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Overview

Ventab Xl 75Mg Tablet

Manufacturer: Intas Pharmaceuticals Ltd
Medicine composition: Venlafaxine
Prescription vs.OTC: Prescription by Doctor required

Ventab Xl 75Mg Tablet belongs to the group of drugs that go by the name of selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SSNRIs). This drug acts as an anti-depressant by controlling those unbalanced chemicals in the brain that cause depression. The drug is quite effective in the treatment of mental illnesses like panic disorder, anxiety and depressive disorder.

Patients with narrow- angle glaucoma are generally not prescribed Ventab Xl 75Mg Tablet. Those who are allergic to any component of the drug are also recommended not to use it. Individuals who are under the treatment of methylene blue injection are also not prescribed Ventab Xl 75Mg Tablet.

If you do suffer from the following health problems, discuss the benefits and drawbacks of taking the drug with your doctor before you start using it. They are-

There are individuals, especially youngsters who have suicidal thoughts when they first begin using Ventab Xl 75Mg Tablet. In this case their progress should be carefully monitored by their doctor.

Like most medicines Ventab Xl 75Mg Tablet also leads to some side effects such as asthenia, nausea, constipation, diarrhea, dizziness, anorexia, loss of appetite, insomnia or problems with ejaculation in case of men. Some of these side effects are quite common and will go away after some time. Other side effects like chest pain, mood swings and irregular heartbeat are more serious and should be reported to your medical adviser.

Ventab Xl 75Mg Tablet should be taken exactly as it has been prescribed. Take this medicine at one particular time of the day with your meal. The tablet is not meant to be chewed or crushed. Make sure you swallow it whole. Don’t discontinue Ventab Xl 75Mg Tablet very suddenly as it can result in severe complications.

