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Prescription vs.OTC: Prescription by Doctor required

Lithium is an element that derives its name from the Greek word lithos meaning stone. It is used as a medicine most effectively in the treatment of bipolar disorder and other mental disorders such as poor cognitive skills, aggressive behavior, insomniac tendencies, hyperactivity. It can also be used to treat epilepsy, diabetes, liver and kidney disease, arthritis, asthma, frequent headaches, eating disorders such as anorexia, bulimia and for blood disorders such as anemia.

On using Lithium you may experience certain side effects such as nausea, diarrhea, dizziness, fatigue, muscle weakness, mild tremors, frequent urge to urinate and thirst. These effects will decrease over time, however, if they should continue and worsen, seek medical aid right away. Certain precautionary protocols that you are advised to follow before using Lithium includes notifying your doctor if you:

  • Are pregnant or are planning to become pregnant. can prove to be fatal for the fetus if used during pregnancy.
  • Are breastfeeding a baby. It can cause certain harmful side effects to the baby.
  • Have a history of heart disease, thyroid or kidney disease.
  • Are taking any prescriptive or over the counter drugs, herbal medications or dietary supplements.
  • Have recently had a surgery or are scheduled for one soon. Lithium usage should be discontinued two weeks before your surgery.

The dosage for Lithium will be determined by your doctor as per the seriousness of your condition, overall health, gender and age. Usually the prescribed dosage for adults diagnosed with manic or bipolar disorder is about 1800 mg per day. It should be taken in three sets of about 600 mg each in the morning, afternoon and night. The dose for children 12 years or older is also the same. Patients are advised to seek the help of your health care provider should you suspect drug overdose, or symptoms of Brugada, encephalopathy, diabetes or insipidus.

Lithium is used in the treatment of mania which is mood disorder characterized by hyperactivity, elevation in mood and extreme enthusiasm.
Bipolar Disorder
Lithium is used in the treatment of bipolar disorder characterized by unusual shifts in the mood like hyperactivity and tiredness are some of the symptoms of bipolar disorder.
Not recommended in patients with known allergy to Lithium.
Severe heart disease
Not recommended in patients with known heart diseases.
In addition to its intended effect, Lithium may cause some unwanted effects too. In such cases, you must seek medical attention immediately. This is not an exhaustive list of side effects. Please inform your doctor if you experience any adverse reaction to the medication.
Confusion Major Less Common
Increased thirst Major Less Common
Weight gain Major Less Common
Dizziness Major Rare
Headache Major Rare
Changes in vision Major Rare
Skin Rash Minor Less Common
Excessive air or gas in stomach Minor Less Common
Confusion Major Less Common
Increased thirst Major Less Common
Weight gain Major Less Common
Dizziness Major Rare
Headache Major Rare
Changes in vision Major Rare
Skin Rash Minor Less Common
Excessive air or gas in stomach Minor Less Common
Duration of effect
The effect of this medicine lasts for an average duration of 2 to 3 days.
Onset of action
The effect of this medicine can be observed in 5 to 7 days.
Pregnancy warnings
This medicine is not recommended for pregnant women.
Is it habit forming?
No habit forming tendency has been reported
Breast-feeding warnings
This medicine is not recommended in breastfeeding women.
Missed Dose instructions
Take the missed dose as soon as you remember. If itā??s almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose. Do not double your dose to make up for the missed dose.
Overdose instructions
Seek emergency medical treatment or contact the doctor in case of an overdose.
Missed Dose instructions
Take the missed dose as soon as you remember. If itā??s almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose. Do not double your dose to make up for the missed dose.
Overdose instructions
Seek emergency medical treatment or contact the doctor in case of an overdose.
United States
United States
Whenever you take more than one medicine, or mix it with certain foods or beverages, you're at risk of a drug interaction.
Interaction with Disease
Dementia Major
This medicine is not recommended in patients with dementia-related psychosis as it increases the risk of heart diseases like heart failure and infectious diseases like pneumonia. An alternate medicine should be considered based on the clinical condition.
Heart Disease Major
This medicine is not recommended in patients with heart disease. Inform the doctor if you have any heart disease before receiving this medicine. An alternate medicine should be considered based on the clinical condition.
Hypothyroidism Major
This medicine may alter the thyroid levels, therefore, not recommended in patients with hypothyroidism. Check the thyroid levels before starting the treatment. The treatment should be discontinued if thyroid levels are low.
Interaction with Alcohol
Alcohol Moderate
Consumption of alcohol with this medicine is not recommended as it can result in dizziness and difficulty in concentration. Avoid activities that need mental alertness like driving and operating machinery.
Interaction with Lab Test
Information not available.
Interaction with Food
Information not available.
Interaction with Medicine
Metformin Moderate
Lithium may alter the effect of antidiabetic medications. Inform the doctor if you have diabetes mellitus. Close monitoring of blood glucose levels is necessary. Any symptoms of increased urination, thirst, hunger should be informed to the doctor.
Ondansetron Major
These medications may increase the risk of the rare but serious condition called serotonin syndrome. Any symptoms of increased heart rate, sweating, incoordination should be reported to the doctor. Close monitoring of blood pressure and any changes in behavior is necessary. Dose adjustments or an alternate medicine should be considered based on the clinical condition.
Furosemide Major
Furosemide may increase the level of lithium, therefore not recommended together. Any symptoms of drowsiness, muscle weakness, blurred vision, and vomiting should be reported to the doctor. The dose of lithium should be reduced based on the patient's response. if necessary, an alternate medicine should be considered based on the clinical condition.
Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI's) Moderate
Antihypertensives like captopril, enalapril may increase the level of lithium, therefore not recommended together. Any symptoms of drowsiness, muscle weakness, blurred vision, and vomiting should be reported to the doctor. The dose of either of the medicines should be reduced based on the patient's response. if necessary, an alternate medicine should be considered based on the clinical condition.

