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Dilcontin 120 MG Tablet XL

Manufacturer: Modi Mundi Pharma Pvt Ltd
Medicine composition: Diltiazem
Prescription vs.OTC: Prescription by Doctor required

Dilcontin 120 MG Tablet XL obstructs calcium function, to effectively relax heart muscles and blood vessels. The drug is prescribed to patients who suffer from high blood pressure issues or have angina. Patients with various disorders of the heart rhythm may also be prescribed Dilcontin 120 MG Tablet XL. The medicine is taken orally and the dosage should be strictly taken according to the prescription. This is primarily because Dilcontin 120 MG Tablet XL can cause certain side effects, which may aggravate if the dosage is not right. Some side effects of Dilcontin 120 MG Tablet XL are-

Other side effects may also occur, in which case a doctor should be immediately considered.

The medicine is generally not prescribed to patients with severe heart problems, for instance an AV block or suffer from hypotension. It is also not recommended for patients who have had a heart attack very recently. Doctors should be informed about any kidney problems, liver disease or allergies to make sure that the drug is safe for consumption. It is also not recommended for pregnant women or mothers who are breast feeding, unless absolutely essential. It is available either in the form of a table or a capsule, the drug is meant to be taken orally. Stopping the medicine suddenly can lead to severe consequences. In case the drug needs to be stopped it should be done gradually. It is always best that patients on Dilcontin 120 MG Tablet XL keep checking their blood pressure to ensure that it is at the desired level. Dilcontin 120 MG Tablet XL should be stored at room temperature and kept away from heat as well as moisture. An over dose of the drug can be highly fatal. Emergency medical aid should be acquired in this case.

Information given here is based on the salt and content of the medicine. Effect and uses of medicine may vary from person to person. It is advicable to consult a Cardiologist before using this medicine.