This medicine is used to treat depression and symptoms associated with major depressive disorder.
Panic disorder
This medicine is used for the treatment of panic disorders characterized by an attack of sudden and unexpected extreme fear under normal circumstances.
This medicine is also used for the treatment of anxiety and excessive worrying associated with generalized anxiety disorder and social anxiety disorder.
This medicine is not recommended for use if you have a known history of allergy to venlafaxine or any other component present in the medicine.
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI)
This medicine is not recommended for use while a MAOI (Rasagiline/Selegiline/methylene blue etc.) is being consumed. This medicine should be consumed at least 14 days after stopping the use of MAOI medicines.
In addition to its intended effect, Ventab Xl 75Mg Tablet may cause some unwanted effects too. In such cases, you must seek medical attention immediately. This is not an exhaustive list of side effects. Please inform your doctor if you experience any adverse reaction to the medication.
Suicidal thinking and behaviour Major Rare
Serotonin syndrome (agitation, hallucinations, seizures, nausea) Major Rare
Irregular heartbeat Major Less Common
Shaking of the hands or feet Moderate Less Common
Dizziness when getting up suddenly from a sitting position Moderate Common
Chills or cold sweats Major Rare
Blurred or double vision Moderate Less Common
Nausea and Vomiting Moderate Common
Dry mouth Minor Less Common
Muscle and joint pain Moderate Less Common
Decreased sexual urge Moderate Common
Difficulty in passing urine Moderate Less Common
Rapid weight gain/loss Minor Less Common
Ringing or buzzing in the ears Minor Rare
How long is the duration of effect?
The time duration for which this medicine remains effective is 20-25 days.
What is the onset of action?
The effect of this medicine is cumulative and takes 4-8 weeks to show in most cases.
Are there any pregnancy warnings?
This medicine should be used by pregnant women only when the potential benefits outweigh the risks involved. Consult your doctor before using this medicine.
Is it habit forming?
No habit forming tendencies were reported.
Are there any breast-feeding warnings?
This medicine is not recommended for use by breastfeeding women. It is advised to discontinue breastfeeding before starting the treatment with this medicine. Consult your doctor before using this medicine.
Below is the list of medicines, which have the same composition, strength and form as Ventab Xl 75Mg Tablet, and hence can be used as its substitute.
Crescent Therapeutics Ltd
Missed Dose instructions
Take the missed dose as soon as you remember. If the next scheduled dose is less than 4 hours away, then the missed dose should be skipped.
Overdose instructions
Contact a doctor immediately if an overdose with this medicine is suspected. Symptoms of an overdose may include agitation, hallucinations, convulsions, and nausea.
India
United States
Japan
Whenever you take more than one medicine, or mix it with certain foods or beverages, you're at risk of a drug interaction.
Interaction with Disease
Kidney Disease Major
This medicine should be used with caution in patients with an impaired kidney functions. Suitable dose adjustments should be made based on the serum creatinine levels for moderate to severe impairment.
Glaucoma Moderate
This medicine should be used with caution in patients having narrow-angle glaucoma. The symptoms of the disease might worsen if this medicine is used in such patients.
Hypertension Moderate
This medicine may cause an increase in the blood pressure levels and hence should be used with caution in patients with hypertension. The blood pressure level should be constantly monitored before and during the course of treatment.
Interaction with Alcohol
Ethanol Moderate
Avoid or limit the uptake of alcohol while using this medicine. It is advised to refrain from driving vehicles and operating heavy machinery while using this medicine.
Interaction with Lab Test
Test for Phencyclidine (PCP) and amphetamine Minor
Report the use of this medicine to the doctor if you are taking a screening test for Phencyclidine (PCP) or amphetamine. Use of this medicine may interfere with the test results.
Interaction with Food
Food
Information not available.
Interaction with Medicine
Linezolid Major
Report the use of either of the medicines to the doctor. There must be a sufficient time gap between the use of these medicines. Your doctor may determine the best course of treatment after assessing the condition.
Lithium Major
Report the use of either of the medicines to the doctor. The risk of adverse effects is significantly high when these medicines are used together. Your doctor may determine the best course of treatment after assessing the condition.
Sertraline Major
Report the use of either of the medicines to the doctor. The risk of adverse effects is significantly high when these medicines are used together. Your doctor may determine the best course of treatment after assessing the condition.
Warfarin Moderate
Report the use of Warfarin or other anticoagulants to the doctor before receiving venlafaxine. The risk of adverse effects is significantly high in the elderly and patients with kidney or liver diseases. Your doctor may determine the best course of treatment after assessing the condition.
Aspirin Moderate
Report the use of Aspirin or other NSAIDs to the doctor before receiving venlafaxine. The risk of adverse effects is significantly high in the elderly and patients with kidney or liver diseases. Your doctor may determine the best course of treatment after assessing the condition.
Methylene blue Major
Report the use of either of the medicines to the doctor. There must be a sufficient time gap between the use of these medicines. Your doctor may determine the best course of treatment after assessing the condition.
Indinavir Major
Report the use of either of the medicine to the doctor. You may need a dose adjustment and more frequent clinical monitoring to safely use them together.
Sumatriptan Major
Report the use of either of the medicines to the doctor. The risk of adverse effects is significantly high when these medicines are used together. Your doctor may determine the best course of treatment after accessing the condition.
What are you using Ventab Xl 75Mg Tablet for?
Anxiety
Depression
Other
Panic disorder
How much was the improvement?
Excellent
Average
Poor
How long did it take before seeing improvement?
Within 2 hours
More than 2 days
Within a day
Within 6 hours
Within 2 days
How frequently did you take this medicine?
Once a day
Twice a day
Not taking on daily level
Four times A Day
How did you take this medicine?
With Food
Empty stomach
What were the side effects of this medicine?
Dizziness
Serotonin syndrome
Irregular Heartbeat
Disclaimer: The information produced here is best of our knowledge and experience and we have tried our best to make it as accurate and up-to-date as possible, but we would like to request that it should not be treated as a substitute for professional advice, diagnosis or treatment.

Lybrate is a medium to provide our audience with the common information on medicines and does not guarantee its accuracy or exhaustiveness. Even if there is no mention of a warning for any drug or combination, it never means that we are claiming that the drug or combination is safe for consumption without any proper consultation with an expert.

Lybrate does not take responsibility for any aspect of medicines or treatments. If you have any doubts about your medication, we strongly recommend you to see a doctor immediately.