Popular Questions & Answers

Hello doctor. I am taking lithium for one yr. I have severe hand tremor. Everyone asking about my tremor. How to get rid of the tremor caused by lithium. than.

MD, DNB (Medicine) DNB ( Neurology)
Neurologist, Pune
Lithium toxicity caused tremors, get your serum lithium and creatinine checked. May be you need to stop or reduce dosage of lithium if its the reason.

My granddaughter has got tests done for thyroid. The results show T3 total =1.19 T4 Total =6.00 TSH =8.25 (higher than the reference) All other blood tests are normal she is 19+ (years) has added about 10 kg in one year.

MBBS, MD - Internal Medicine
Internal Medicine Specialist, Faridabad
Hi, Good Foods For Hypothyroidism Foods that are rich in iodine are highly recommended in the struggle to ward off hypothyroidism. Below is a categorized list of good food sources. Iodine-Rich Foods For Hypothyroidism ?Iodized Salt ?Seaweeds and Seafoods ?Salt Water Fish ?Sushi ?Nori Rolls ?Celtic Sea Salt Selenium-Rich Foods For Hypothyroidism ?Meat ?Chicken ?Salmon ?Tuna ?Whole Unrefined Grains ?Brazil Nuts ?Dairy Products ?Garlic ?Onions Iodine For Hypothyroidism The thyroid gland needs iodine, therefore if you have an underactive thyroid gland you should increase the iodine intake in your diet. A well-balanced diet that includes iodine can help in alleviating the symptoms that you encounter with your condition. With the simplest intake of the foods mentioned above, you can greatly assist your thyroid in keeping up with your body's metabolism. Foods To Avoid For Hypothyroidism These foods must be avoided in order to prevent recurrence of hypothyroidism symptoms. Avoiding them will also prevent aggravating the already aggravated thyroid glands. Here is a list of foods to be avoided: ?Cassava ?Linseed ?Kohlrabi ?Peanuts ?Kale ?Turnips ?Mustard Greens ?Mustard ?Millet ?Cauliflower ?Rutabagas ?Peaches ?Coffee ?Spinach Goitrogenic Foods To Avoid For Hypothyroidism The food items listed below can impede your body's ability to absorb iodine. And when your body can't absorb iodine, your thyroid gland will swell and you will eventually develop goiter. Some of the food listed above can also be goitrogenic. P.T.O ?Bamboo shoots ?Soybeans and related products ?Canola Oil ?Horseradish ?Bok Choy ?Foods with Gluten ?Garden Kres ?Tempeh ?Babassu ?Sweet Potato Goitrogenic Chemicals These chemicals, when ingested through processed food or medications can cause goiter: ?Amiodarone ?Lithium ?Oxazolidines ?Iopanoic acid ?Minocycline (MN) ?Propylthiouracil ?Thioureylene ?Sulfadimethoxine ?Carbamazepine ?Phenobarbitone as per Lybrate policy you have to paid consultation for prescription or visit clinic (1).

