Bariatric surgery(weight loss surgery) includes a variety of procedures performed on people who have obesity. Metabolic surgery is defined as “a set of gastrointestinal operations performed with the intent to treat diabetes (diabetes surgery) and metabolic dysfunctions (which includes obesity). Over the past 5 years, the term “metabolic surgery” has become increasingly popular. In 2002, it was suggested that gastrointestinal surgery could be used with the primary intent to treat type 2 diabetes. The idea derived from the factor that the gastrointestinal tract is a major player in the regulation of glucose homeostasis.
In patients with a BMI above 35, surgical treatment of diabetes is now recommended by virtually all professional organizations.
Weight loss is achieved by:
Long-term studies show that the procedures cause significant long-term loss of weight, recovery fromdiabetes, improvement in cardiovascular risk factors and a mortality reduction from 40% to 23%.
Indications for Bariatric Surgery
Types of Bariatric Surgery
Eating Schedule After Bariatric Surgery
Immediately after bariatric surgery, the patient is restricted to a clear liquid diet until the gastrointestinal tract recovers from the surgery. This is followed by a blended diet for at least 2 weeks, consisting of a high protein diet and dairy products. Foods high in carbohydrates are usually avoided when possible during the initial weight-loss period. Many patients need to take a daily multivitamin pill to compensate for reduced absorption of essential nutrients.
Effectiveness of Surgery
Adverse Effects of Surgery
Complications of Bariatric Surgery