Popular Questions & Answers

Hello I am a patient of depression and anxiety. My psychiatrist had earlier prescribed me Ventab XL 75 mg which was effective but later on it started to lead me to diarrhoea and upset stomach. I told my doctor about this that even 1 tablet is leading to diarrhoea. So he changed the medicine to Uvox 50 mg. This medicine is not having any effect and I experience severe headache after consuming it and hot flushes are there too. Depression is the same. I have read on Practo.com that this medicine leads to suicidal thoughts. Is it true as I am very scared after reading this. I get severe withdrawal symptoms when once or twice the dose is missed. Please help.

MBBS, DPM
Psychiatrist, Bangalore
Hello I am a patient of depression and anxiety. My psychiatrist had earlier prescribed me Ventab XL 75 mg which was e...
Dear lybrate-user, Don't worry too much about suicidal thoughts as side effect of antidepressants. Suicidal thoughts itself may be one of the symptoms, for which you are treated with Uvox. In allopathy, even if a side effect develops in 5% pf patients, it needs to be reported. 95% of them may not get suicidal thoughts and you have more chances of falling into 95%. One should think of beneficial effect of Uvox also. Since you are not getting any benefit also, your psychiatrist may try some other antidepressants. There are 6-7 types of antidepressants in the market. One of them may suit you. I don't know what withdrawal symptoms you are getting. Hope it is not the original depressive symptoms before any treatment.

I am under medication of Dr. (psychiatrist) recently I am taking ventab Dxt but suddenly again same thing is happening severe headache and it seem to hit my head on the wall and I also fainted twice .2 years ago same thing happen and I lost my voice by take psychotherapy and several medication I regain it but I am under medication till the time but again it is happening and I am out of station so plzz provide information regarding this it's urgent.

Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS), MS - Counselling and Psychotherapy
Ayurveda, Jammu
I am under medication of Dr. (psychiatrist) recently I am taking ventab Dxt but suddenly again same thing is happenin...
Hello Afreen youcan take sarswath aristha 2tsf with 2tsf water 20min after dinner .n do deepbreathing in a well ventilated room it will help you in releasing stress n automatically will releive your headache .n most important take good diet n drink plenty of water .u can ask for more details

I feel pressure in frontal head and when I kneel down it increase, numbness in eyes muscles and not properly feeling the breath. Or smell. I consulted a neuropsychiatric he prescribed me tab ventab plus, I am taking it since 6 Months one tab at night. Now before a week I consulted ent specialist he told me I don't have sinusitis and prescribed me nurokind g and tryp 10 should I start this.

MBBS
General Physician, Jalgaon
I feel pressure in frontal head and when I kneel down it increase, numbness in eyes muscles and not properly feeling ...
Please Don't depend on medicines only Wake up early go for morning walk in greenery daily with relaxed mind Do pranayam and yoga daily Put SHADBINDU OIL drops in both nostrils Twice a day regularly Take steam inhalation Twice a day for 5 days Take Swashari quath by Patanjali Prepare and take according to instructions on pack for 5 days Reconsult after 5 days No need to consult psychiatrist.
1 person found this helpful

I am a patient of depression I want to know is there any ayurvedic medicine available for depression as I am taking ventab 75 mg once daily I do not want to take this medicine.

MBBS, MD - Psychiatry, DNB (Psychiatry), MRCPsych, MNAMS (Psychiatry), MRANZCP, MCSEPI, FIAGMH, FIAPP
Psychiatrist, Kannur
I am a patient of depression I want to know is there any ayurvedic medicine available for depression as I am taking v...
Respected Sir, Even though I practice allopathy, I am aware that there are medicines in ayurveda also for depression. However I chose to reply to your query as I wanted to know the reason why you wanted to stop Ventab. If it is due to side effects, there are numerous allopathic alternatives available with fewer side effects and better efficacy than ayurvedic medicines. On the other hand, if it is due to an inadequate response, you are taking a pretty low dose of Ventab which can be hiked up for better results. However I would advise you to do the same after consultation with a psychiatrist. Also, both ayurvedic and allopathic medicines have numerous drug interactions, hence I would caution you against the use of both at the same time and once again ask you to reconsider shifting from allopathy to ayurveda.
2 people found this helpful

Popular Health Tips

Homeopathy For Forgetfulness / Memory Loss

BHMS
Homeopath, Navi Mumbai
Homeopathy For Forgetfulness / Memory Loss

Memory slips are aggravating, frustrating, and sometimes worrisome. When they happen more than they should, they can trigger fears of looming dementia or Alzheimer’s disease. there are many mundane—and treatable—causes of forgetfulness. Here are seven common ones and how can homeopathic treatment can help you.To know more about homeopathy and homeopathic treatment read more.....