I am suffering from diabetics as well as bipolar disorder. I take medicines for both. I have been taking lithosun since a very long time and due to that I found it had put a adverse effect on my kidney. My creatinine has increased to 2.0. So I want to know which of the two medicine i.e lithosun 600 or lithosun sr has more adverse effect on the kidney?

MBBS, CCEBDM, Diploma in Diabetology
Endocrinologist, Hubli-Dharwad
I am suffering from diabetics as well as bipolar disorder. I take medicines for both. I have been taking lithosun sin...
Hello, Thanks for the query. Lithium in large doses can affect kidneys. Even uncontrolled diabetes also can affect kidneys. Whether one takes 600 mg or a SR (sustained release) tablet both can affect kidney when used for a long time. Similarly if blood glucose is uncontrolled that too damages the filtering unit of the kidney. Thanks.

Sir few months before, simply I tested my blood, and my uric level was normal 5.7 but after one month again I did one more blood test that time my uric acid level was 9.3 but I didn't have any body pain. Doctor prescribed me fubic 40 mg medicine, I took that medicine only for one week. For 22 days like that I avoid high protein diet, again after 22 days I have did one more test that time my uric acid level is 5.7,but yesterday I again tested it increasing to 6.9.¹.so itcan be curable forever? And moreover I am a vegetarian. .how long I have to maintain my diet. Almost been two months I am in depression bcz of this. So many people told me later on it will affect me or something on the other. Please help me sir. It can be curable forever or not?

Homeopath, Sindhudurg
Sir few months before, simply I tested my blood, and my uric level was normal 5.7 but after one month again I did one...
Homeopathic remedies for high uric acid provide an excellent cure. Treatment of elevated uric acid levels with homeopathic remedies not only lowers the levels but also treats body?s defective tendency to hold  excess of uric acid. Homeopathic remedies also treat the body?s metabolic process which handles purines ( kind of protein which ends up as uric acid after the body processes it. These are the top homeopathic medicines for elevated uric acid levels that I have found to be very effective colchi, ledum, guaicum, benzoic acid, lithium etc Tips for increased uric acid levels and gout Watch your weight. Try to lose weight slowly. Eat fresh fruit, vegetables, whole wheat products and some pulses (high in purine) every day. Enjoy low-fat milk and dairy products daily. Keep an eye on the purine content of food. Avoid offal, shellfish and crustaceans and tinned fish such as sardines in oil. Eat no more than 100g of meat, sausages, fish and poultry a day. Drink alcohol only occasionally, as it affects the elimination of uric acid. Eat low-fat food. The consumption of high-fat foods encourages weight gain. Drink at least two litres of low-calorie fluids a day. Recommended fluids are water, tea and fruit juice. ...consult me by clicking on consult option for homoepathic treatment without side effects.
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Popular Health Tips

What is Bipolar Disorder? Know Its Symptoms And Diagnosis!

MBBS, MD - Psychiatry
Psychiatrist, Delhi
What is Bipolar Disorder? Know Its Symptoms And Diagnosis!

Bipolar disorder is the medical term for extreme depression and mood swings that are abnormal or too frequent. The mood swings may go from depression to mania, where the symptoms may border on suicidal behaviour, and other such dangerous tendencies. Find out more about Bipolar Disorder with this article.

- Main Symptoms: The major symptoms of Bipolar Disorder are hypomania and depression. The patient may swing between these two states on a sudden basis. The dramatic mood swings do not have a set routine or pattern and can strike at any given time. The patient may be in a certain kind of state for a prolonged period like many weeks and months, or can even be in a certain state for a matter of days, before the next mood strikes. While hypomania is a very severe outcome of Bipolar Disorder, many people do not recognise it as a problem until it gets out of hand. This state can actually make a person feel high on energy where the patient may also achieve all-time highs in terms of productivity and a sense of wellbeing. This state can switch to a state of depression and hopelessness within a matter of days or weeks.

- Types: Bipolar Disorder can be categorised into many types, depending on the level and severity of the mood swings. To begin with, Bipolar Disorder I has full blown cycles of ups and downs in the mood of the patient. The up mood never really manifests into full fledged mania. This is a more mild form of the disease, and the symptoms are often missed. Rapid Cycling is another form of Bipolar Disease where a patient may experience at least four or even more episodes of major mood swings within a period of 12 months. Further, Mixed Bipolar is a form of the disease where the depression and elevation may come together or in rapid succession of each other. Cyclothymia is another mild form of this mood disorder and comes with subtle changes in one's mood.