Dilcontin 120 MG Tablet XL is used in the treatment of hypertension which is an increase in the blood pressure caused by genetic and environmental factors.
Angina Pectoris Prophylaxis
Dilcontin 120 MG Tablet XL is used in the treatment of angina pectoris which is a type of heart disease characterized by chest pain caused due to emotional stress and smoking.
Dilcontin 120 MG Tablet XL is used in the treatment of atrial fibrillation which is a type of heart disease characterized by irregular and fast heart rate.
Supraventricular Tachycardia
Dilcontin 120 MG Tablet XL is used in the treatment of supraventricular tachycardia which is a type of heart disease characterized by fast heartbeat.
Avoid if you have a known allergy to Dilcontin 120 MG Tablet XL or any medicine belongs to the class calcium channel blockers.
Hypotension
This medicine is not recommended in the patients with the systolic blood pressure less than 90 mm Hg.
This medicine is not recommended in the patients with known case of myocardial infarction.
This medicine is not recommended in the patients with sick sinus syndrome except in the presence of a functioning ventricular pacemaker.
In addition to its intended effect, Dilcontin 120 MG Tablet XL may cause some unwanted effects too. In such cases, you must seek medical attention immediately. This is not an exhaustive list of side effects. Please inform your doctor if you experience any adverse reaction to the medication.
Body pain Major Common
Cough Major Common
Fever Major Common
Chest discomfort Major Less Common
Headache Major Less Common
Diarrhea Major Less Common
Swelling of the hands, ankles, feet, or lower legs Major Less Common
Sneezing Minor Common
Acid or sour stomach Minor Less Common
Constipation Minor Less Common
Muscle pain Minor Less Common
Skin rash Minor Less Common
How long is the duration of effect?
The effect of this medicine lasts for an average duration of 9 to 12 hours for an immediate release tablet, 12 to 24 hours for an extended release tablet, 15 to 30 hours for an extended release capsule, 9 to 12 hours for a single intravenous dose, 12 to 15 hours for an infusion.
What is the onset of action?
The peak effect of this medicine can be observed in 2 to 4 hours for an immediate release tablet, 11 to 18 hours for an extended release tablet and 10 to 14 hours for an extended release capsule.
Are there any pregnancy warnings?
This medicine is not recommended for pregnant women. Use under the supervision of the doctor, only if clinical condition clearly requires the use of this medicine.
Is it habit forming?
No habit forming tendencies were reported.
Are there any breast-feeding warnings?
This medicine is not recommended for breastfeeding women. Use only if clearly needed under the doctor's supervision. Monitoring of blood pressure is necessary.
Missed Dose instructions
The missed dose can be taken as soon as you remember. However, the missed dose should be skipped if it is almost time for your next dose.
Overdose instructions
Seek emergency medical treatment or contact the doctor in case of an overdose.
India
United States
Japan
Dilcontin 120 MG Tablet XL belongs to the class non-dihydropyridine calcium-channel blocker. it works by inhibiting the influx of calcium into the myocardial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells thus inhibit the contraction of muscles and dilate the coronary and smooth muscle arteries.
Whenever you take more than one medicine, or mix it with certain foods or beverages, you"re at risk of a drug interaction.
Interaction with Disease
Aortic Stenosis Major
Dilcontin 120 MG Tablet XL is not recommended in the patients with aortic stenosis as it may worsen the myocardial oxygen balance.
Interaction with Alcohol
Alcohol Moderate
Consumption of alcohol should be avoided while taking this medicine, especially when you start taking the medicine or a change its dosage. Symptoms like headache, dizziness, change in pulse or heart rate should be reported to the doctor.
Interaction with Lab Test
Lab
Information not available.
Interaction with Food
Food
Information not available.
Interaction with Medicine
Carbamazepine Major
Combined use of these medicines is not recommended due to changes in the levels of these medicines. Any symptoms of headache, dizziness, visual disturbances should be reported to the doctor. Dose adjustments are to be made based on the clinical condition or an alternate medicine should be considered.
Itraconazole Major
Combined use of these medicines is not recommended due to changes in the levels of Dilcontin 120 MG Tablet XL. Any symptoms of swelling of hands, feet, dizziness should be reported to the doctor. Avoid operating machinery and driving vehicle. Dose adjustments are to be made based on the clinical condition or an alternate medicine should be considered.
Ethinyl Estradiol Moderate
The blood levels of oral contraceptives may increase if taken with Dilcontin 120 MG Tablet XL. Dose adjustments are to be based on the clinical condition or an alternate medicine should be considered.
Atorvastatin Moderate
These medicines should be used with caution due to increase in the levels of atorvastatin which may cause severe muscle injury. Frequent monitoring of kidney function tests is necessary. Any symptoms of muscle pain, tenderness, dark colored urine should be reported to the doctor. Dose adjustments or an alternate medicine should be considered based on the clinical condition.
Disclaimer: The information produced here is best of our knowledge and experience and we have tried our best to make it as accurate and up-to-date as possible, but we would like to request that it should not be treated as a substitute for professional advice, diagnosis or treatment.

Lybrate is a medium to provide our audience with the common information on medicines and does not guarantee its accuracy or exhaustiveness. Even if there is no mention of a warning for any drug or combination, it never means that we are claiming that the drug or combination is safe for consumption without any proper consultation with an expert.

Lybrate does not take responsibility for any aspect of medicines or treatments. If you have any doubts about your medication, we strongly recommend you to see a doctor immediately.

Popular Questions & Answers

I had anal fissure. I used diltiazem cream for 2 years and got side effect of dizziness. I have stopped using diltiazem cream for the past 6 months but I still feel dizzy. Can you advice me what to do?

MS - General Surgery, Fellowship in Minimal Access Surgery(FMAS), Diploma in Advanced Laparoscopic surgery, Training in Laparoscopy
General Surgeon, Srinagar
I had anal fissure. I used diltiazem cream for 2 years and got side effect of dizziness. I have stopped using diltiaz...
Well it's highly unlikely that dizziness is due to dilzem cream as you have left it 6 months back. Its a short acting drug and effects vanish soon. You rule out some other cause for your dizziness. Get a cervical spine x ray done, an ear checkup, an ECG and CBC. Get a physician checkup done to see the cause and treat the cause.
1 person found this helpful

I am suffered from fissure for last 5 months. What should I do? I used 2% diltiazem cream. Bt can't relief occur. What should I do?