Lack of sleep.

Not getting enough sleep is perhaps the greatest unappreciated cause of memory slips. Too little restful sleep can also lead to mood changes and anxiety, which in turn contribute to problems with memory.

Medications.

Tranquilizers, antidepressants, some blood pressure drugs, and other medications can affect memory, usually by causing sedation or confusion. That can make it difficult to pay close attention to new things. Talk to your doctor or pharmacist if you suspect that a new medication is taking the edge off your memory. As shown in the table below, alternatives are usually available.

*Medications* that may affect memory and possible substitutes
If you take these drug, ask about switching to one of these drugs:
1.paroxetine (Paxil) another antidepressant such as fluoxetine (Prozac) or sertraline (Zoloft), or a different type of antidepressant such as duloxetine (Cymbalta) or venlafaxine (Effexor)
2.cimetidine (Tagamet) a different type of heartburn drug, such as lansoprazole (Prevacid), omeprazole (Prilosec), or esomeprazole (Nexium)
3.oxybutynin (Ditropan) or tolterodine (Detrol, Detrusitol) other medications for an overactive bladder, such as trospium (Sanctura), solifenacin (Vesicare), or darifenacin (Enablex)
4.amitriptyline (Elavil), desipramine (Norpramin), or nortriptyline (Aventyl, Pamelor) another type of medication, depending on why your doctor has prescribed a tricyclic antidepressant (neuropathic pain, depression, etc.)

5.*captopril (Capoten)* a different type of ACE inhibitor, such as enalapril, lisinopril, or ramipril
cold or allergy medication containing brompheniramine, chlorpheniramine, or diphenhydramine loratadine (Claritin) or other non-sedating antihistamine
(Adapted from Improving Memory: Understanding age-related memory loss, a Harvard Medical School Special Health Report)

 

Underactive thyroid

A faltering thyroid can affect memory (as well as disturb sleep and cause depression, both of which contribute to memory slips). A simple blood test can tell if your thyroid is doing its job properly.

Alcohol.

Drinking too much alcohol can interfere with short-term memory, even after the effects of alcohol have worn off. Although “too much” varies from person to person, it’s best to stick with the recommendation of no more than two drinks per day for men and no more than one a day for women. One drink is generally defined as 1.5 ounces (1 shot glass) of 80-proof spirits, 5 ounces of wine, or 12 ounces of beer.

Stress and anxiety.

Anything that makes it harder to concentrate and lock in new information and skills can lead to memory problems. Stress and anxiety fill the bill. Both can interfere with attention and block the formation of new memories or the retrieval of old ones.

 

Depression.

Common signs of depression include a stifling sadness, lack of drive, and lessening of pleasure in things you ordinarily enjoy. Forgetfulness can also be a sign of depression—or a consequence of it.

If memory lapses are bugging you, it’s worth a conversation with your doctor to see if any reversible causes are at the root of the problem. Something like getting more sleep, switching a medication, or a stress reduction program could get your memory back on track.

TREATMENT PROTOCOLS FOR POOR MEMORY

Spleen Kidney and heart are the 3 organs which provides memory

●Following are the three patterns of poor memory :

1) spleen deficiency causes poor memory, inability to concentrate and study.

2) deficiency of kidney essence causes poor everyday memory.

3) heart deficiency causes poor memory of past events , forgetting names.

1) Spleen deficiency causes
poor memory inability to concentrate
and study:
Main symptoms :
1) poor memory
2) tiredness
3) poor appetite
4) *pale tongue*
5) *weak pulse*

Treatment principle :
1) tone the spleen
2) strengthen intellect. Spleen houses intellect , which controls memorisation, study and concentration.