- Diagnosis and Treatment: While the diagnosis is done by a clinical psychologist or a psychiatrist with the help of an examination of the symptoms, the treatment includes long term counselling and therapy as well as medication for more severe cases. The drugs and therapy aim at making the mind more stable with psychotherapy. Drugs like lithium or benzodiazepine can also be prescribed to control sleeplessness and hyperactivity as well as hostility and suicidal tendencies.

Talking and discussing things are the foremost methods used by psychiatrists when it comes to treating this disease. Persistent mood alterations must be run past a specialist in the field.

4 people found this helpful

Psoriasis - How Homeopathy Plays A Role In Treating It?

MD - Homeopathy, Doctor of Homeopathic Medicine (H.M.D., BHMS
Homeopath, Delhi
Psoriasis - How Homeopathy Plays A Role In Treating It?

What is Psoriasis? 

Psoriasis is a common skin disease characterized by thickened patches of inflamed, red skin covered with thick, silvery scales. The elbows and knees are the most common areas affected by psoriasis. It will often appear in the same place on both sides of the body. The patches can range in size from smaller than a dime to larger than a hand. 

Description of Psoriasis-

Normally, skin cells mature and shed after about a month. In psoriasis, the cell maturation speeds up, taking only three to four days. Because the lower layer of skin cells divide more rapidly than normal, dead cells accumulate in thicker patches on the skin's outermost layer called the 'Epidermis'. 

Forms & Classifications-

Psoriasis occurs in a variety of forms that differ in their intensity, duration, location, shape and pattern of scales. The most common forms are: 

  1. Plaque Psoriasis: Plaque psoriasis is the most common form of psoriasis. It is characterized by raised, inflamed, red lesions covered with a silvery-white buildup of dead skin cells (scales). This is found primarily on the Body, elbows, knees, scalp and finger or toe nails. 
  2. Guttate Psoriasis: Guttate psoriasis occurs most frequently in children and is characterized by numerous small, red, drop-like scaly macules that develop rapidly over a wide area of skin. This may appear following an infection, most frequently strep throat
  3. Inverse Psoriasis: Inverse psoriasis occurs in the armpit, under the breast, in skin folds, around the groin, in the cleft between the buttocks and around the genitals. It is usually pink and irritated but lacks the thick scale seen in other forms of psoriasis. 
  4. Pustular Psoriasis: Pustular psoriasis is a rare form characterized by small pustules (whitehead-like lesions) found all over the body or confined all over the body or confined to the palms, soles and other isolated areas of the body. 

Some dermatologists classify psoriasis as mild, moderate, or severe- Mild psoriasis is considered to be scaling over less than 5-10 percent of the body, moderate psoriasis is considered to be scaling over 10 to 20 percent of the body and severe psoriasis is considered to be scaling more than 20 percent of the body. 

In 5 percent of all psoriasis sufferers, arthritis will develop. This condition is called psoriatic arthritis. Arthritis is inflammation of a joint, usually accompanied by pain, swelling and changes in joint structure. 

The underlying psoriasis cause is unknown; however, it can be genetically inherited or passed from generation to generation. Most researchers agree that the Auto Immunity is somehow mistakenly triggered, which speeds up the growth cycle of skin cells. Psoriasis can be triggered by a number of factors, such as stress, climate changes, streptococcal or HIV infection, superficial wounds, physical illness, or taking certain drugs such as lithium, beta-blockers such as propranolol, quinidine (Heart medication) or antimalarial medications. 

Homeopathy is preferred over other methods due to the reason that it does not entail any side effects. Instead of suppressing inflammation like other methods of treatment, it aims to cure the root cause of the disease. Yes, psoriasis can be cured permanently through constitutional Homeopathy treatment but the question is how can a patient know whether eruptions are disappearing for permanently or temporarily? 

