaesthesia when which your unconscious throw the operation there are some operations where in which humans are located in elopement areas of the brain and we need patients to be awake so that we can check their motor function and actually we can do the operation when patients are awake and talking to US and moving the hands and legs and that's something college in awake craniotomy which requires a slightly different preparation the operation takes place and the extremely sterile conditions and everything is cleaned and raped in a systematic fashion the protocol of which is completely standardized you make a skin incision usually using a drill remove the part of the bone that is wire to be removed.

When there is a covering of the brain called the dura which is what we cut and then enter the appropriate space and deal with the pathology it will be the beer tumor it will be a vascular malformation it could be anything that requires to be removed or transacted or disconnected usually Brain Tumor operation last for about 3 or 4 hours on an average it could be longer depending on the case what happens is 13 belt with the pathology we close that layer of dura back and we replace the bone flap and we fix it with plates and screws are often than not activated immediately after the operation in the operating room itself very rarely if the operation is really long or there is a lot of blood loss be kept overnight on a ventilator in extubated the next morning in the ICU typically there will into the ICU for about 24 hours after surgery.

Play video
Know About Various Surgeries
Hi! I am Dr. Lalit Chaudhary, senior consultant plastic surgeon at Sir Ganga Ram Hospital and Vice Chairman right now. We have all range of surgeries not just reconstructive plastic surgery but also the cosmetic surgeries with us. Nowadays gradually the cosmetic surgery cases have gone up more than 50% of the plastic surgery practices. More common cosmetics side patient which are coming to us are about body contouring in both the males and females. In males we see nowadays very common is the male breast tissue with enlarged breast or what we call as Gynaecomastia. It can be completely cured with small operation which is practically pre-op. Generally next day you can join with your routine work and there is a 3 weeks of weight bearing issue otherwise table jobwell-developedand walking is fine. Same in females, there is tummy tuck, breast enhancement and reduction. Most commonly for face, we come across patients coming for rhinoplasty or the nose job. Then the hair transplant procedure where big number of patients suffering from baldness or loss of hair come. Generally other than the cosmetic procedures we have well developed plastic surgery department set up at our Ganga Ram Hospital. We also practice as a clinic basis in Dwarka where we generally see the patient. There is no operation facility there. That is basically the post-traumatic care of the pre op care for the patient. We can see the patient of this area and surgery is done in Sir Ganga Ram Hospital only. If you have any queries related to the cosmetic surgeries or the reconstructive plastic surgery or trauma like fingers trauma or complete amputation, right from that level to the reconstruction- maybe a cancer reconstruction or a congenital reconstruction or a post traumatic reconstruction, we have everything with us under the same umbrella in Sir Ganga Ram Hospital. If you have any issues which are from that part of it and if you stay somewhere around in Dwarka you can come to the clinic and show it to me. So if you have any issues related to the cosmetic surgery or plastic or reconstructive surgery, you are most welcome to contact me either at my Chisel Clinic in Dwarka or Sir Ganga Ram Hospital where we see daily from 12-4 in OPD here. We have a good team supporting us and Residency Program with us so you have round the clock care which is not present everywhere in Delhi NCR. Even in India you won't find post-op plastic surgery facilities. So you are most welcome to have any query with us. Take care.
Play video
Fast Track Surgery
Hi everybody!

I m Dr. Rojy, physiotherapist. I m in physiotherapy department. Today I m going to talk about the osteoarthritis of the knee. Osteoarthritis of the knee is very common for arthritis. And we will discuss about the difference of the osteoarthritis means what is the differences between the osteoarthritis of the knee. So osteoarthritis of the knee is the degenerative disease of the joints and another it is called arthritis. In this conditions the natural connecting between the joints cartilage becomes worse to worse.

So when it happens bones between the joints means the bones of the joints becomes rough against one another. So that roughing reasons in pain, stiffness, sometimes results in the osteoarthritis formations. And sometimes it results in the decrease in the joints mobility. So the types next the types of osteoarthritis are 2 types of osteoarthritis are there. One is tibia fibula osteoarthritis second is the patellofemoral joints arthritis. The causes for the osteoarthritis is first is the age.

Age is the major risk factor for the osteoarthritis of the knee. Second hereditary, then weight, then repetitive strain injury. Then arthritis like rheumatoid arthritis and some other illness like metabolic disorder. These are the causes for the arthritis of the knee. Then next is what the symptoms of the osteoarthritis of the knee area. First is the pain, second swelling then warmth filling of warmth in the joints then stiffness and the other symptoms are the decreased mobility of the joints and sometimes deformity also and then sometimes creepy also. So, these are the symptoms of the osteoarthritis of the knee.

Second is the diagnose next step is the diagnosis. Diagnosis is based on the history and the physical examination. Other diagnoses are X-ray and MRI. So on MRI, some changes can see on MRI. The changes involved are one is osteophytes formation that is the bone spur then narrowing of the joint space. Then what is the treatment for the osteoarthritis of the knee means the physiotherapy is the treatments for the osteoarthritis of the knee. So first that is discussed is the aim and goal of the physiotherapy treatments. First the aim, one is the reduced the pain and the inflammation. Second, normalize the range of the motion.

Third is the strengthen the knee muscle especially quadriceps and hamstring. Then improve the functions, then improves the balance, then improves the particular alignment and some functions. These are the aims and the goals of the physiotherapy. Then next come to the treatment for the physiotherapy. First is the race, second cold therapy, we can apply the ice in the knee joints to reduce the pain. Next thermotherapy, thermotherapy includes soluble diathermy, paraffin wax bath and hydro collator pack.

This thermotherapy means this modality we can use according to the conditions. Next electrotherapy. Electrotherapy includes IFC, ultra Sony and the TENS. These also we can use according to the patient s conditions. Next exercises. Exercises are very important in the cases of osteoarthritis. Basically, exercises have to strengthen the muscles, improves the flexibility, to improve the range of the motion. Next water reduction. Next aerobic like cycling, walking then tapping then supporting device like braces we can also use. These are the physiotherapy treatments. So if you are suffering from osteoarthritis of the knee you can get this physiotherapy and physiotherapy. And if you have any investigations you can contact on
Play video
Rhinoplasty Surgery
Hi! Everybody

I am Dr. Gambhir. I am a cosmetic and plastic surgeon in Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, New Delhi. I have my cosmetic clinic in karor bagh by the name of Personna.

Today I ll be talking on Rhinoplasty. Reason being I my self is a Rhinoplasty surgeon. Most of my practice involves Rhinoplasty. What I have seen in the past few years that most of the patients with breathing difficulty, they go to the ENT surgeon for Septal correction, but this is not going to solve all that problems. Just simple correction of the septum did not solve the breating problem. It requires the total of septal framework correction as a Rhinoplasty surgeon and as a plastic surgeon I have been trained to do a septal framework correction. Just the ENT surgeon, they do the septal part, but for the framework correction the involve the plastic surgeon. What I suggest that patient who have difficulty in breathing, who have debated as a septum, or who want a groped nose correction to be done should go to a person, to a doctor, who is qualified Rhinoplasty surgeon and who has been doing Rhinopasties. For those doctors, they are not going to solve just the breathing problem but give you an aesthetic correction simultaneously.

Thank you.
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