2) Kidney essence deficiency
causes poor memory everyday.
Main symptoms :
1) poor everyday memory
2) can not remember names , faces, roads etc.
3) dizziness
4) tinnitus
5) weakness
6) if kidney yang is deficient , tongue will be
pale
7) if kidney yin is deficient the tongue will be
red

Treatment principles :
1) tone the kidney
2) nourish essence and marrow

3) Heart deficiency causes

  • Poor memory of past events 
  • Forgetting names 

Main symptoms :

1) poor memory of past events
2) forgetting names
3) absent mindedness
4) tiredness
5) slight breathlessness
6) if there is heart yang deficiency the tongue will be pale with heart cracking
7) if there is heart yin deficiency the tongue will be red with heart crack

Treatment principle :
1) *tone the heart*
2) strengthen the mind and memory

Homeopathic treatment

There are many remedies in homeopathy to treat this condition. It requires a detailed study of the patient to know his/her lifestyle and life circumstances to be able to diagnose at the correct cause/causes so as to administer the right remedy. Since homeopathic medicines do not have sideeffects this is a very great advantage.

14 people found this helpful

6 Magical Tips to Cope with Migraine Attacks

INSTITUTE OF ALTERNATIVE MEDICINES
Ayurveda, Delhi

6 Magical Tips to Cope with Migraine Attacks

Migraines affect up to 18 percent of women and 6 percent of men in the United States. Today, migraines affect as many as four out of every five people in America.  Doctors are still unraveling the mysteries of migraines. Most doctors believe a combination of things that cause people to have migraines. The causes of migraines range from genetics to neurovascular imbalances in the brain.

Why Do Most People Experience Weather Related Migraines?

It is not entirely clear why some people experience more migraines around the change of weather.  Even though the cause of weather related migraines has not been identified, there are ways to decrease the severity, reduce and prevent migraines from occurring.

In a recent survey by the National Headache Foundation, headache sufferers were given a list of possible causes. They were asked to rank them in terms of what commonly brought on their migraines. Three out of every four respondents said that weather triggered their headache pain.

Specific weather triggers included:

  • Changes in humidity
  • Changes in temperature
  • Storms
  • Extremely dry conditions

Most people have an idea of what causes their migraines, but the real question is what can you do to help reduce the amount of migraines, decrease the severity or prevent the migraines from occurring?   Below are six tips to help you cope and find a solution to preventing your migraines. 

6 Tips on How to Cope With Your Migraines

Tip # 1 – Keep a Diary of Your Migraines:

Keeping a diary is the first step toward finding a solution, so your migraines do not disrupt you and stop you from having a healthy, happy and productive life.  The first step is to try to figure out what triggers your migraines.  One way to do that is to keep a diary of all your migraines.  If you think weather is a reason for your migraines then record any of the common weather and environmental factors that may have initiated your migraines. Keep a detailed diary and bring this diary to your doctor, so your doctor can figure what the best treatment is for you.

In your diary, you should include:

  • What part of the brain do you feel the pain?
  • What does the pain feel like?
  • The time your headache began and when it ended
  • Any changes in the weather, such as storms, high winds, or high humidity
  • Any warning signs – symptoms before the migraine occurred
  • Any treatment you tried, and whether it helped or made the migraine worse

Tip # 2 – Making Changes in Your Daily Regimen:

Making changes in your everyday life can help reduce the number and severity of migraines you are experiencing. Here are some changes you can incorporate into your life that can help improve the number of migraines you are experiencing.

  • Sleep: Make sure you get enough of sleep and try going to sleep around the same time each night.  Interruptions in your sleep schedule, getting too much or too little sleep, can trigger a migraine.
  • Exercise regularly: Research has shown that regular, moderate aerobic exercise may reduce the severity, duration, and number of migraines in many people. Regular exercise also helps control stress, another migraine trigger.
  • Eat regular meals: Eating healthy meals regularly are important to maintain level blood sugar. A drop in blood sugar can trigger a migraine.
  • Drink plenty of water: Make sure you drink plenty of water to avoid dehydration, which can trigger migraine.
  • Limit stress: For many migraine sufferers, stress is plays a big factor. Take time each day to relax. Find something that helps you relax like listening to soothing music, taking short walks, meditating or doing yoga.
  • Try complementary therapies: Try using complementary therapy to help prevent migraines. For example, you may be able to manage stress and prevent migraines through acupuncture, massages and cognitive behavioral therapy.