Permanent Cure takes place as follows: 

Cure is taken place from Upward to downwards and Center to periphery. First, the cracks come down with arresting of blood coming out from it. After that, the eruption on scalp comes down, if the scaling is thick it becomes gradually thin and then becomes powdery and with time, the scaling disappears totally. After that, eruptions on face and body come down, and at same time eruptions in hands & legs may increase with itching. Eruptions on elbows reduce, after sometime eruptions near to hands, also reduce. While eruptions on legs itches more. However, eruptions on legs also get disappeared. During the total process of cure, you will feel sleepy, and the bowel movement will be regular, sometimes there may be loose stools as well. The various homeopathic remedies that are used to treat psoriasis: Lycopodium, Sulphur, Pulasatilla, Staphysagria, Graphitis, sepia, Arsenic alb, Natrum mur etc. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Homeopath.

3077 people found this helpful

Hypothyroidism - Ayurvedic Treatment For It!

Vedicgram Ayurveda
Ayurveda, Noida
Hypothyroidism - Ayurvedic Treatment For It!

Almost all the metabolic processes in a person's body are influenced by the hormones produced by the thyroid gland. The most common types of thyroid diseases caused due to dysfunctional thyroid glands are Thyroid nodules, Hypothyroidism, Hyperthyroidism, Goiter, Thyroiditis, and Thyroid Cancer

Hypothyroidism is when the thyroid gland is underactive and the amount of hormones produced is insufficient. Hypothyroidism can be caused due to multiple reasons such as iodine deficiency, radiation or surgery on the thyroid gland, and drugs such as lithium and phenylbutazone. You should note that treating thyroid is not a speedy process and a reoccurrence of symptoms might also take place. However with the appropriate remedies and proper diet control, one can make sure that these symptoms are less pronounced. 

Ayurveda: According to Ayurveda, imbalance or disequilibrium in the doshas is the main cause of hypothyroidism. The Kapha dosha i.e. the dosha responsible for body fluids and lubrication and Pitta dosha i.e. the dosha responsible for fire and water body humors, are vitiated. Lifestyle and diet discrepancies further promote imbalances in the doshas. Hypothyroidism is categorized under the Yapya diseases which recur once you cease to take the treatment. 


  1. It is essential to consume adequate quantities of milk. 
  2. Apart from that, coconut oil is one of the best remedies for a hypothyroid patient, since it increases slow and sluggish metabolism. Coconut contains MCFAs i.e. medium chain fatty acids and MTCs i.e. Medium chain triglycerides in abundance which help the metabolism be revved up. 
  3. Ayurvedic herbs useful for treating hypothyroidism are kanchnar, Bauhinia variegata i.e. purple mountain ebony, Jatamansi, brahmi, guggulu, shilajit, gokshura, and punarnava. 


  1. Consume a mixture of Indian gooseberry i.e. amla churna with honey, daily before breakfast. 
  2. One of the main causes of Hypothyroidism is insufficient amount of iodine. Drinking the juice acquired from jalakumbhi i.e. Pistia Stratiotes everyday in doses amounting from 11gm to 22gm increases the iodine content and helps treat hypothyroidism.
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Manic Depressive Disorder: 11 Signs You Should Know!

MD - Psychiatry, MBBS
Psychiatrist, Bhopal
Manic Depressive Disorder: 11 Signs You Should Know!

Manic depression, also known as bipolar disorder in recent days, is a major mood disorder characterized by hypomanic or manic episodes (deviation from one's usual mood along with abnormally high energy levels). Mania involves sleeplessness, along with psychosis, hallucinations, rage, grandiose delusions or paranoia. Mania or hypomania isn’t usually harmful to the patient and they might exhibit increased capacity for work and creativity. Depressive episodes however, can be debilitating and often life threatening as the person becomes self-destructive and suicidal in many instances. 

The extent of mood swings can vary from extreme to very mild. They can occur progressively or suddenly and might last for few days to weeks. Patients affected by bipolar disorder may experience disturbances in thinking apart from depressive or manic episodes. Distortions of perception and impaired social functioning are also not uncommon. The cause of bipolar disorder is not fully understood like most mental health conditions and is often thought to be hereditary.

The extent of the seriousness of the bipolar symptoms varies from person to person. In some people, the disorder is not full blown and they don’t exhibit all the symptoms. Others who aren’t that lucky might have to be hospitalized multiple times in their lives as the symptoms creep into their work and personal life and make living a normal life a tough challenge. 

Psychotic symptoms such as disorganized thinking, hallucinations and delusions might make a person do things that demand the urgency of hospitalization to keep them safe from their suicidal impulses. These symptoms might need to be urgently addressed by a psychiatrist and with the help of medications, the person might be able to regain control of their lives.

