Atopic Dermatitis is also known as Atopic eczema.
Atopic Dermatitis (AD), is a skin condition that affects many. In fact it is eczema of the most common type. This skin disease causes red rashes that are extremely itchy. The arms, legs and the cheeks are commonly effected.
This condition generally starts from childhood itself, mostly in the first few months after birth. This condition can be extremely severe and cause much discomfort. While in some children the condition may improve and disappear as they grow older, in case of other it may just get worse. The condition may improve in later childhood, but can reappear during adulthood as well.
AD is more likely to occur in patients who suffer from asthma or hay fever. The exact cause of Atopic Dermatitis is yet unknown, in spite of the extensive research that has been done on it. While the condition is genetic, the reason why it transfers from parents to offspring is not known. Research reveals that about 10% of the population across the world suffer from Atopic Dermatitis at some point in their life.
While eczema is a skin condition that results because of an allergic reaction, Atopic Dermatitis is known to be a more severe form of the same. Patients with AD can suffer from dry skin, hand dermatitis, herpes, staph and problems of the eye.
The treatment of Atopic Dermatitis, depends on how severe the problem is. Topical medication, phototherapy, immunosuppressant drugs, biological drugs and even steroids may be used to treat AD.
A variety of treatment options are available for patients who suffer from eczema. The treatment suggested generally depends on the severity of the condition. Topical creams and steroids are the most common form of treatment for AD. The most common type of medication that is prescribed to soothe the symptoms of eczema are topical corticosteroids. Such medication helps relieve redness and reduces skin itchiness and inflammation. Corticosteroids have been in use for more than 50 years, especially for the treatment of conditions that result in inflammation. These steroids are classified into various types depending on their strength. While some steroids are very strong other may be mild or light.
Apart from topical treatment phototherapy is also a treatment option. A special machine is used that emits ultraviolet B rays to treat the condition. This form of treatment help reduce itching and inflammation as well.
Some doctors also prescribe immunosuppressant drugs that curb the patient’s immune system and biologic drugs that only target some parts of the immune system in the body.The treatment options available for eczema are many, but the most common is topical treatment where steroid are prescribed to appease the symptoms of AD.
Any person or child suffering from the symptoms of AD is eligible for topical form of treatment. The medication is generally prescribed to be applied regularly to keep the symptoms of AD at bay.
There is no such eligibility criteria for topical treatment, but patients with severe AD can opt for alternative method of treatment, such as phototherapy etc.
Some side effects of topical treatment include- atrophy (the skin becomes thin), lichenification (the skin becomes thick, stretch marks and skin darkening.
When it comes to topical steroid application one should apply the medicine in the affected area only. The medicine is the most effective if it applied after you take a bath. Once the drug has been applied, you should apply moisturizer on top. The use of large quantities of steroid over a period of time should be avoided.
Topical treatment manages the symptoms of AD, thus there is no specific time of recovery. The medicine may take a few minutes to take effect.
A 15gm tube of topical cream will range anywhere between Rs50-Rs120 or even more in India.
Topical treatment only reduces the symptoms of the condition and does not actually treat AD itself. Thus the treatment is continuous.
Cost of 15gm topical cream is Rs50-Rs120.
Atopic dermatitis is an inflammatory skin disease that most commonly affects children during their first year of life. This is also commonly noted in older children and occasionally in adults. This disease causes severe itching that many a times leads to skin infection. These rashes are commonly seen over the scalp, neck, cheeks and face. As the child grows older and also in adults, the rashes mainly appear in body creases and folds.
The exact cause of atopic dermatitis is still under research, but it is believed that people with the following are at risk of getting atopic dermatitis
Dermatitis is not caused by food allergies, but people with dermatitis are allergic to certain type of food like milk and other dairy products, shellfish and nuts.