Tip # 3 – Incorporate Certain Foods into Your Diet:

If you are a migraine sufferer like me, you are constantly looking for prevention ideas. Certain foods can help fight off and prevent migraines.  These foods include:

  • Cayenne: Cayenne peppers are widely recognized as culinary ingredients that add intense heat and flavor to southwest American, Caribbean, Indian and Asian dishes. However, this pepper may also offer healing benefits. Capsaicin, the chemical that gives cayenne peppers their heat, may help reduce blood vessel constriction. This may help prevent rapid blood pressure fluctuations that can trigger migraine headaches.
  • Coffee: When it comes to coffee, caffeine can give you migraine relief. It is a major ingredient in many headache medications. However, if you consume too much, it can actually cause migraines. Moderation is key!
  • Flaxseed and Fish: An anti-inflammatory diet is beneficial to preventing migraines.  Flaxseeds and fish are packed with omega-3s and fiber can actually help prevent migraines.
  • Riboflavin-rich Foods: Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B-2, is one of eight B vitamins necessary for the metabolism of nutrients and protection of your central nervous system. A deficiency of this vitamin may also contribute to headaches, particularly migraines. Adding foods high in riboflavin may help stop recurring migraines by correcting deficiencies. Eggs, avocados, broccoli, romaine lettuce, alfalfa, asparagus, walnuts and mushrooms are abundant sources of riboflavin.
  • Magnesium-rich Foods: About 60 percent of migraine sufferers may have magnesium deficiencies. Magnesium is a trace mineral that may help normalize nerve impulses in your brain that transmit pain signals. This may help stop intense pain associated with migraine headaches. It may also help regulate the production of serotonin, a neurotransmitter chemical that may contribute to sudden changes in blood pressure – a contributing factor of migraines. Increase your magnesium intake by consuming foods such as kale, tofu, lima beans, kelp, garlic, apples, bananas and apricots.

Tip # 4 – Consider Dietary Supplements:

  • Magnesium: This is probably the most important one as it contributes to relaxing the brain blood vessels that cause the pain. Magnesium penetrates cell membranes, including the mitochondria. Some of the best drugs used to treat migraines are calcium channel blockers.
  • Vitamin B2: (riboflavin) – Riboflavin, which is vitamin B2, converts energy from carbohydrates. The riboflavin gives your brain more energy, which makes it less likely to be bothered by migraine triggers.
  • Vitamin B6: Vitamin B6 is needed so the body can properly use serotonin and dopamine. These neurotransmitters are necessary for normal nerve cell communication. Researchers have found lower levels of serotonin in people with migraine headaches. Therefore taking Vitamin B6 may help the body better use these crucial chemicals and it is thought be a key vitamin for migraine aura and a natural remedy for migraines.
  • Vitamin B12 & Folic acid:  Vitamin B-12 supplements may also be effective for migraine relief if taken along with vitamin B6 and folic acid. A study published in “Pharmacogenetics & Genomics” in June 2009 showed that participants who took all three supplements together saw a reduction in migraine headache frequency and the severity of their pain.

Tip # 5 – Consider the Possibilities of Herbal Supplements:

For centuries, many people have used alternative therapies to help or cure common conditions.    Certain herbs have been used to help reduce or prevent migraines.  Some can be just as strong or effective as prescription drugs. Therefore, it is important to remember, if you consider using any type of herbal supplements, consult your doctor first.  Make sure it does not conflict with any medications you are currently taking.   You should not take any herbal supplements or drugs unless your doctor says it is OK and if you are pregnant, you should not take any herbal supplements because it may harm the baby.

Herbal supplements used to reduce and prevent migraines include the following:

  • Alfalfa Leaf
  • Barberry Root
  • Bay Leaf
  • Brazilian Guarana
  • Butterbur
  • Catnip
  • Cayenne
  • Chamomile
  • Dong Quai
  • Evening Primrose
  • Feverfew
  • Ginger Root
  • Green Tea
  • Griffonia Seed
  • Hawthorne Leaf
  • Honeysuckle
  • Kola Nut
  • Lemon Balm
  • Passion Flower
  • Peppermint Leaf
  • Valerian Root
  • White Willow Bark
  • Wintergreen
  • Wood Betony

Tip # 6 – Prescription Medications:

Not all experts would recommend using medication to prevent temperature-change-related migraines.  However, if you have tried natural, holistic and alternative therapies to try to eliminate your migraines and nothing seems to be effective then you should focus on other alternatives such as prescription medications specifically made to help people suffering from migraines.