The symptoms of bipolar disorder are many and can be mainly categorized into two (sometimes overlapping) categories of mania or hypomania and depression:

Manic symptoms include: 

  1. Grandiose delusions (delusion of grandeur) 
  2. Racing thoughts which are often disconnected
  3. Sense of euphoria or false elation
  4. Irritability without cause
  5. Hampered social functioning
  6. Increased sexual inclination and risky sexual behavior
  7. Hyperactivity
  8. Increase in talking volume or speed
  9. Impaired judgment
  10. Reduced sleep requirements owing to extra energy levels
  11. Increased productivity and creativity

Depressive symptoms include:

  1. Abnormal eating patterns like over or under-eating to the extent of severe medical complications accompanied by drastic changes in weight
  2. Difficulty in concentration, making decisions and remembering
  3. Lack of energy or fatigue 
  4. Contemplating about death for prolonged periods of time and suicidal behavior
  5. Oversleeping, insomnia or early awakening
  6. Persistent pessimism 
  7. Irritability and restlessness
  8. Feeling of hopeless and negative attitude

Mood stabilizers, such as lithium are commonly employed to treat bipolar disorder. Anticonvulsants, benzodiazepines and anti psychotics can also be used in the treatment. Along with medications, support from family and friends is of the utmost importance as they need to help provide all the support required in making the person functional and healthy.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3647 people found this helpful

All About Acne Vulgaris

MBBS, DHMS-Harvard, Masters in Clinical Dermatology
Dermatologist, Chandigarh
All About Acne Vulgaris

Acne vulgaris is a common chronic skin disease involving blockage and/or inflammation of pilosebaceous units (hair follicles and their accompanying sebaceous gland). Acne can present as noninflammatory lesions, inflammatory lesions, or a mixture of both, affecting mostly the face but also the back and chest.

Acne vulgaris has a multifactorial pathogenesis, of which the key factor is genetics. Acne develops as a result of an interplay of the following four factors: (1) follicular epidermal hyperproliferation with subsequent plugging of the follicle, (2) excess sebum production, (3) the presence and activity of the commensal bacteria Propionibacterium acnes, and (4) inflammation.

Acne occurs through the interplay of 4 major factors:

  • Excess sebum production
  • Follicular plugging with sebum and keratinocytes
  • Colonization of follicles by Propionibacterium acnes (a normal human anaerobe)
  • Release of multiple inflammatory mediators

The most common trigger is

  • Puberty

During puberty, surges in androgen stimulate sebum production and hyperproliferation of keratinocytes.

Other triggers include

  • Hormonal changes that occur with pregnancy or the menstrual cycle
  • Occlusive cosmetics, cleansers, lotions, and clothing
  • High humidity and sweating
  • Associations between acne exacerbation and diet, inadequate face washing, masturbation, and sex are unfounded. Some studies suggest a possible association with milk products and high-glycemic diets. Acne may abate in summer months because of sunlight’s anti-inflammatory effects. Proposed associations between acne and hyperinsulinism require further investigation. Some drugs and chemicals (eg, corticosteroids, lithium, phenytoin, isoniazid) worsen acne or cause acneiform eruptions.
  • Acne results in a variety of lesions. The most common acne locations include the face, neck, chest, and back, where the most sebaceous glands are located. Along the jaw line is a common location in adults. "Blackheads" (open comedones) and "whiteheads" (closed comedones) are follicular plugs that are either sitting below the skin surface (whitehead) or oxidized from being exposed to the air (blackhead). Papules are small pink to reddish-brown bumps, pustules are pus-filled lesions, and nodules or cysts are deeper pus-filled lesions.
  • Mild acne consists of a few papules/pustules and/or comedones. Moderate acne has an increased number of lesions. Severe acne has numerous comedones, papules, pustules, and may have painful nodules.
  • Acne can result in permanent scars, which can appear to be depressions in the skin or hyperpigmentation, which is dark red or brown flat marks where the acne lesions were.


  • Comedones: Topical tretinoin
  • Mild inflammatory acne: Topical retinoid alone or with a topical antibiotic, benzoyl peroxide, or both
  • Moderate acne: Oral antibiotic plus topical therapy as for mild acne
  • Severe acne: Oral isotretinoin
  • Cystic acne: Intralesional triamcinolone
2 people found this helpful