Dry itchy and scaly skin
Redness and rashes
Scratching and itching
Appears bumpy and develop knots in thickened areas
It’s important to visit the dermatologist for treatment to control the disease and prevent it from worsening. Treatment includes medicines to control itching, reduce skin inflammation (redness and swelling) and clear infection
The dermatologist will also suggest lifestyle modifications, which are very important to manage the disease.
Tips for people with Dermatitis
1. Ways to ease discomfort:
Make sure the humidity and temperature levels are comfortable.
Apply moisturizer twice daily to make sure the skin does not get dry and cracks.
Enquire your doctor about how to use wet wrap therapy and its effects.
Make sure your child’s finger nails are cut short and smooth.
2. Bathing care:
Bath your child with warm water not with hot water and make sure you complete the bath within 5-10 mins.
Just pat the skin after bath with soft cotton towels and don’t make it dry completely.
Apply the medicine if advised after bath. Make sure you apply the medicine before the skin gets completely dry.
Apply moisturizer over the medicated skin.
Avoid bubble bath and prefer bleach bath every two days if the skin gets infected.
3. Wash clothes the right way:
Uses limited amount of detergents to wash the clothes.
Rinse the clothes with adequate amount of water and dry it completely under direct sunlight.
Wash new clothes with plain water before wearing to your child to remove excess dyes and fragrances. If you wish to discuss any specific problem, you can consult a dermatologist.
The skin is the largest organ in the body and is one of the five sense organs, helping us with ‘touch.’ The first outer layer is called the epidermis and the underlying layer is called the dermis. The skin has a protein known as keratin, which protects it from various external toxins and infections.
In some people, due to unknown reasons, there could be pile up of this protein in the deeper layers, producing small bumps, which feel like sandpaper. Literally, the term keratosis pilaris (KP) refers to piling up of keratin pigment. It can block the hair follicle that would normally open into the skin. When there are multiple blocks in the same area, there could be a sandpaper-like rough feeling to the touch. This gives this condition other names including goosebumps, chicken skin or chicken bumps. Though it is a cosmetic issue, it is medically a benign and very common condition.
KP, as it is popularly known as, is believed to be a genetic disorder with faulty genes leading to excessive accumulation of keratin. These appear as red, small bumps that are usually seen on the hands, arms, thighs, buttocks, and rarely on the face. The surrounding skin may be inflamed if there is a buildup of skin under the pile of keratin.
The onset of KP is usually in the first decade of life, worsens during puberty, and reduces during adulthood. There are, however, instances where the onset happens during adulthood. Twins and people with atopic dermatitis are more likely to have KP.
There are also studies that give it a correlation with weather, with winter seeing more of this condition than summer. This is because our skin tends to dry more in winter than in summer. There could be some people who are completely normal during the summer months but will develop these bumps during the winter, which again subsides with the season.
Signs and Symptoms
As noted above, KP is a medically benign condition. There is a cosmetic concern if it is in the visible areas like arms and hands. Also, the area could feel rough and dry, but the affected person may not experience any itching or other harm. People with atopic dermatitis and eczema are more likely to develop KP; hence these other skin conditions require proper management.
Patient education is the most important. This disease does not require any treatment and is usually self-limiting. It is very rare for KP to affect the whole body. Creams containing alpha hydroxy acid, salicylic acid, lactic acid, or vitamin A may be required to remove dead skin cells and to prevent clogged follicles from the bodies of the affected people.
Out of many different type of skin infections people suffer from, atopic dermatitis is one that is fairly common. This condition often affects infants and young children, but may also persist into adulthood or affect adults as well. Patients suffering from this disease often see it alternate between flares and periods of remission where it may seem like the condition has cleared up completely. In many cases, children who have experienced a permanent remission from it are left with dry skin that is easily irritated.
The exact cause of this skin condition is not clear, but it is understood to be triggered by a combination of hereditary and environmental factors.
Dry skin, redness and excessive itchiness are common symptoms of this condition. Other symptoms vary from person to person and their reaction to the itching. Ideally, you should not scratch your skin, if you suffer from atopic dermatitis. Scratching and rubbing the skin can worsen the condition. In some cases, this can lead to the development of thick, leathery skin while in other cases it could lead to the development of papules or raised bumps on the skin. Further scratching of these papules can make them infected and crusty.