Below are some prescription medications for patients suffering from migraines:

  1. Antiepileptic drugs: Certain medications used to control seizures are also effective for preventing migraines as well. These drugs may work by calming the neurons in the brain. Neuron “hyperexcitability” plays a role in migraine and epilepsy. Up to 20% of people with epilepsy also suffer from migraines including myself.  Anti – seizure medications that help migraines include:
    1. Depacon (valproate)
    2. Depakote (divalproex)
    3. Topiragen, Topamax (topiramate)
  2.  Beta-blockers: These medications are frequently used to treat high blood pressure and heart disease. It is not clear how they help prevent migraines. Nevertheless, beta-blockers improve the blood flow and this may be significant reason why beta-blockers help prevent migraines.  Beta-blockers that have been proven effective for the prevention of migraines include:
    1.  Blocadren (timolol)
    2. Inderal, Innopran XL (propranolol)
    3. Lopressor, Toprol XL (metoprolol)
  3. Antidepressants: These medications affect the level of the brain chemical serotonin. Research has shown that Elavil (amitriptyline) and Effexor (venlafaxine) work well for preventing migraines.
5 people found this helpful

Addiction

MBBS, DPM (Psychiatry)
Psychiatrist, Thrissur
Addiction

ADDICTION


Decades ago addiction was a pharmacologic term that clearly referred to the use of a tolerance-inducing drug in sufficient quantity as to cause tolerance (the requirement that greater dosages of a given drug be used to produce an identical effect as time passes). With that definition, humans (and indeed all mammals) can become addicted to various drugs quickly. Almost at the same time, a lay definition of addiction developed. This definition referred to individuals who continued to use a given drug despite their own best interest. This latter definition is now thought of as a disease state by the medical community.
Physical dependence, abuse of, and withdrawal from drugs and other miscellaneous substances is outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV TR). Unfortunately, terminology has become quite complicated in the field. To wit, pharmacologists continue to speak of addiction from a physiologic standpoint (some call this a physical dependence); psychiatrists refer to the disease state as dependence; most other physicians refer to the disease as addiction. The field of psychiatry is now considering, as they move from DSM-IV to DSM-V, transitioning from "dependence" to "addiction" as terminology for the disease state.
The medical community now makes a careful theoretical distinction between physical dependence (characterized by symptoms of withdrawal) and psychological dependence (or simply addiction). Addiction is now narrowly defined as "uncontrolled, compulsive use"; if there is no harm being suffered by, or damage done to, the patient or another party, then clinically it may be considered compulsive, but to the definition of some it is not categorized as "addiction". In practice, the two kinds of addiction are not always easy to distinguish. Addictions often have both physical and psychological components.
There is also a lesser known situation called pseudo-addiction.{(Weissman and Haddox, 1989}} A patient will exhibit drug-seeking behavior reminiscent of psychological addiction, but they tend to have genuine pain or other symptoms that have been undertreated. Unlike true psychological addiction, these behaviors tend to stop when the pain is adequately treated.
The obsolete term physical addiction is deprecated, because of its connotations. In modern pain management with opioids physical dependence is nearly universal. While opiates are essential in the treatment of acute pain, the benefit of this class of medication in chronic pain is not well proven. Clearly, there are those who would not function well without opiate treatment; on the other hand, many states are noting significant increases in non-intentional deaths related to opiate use. High-quality, long-term studies are needed to better delineate the risks and benefits of chronic opiate use.
Not all doctors agree on what addiction or dependency is, because traditionally, addiction has been defined as being possible only to a psychoactive substance (for example alcohol, tobacco and other drugs) which ingested cross the blood-brain barrier, altering the natural chemical behavior of the brain temporarily. Many people, both psychology professionals and laypersons, now feel that there should be accommodation made to include psychological dependency on such things as gambling, food, sex, pornography, computers, work, exercise, cutting, and shopping / spending. However, these are things or tasks which, when used or performed, cannot cross the blood-brain barrier and hence, do not fit into the traditional view of addiction. Symptoms mimicking withdrawal may occur with abatement of such behaviors; however, it is said by those who adhere to a traditionalist view that these withdrawal-like symptoms are not strictly reflective of an addiction, but rather of a behavioral disorder. In spite of traditionalist protests and warnings that overextension of definitions may cause the wrong treatment to be used (thus failing the person with the behavioral problem), popular media, and some members of the field, do represent the aforementioned behavioral examples as addictions.
In the contemporary view, the trend is to acknowledge the possibility that the hypothalmus creates peptides in the brain that equal and/or exceed the effect of externally applied chemicals (alcohol, nicotine etc.) when addictive activities take place [citation needed]. For example, when an addicted gambler or shopper is satisfying their craving, chemicals called endorphins are produced and released within the brain, reinforcing the individual's positive associations with their behavior.

Despite the popularity of defining addiction in medical terms, recently many have proposed defining addiction in terms of Economics, such as calculating the elasticity of addictive goods and determining, to what extent, present income and consumption (economics) has on future consumption.
Varied forms of addiction
Physical dependency
Physical dependence on a substance is defined by the appearance of characteristic withdrawal symptoms when the substance or behavior is suddenly discontinued. While opioids, benzodiazepinesbarbiturates, alcohol and nicotine are all well known for their ability to induce physical dependence, other categories of substances share this property and are not considered addictive: cortisone, beta-blockers and most antidepressants are examples. So, while physical dependency can be a major factor in the psychology of addiction and most often becomes a primary motivator in the continuation of an addiction, the initial primary attribute of an addictive substance is usually its ability to induce pleasure, although with continued use the goal is not so much to induce pleasure as it is to relieve the anxiety caused by the absence of a given addictive substance, causing it to become used compulsively. A notable exception to this is nicotine. Users report that a cigarette can be pleasurable, but there is a medical consensus [citation needed] that the user is likely fulfilling his/her physical addiction and, therefore, is achieving pleasurable feelings relative to his/her previous state of physical withdrawal. Further, the physical dependency of the nicotine addict on the substance itself becomes an overwhelming factor in the continuation of most users' addictions. Although 35 million smokers make an attempt to quit every year, fewer than 7% achieve even one year of abstinence (from the NIDA research report on nicotine addiction).[citation needed]
Some substances induce physical dependence or physiological tolerance - but not addiction - for example many laxatives, which are not psychoactive; nasal decongestants, which can cause rebound congestion if used for more than a few days in a row; and some antidepressants, most notably venlafaxineparoxetine and sertraline, as they have quite short half-lives, so stopping them abruptly causes a more rapid change in the neurotransmitter balance in the brain than many other antidepressants. Many non-addictive prescription drugs should not be suddenly stopped, so a doctor should be consulted before abruptly discontinuing them.
The speed with which a given individual becomes addicted to various substances varies with the substance, the frequency of use, the means of ingestion, the intensity of pleasure or euphoria, and the individual's genetic and psychological susceptibility. Some alcoholics report they exhibited alcoholic tendencies from the moment of first intoxication, while most people can drink socially without ever becoming addicted. Studies have demonstrated that opioid dependent individuals have different responses to even low doses of opioids than the majority of people, although this may be due to a variety of other factors, as opioid use heavily stimulates pleasure-inducing neurotransmitters in the brain. The vast majority of medical professionals and scientists agree that if one uses strong opioids on a regular basis for even just a short period of time, one will most likely become physically dependent [citation needed]. Nonetheless, because of these variations, in addition to the adoption and twin studies that have been well replicated, much of the medical community is satisfied that addiction is in part genetically moderated. That is, one's genetic makeup may regulate how susceptible one is to a substance and how easily one may become psychologically attached to a pleasurable routine.
Eating disorders are complicated pathological mental illnesses and thus are not the same as addictions described in this article. Eating disorders, which some argue are not addictions at all, are driven by a multitude of factors, most of which are highly different than the factors behind addictions described in this article.

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