The treatment for this skin condition depends on the patient’s age, overall health and symptoms presented. There are three main goals of treatment for atopic dermatitis; healing the skin, preventing flares and treating symptoms as they appear. Much of caring for the skin involves developing skin-care routines, identifying exacerbating factors, and avoiding circumstances that stimulate the skin's immune system and the itch-scratch cycle.
Hives are a common allergic reaction that appears in the form of swollen, red bumps or patches on the skin. These usually appear suddenly and cause itchiness. In some cases, it may also sting or burn. Hives can affect any part of the body including the face, ears, tongue, lips and throat. Hives are usually small in size but may grow as large as the size of a dinner plate. In some cases, hives may also join together to form plaques.
Hives are caused as a result of the production of histamines in the body that make plasma leak out of blood vessels in the skin. These histamines are released as a result of an allergic reaction, exposure to chemicals, insect bites, sunlight or adverse reactions to certain medicines. There are four main types of hives:
Acute Urticaria: These hives usually last for less than 6 weeks. They are triggered by insect bites, allergic reactions to food, latex, medicines or by exposure to infections. The most common food items that trigger this type of hives are chocolates, nuts, fish, tomatoes, eggs, soy, wheat and milk. Aspirin and other medicines like ibuprofen, ACE inhibitors and codeine can also trigger these hives.
Chronic Urticaria: Hives that last for longer than 6 weeks fall into the category of chronic urticaria. IT is harder to find what triggers a case of chronic urticaria than it is for acute urticaria. Along with the triggers mentioned above, hormonal disorders, tumours, chronic infections and immune system disorders can also trigger these hives.
Physical Urticaria: Hives caused as a result of physically stimulating skin are called physical urticaria. This includes sudden exposure to heat or cold, sunlight, vibrations, pressure, exercise etc. These hives usually resolve themselves within an hour and only affect the part of the skin that has been stimulated.
Dermatographism: Hives caused by scratching or firmly stroking the skin fall under this fourth category.
Hives caused by an allergic reaction can recur and hence if you suffer from hives you should try and identify the allergen. This can be done by taking an allergen test in a hospital or by changing aspects of your diet and studying the results. Hives are usually treated with antihistamines but in some cases, steroids may also be needed. However, it is usually nothing to worry about. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a dermatologist.
Are you planning on undertaking a cosmetic procedure for rejuvenating your skin? Botox treatment is considered to be effective for this purpose. Botox is a drug made from a certain neurotoxin, and it is produced by a bacteria known as Clostridium botulinum. Botox is also used for medical purposes, especially for the treatment of muscle related conditions. It is primarily used for removing wrinkles via a procedure in which your facial muscles are temporarily relaxed.
Except for reducing the appearance of your wrinkles and facial lines, which appear because of aging, botox is used for the treatment of conditions which include leaky bladders, migraines, excessive sweating, and eye squints. Over 20 medical conditions utilize botox as a part of treatment.
How it works?
Botulinum toxin or botox is a poisonous substance. A single gram of botox can kill over one million people. But it acts as an ideal therapeutic protein when utilized in a proper, required dosage.
About botox procedure
Botulinum toxin powder is diluted in saline to be administered. It is injected into a patient’s neuromuscular tissue and takes around 72 hours to show results. This time reflects the amount of time that is required for disruption of your body’s usual synaptosomal process. It takes around 5 days for the full effect of botox treatment to show. Pregnant or lactating women, and people who are allergic to it from a previous treatment should avoid any form of botox treatment.
Side effects and associated risks
Although injections containing botox are well tolerated, there are several side effects involved. They are as follows:
The results obtained from treatment by type B botox is said to be more effective than botox A treatment. You may expect better results when your muscles remain contracted instead of being relaxed. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a dermatologist and ask a free question.