BHMS
Homeopath, Murshidabad
Dear lybrate user, external applications will merely subside the infection giving you temporary relief from pain & swelling. But if you want to cure it permanently then homoeopathy is the best option. Take homoeopathic silicea 6x tablets for one month. Take 4 tablets, thrice daily, in lukewarm water. If your problem persists after one month of medication then you should consult.
1 person found this helpful

I am suffering from anal fissures (piles) for last two years. Doctor prescribed me diltiazem gel & pegmove powder. I got relief for sometime but its occurring now n then. Is there any treatment other than surgery is there.

MBBS, MBA (Healthcare)
General Physician, Delhi
avoid constipation , avoid straining on stool. take fiber diet and green vegetables.take pilex one tab 3 times daily for one month. use anovate cream on anus after motion. consult surgeon , for detail check up.

I have an abnormal growth in anus. It is not bleeding but sometimes it is very pailful. I apply diltiazem gel bt it not work properly in all times. It may be piles. How can I recover from it? How much surgery cost?

MS - General Surgery, FMAS.Laparoscopy
General Surgeon, Gandhinagar
Hello dear Sandipan , hi Warm welcome to Lybrate.com I have evaluated your query thoroughly . * Seems external hemorrhoid . * Needs surgery , average cost in out set up is around Rs. 15,000 inclusive of all . Hope this clears your query . Wishing you fine recovery . Welcome for any further assistance . Regards take care .

Popular Health Tips

Pulmonary Hypertension - What Type Of Treatment Is Given?

MD , MBBS
Pulmonologist, Delhi
Pulmonary Hypertension - What Type Of Treatment Is Given?

Pulmonary hypertension mainly occurs due to narrowing of the arteries of the lungs as a result of which the flow of blood is restricted. In this kind of condition, blood fails to carry oxygen to your heart and thus your heart gets adversely affected. The blood pressure of your body will get increased to a great extent if this situation remains untreated, thus leading to bdreadful consequenses, specifically situation like heart failure, serious pulmonary diseases, blood clots in lungs and congenial heart defects, etc.

There are certain forms of pulmonary hypertension, which are serious in nature and worsen with time, so much so that they are even fatal at times. It also includes forms which are non curable in nature, however, in order to improve the quality of life, symptoms can be reduced with proper treatment. The treatment for pulmonary hypertension is often complex and it takes some time to find the most appropriate treatment and requires extensive follow-up care. Your doctor might also need to change your treatment if it's no longer effective. However, when pulmonary hypertension is caused by another condition, your doctor will treat the underlying cause whenever possible.

Common Treatments for pulmonary hypertension:

Medications:

  1. Blood vessel dilators (vasodilators): Vasodilators open narrowed blood vessels. They are one of the most commonly prescribed vasodilators for pulmonary hypertension is epoprostenol (Flolan, Veletri). The drawback to epoprostenol is that the effect lasts only for few minutes. This drug is continuously injected through an intravenous (IV) catheter via a small pump that you wear in a pack on your belt or shoulder.
  2. Ventavis: Another form of the drug, iloprost (Ventavis), can be inhaled six to nine times a day through a nebulizer, a machine that vaporizes your medication. Because it's inhaled, it goes directly to the lungs.
  3. Treprostinil (Tyvaso, Remodulin, Orenitram): It is another form of the drug, which can be given four times a day and can be inhaled or can be taken as an oral medication and can also be administered through injection.
  4. Endothelin receptor antagonists: These medications reverse the effect of endothelin, a substance in the walls of blood vessels that causes them to narrow. These drugs may improve your energy level and symptoms. However, these drugs shouldn't be taken if you're pregnant. Also, these drugs can damage your liver and you may need monthly liver monitoring.
  5. Sildenafil and tadalafil: Sildenafil (Revatio, Viagra) and tadalafil (Cialis, Adcirca) are sometimes used to treat pulmonary hypertension. These drugs work by opening the blood vessels in the lungs to allow blood to flow through more easily.
  6. High-dose calcium channel blockers: These drugs help relax the muscles in the walls of your blood vessels. They include medications, such as amlodipine (Norvasc), diltiazem (Cardizem, Tiazac, others) and nifedipine (Procardia, others). Although calcium channel blockers can be effective, only a small number of people with pulmonary hypertension respond to them.
  7. Soluble guanylate cyclase (SGC) stimulator: Soluble guanylate cyclase (SGC) stimulators (Adempas) interact with nitric oxide and help relax the pulmonary arteries and lower the pressure within the arteries. These medications should not be taken if you're pregnant. They can sometimes cause dizziness or nausea.
  8. Anticoagulants: Your doctor is likely to prescribe the anticoagulant warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven) to help prevent the formation of blood clots within the small pulmonary arteries. Because anticoagulants prevent normal blood coagulation, they increase your risk of bleeding complications. Take warfarin exactly as prescribed, because warfarin can cause severe side effects if taken incorrectly. If you're taking warfarin, your doctor will ask you to have periodic blood tests to check how well the drug is working. Many other drugs, herbal supplements and foods can interact with warfarin, so be sure your doctor knows all of the medications you're taking.
  9. Digoxin: Digoxin (Lanoxin) can help the heart beat stronger and pump more blood. It can help control the heart rate if you experience arrhythmias.
  10. Diuretics: Commonly known as water pills, these medications help eliminate excess fluid from your body. This reduces the amount of work your heart has to do. They may also be used to limit fluid buildup in your lungs.
  11. Oxygen: Your doctor might suggest that you sometimes breathe pure oxygen, a treatment known as oxygen therapy, to help treat pulmonary hypertension, especially if you live at a high altitude or have sleep apnea. Some people who have pulmonary hypertension eventually require continuous oxygen therapy.

Surgeries:

  1. Atrial Septostomy: If medications don't control your pulmonary hypertension, this open heart surgery might be an option. In an atrial septostomy, a surgeon will create an opening between the upper left and right chambers of your heart (atria) to relieve the pressure on the right side of your heart.
  2. Lung Transplantation: In some cases, a lung or heart lung transplant might be an option, especially for younger people who have idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension.

Reducing Complications:

  1. The complications need to be reduced by taking proper health care. Healthy diet needs to be taken regularly along with proper medications. Smoking should be stopped and exercising sessions should be attended daily without any fail
  2. Overweight or obesity needs to be controlled properly for reducing the complications. Specialized caring strategies need to be maintained for avoiding severe kinds of health complications that are quite annoying. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Pulmonologist.
2514 people found this helpful

How To Treat Pulmonary Hypertension?

DTCD (TDD), C-HIV
Pulmonologist, Pune
How To Treat Pulmonary Hypertension?

Pulmonary hypertension mainly occurs due to narrowing of the arteries of the lungs as a result of which the flow of blood is restricted. In this kind of condition, blood fails to carry oxygen to your heart and thus your heart gets adversely affected. The blood pressure of your body will get increased to a great extent if this situation remains untreated, thus leading to bdreadful consequenses, specifically situation like heart failure, serious pulmonary diseases, blood clots in lungs and congenial heart defects, etc.

There are certain forms of pulmonary hypertension, which are serious in nature and worsen with time, so much so that they are even fatal at times. It also includes forms which are non curable in nature, however, in order to improve the quality of life, symptoms can be reduced with proper treatment. The treatment for pulmonary hypertension is often complex and it takes some time to find the most appropriate treatment and requires extensive follow-up care. Your doctor might also need to change your treatment if it's no longer effective. However, when pulmonary hypertension is caused by another condition, your doctor will treat the underlying cause whenever possible.

Common Treatments for pulmonary hypertension:

Medications:

  1. Blood vessel dilators (vasodilators): Vasodilators open narrowed blood vessels. They are one of the most commonly prescribed vasodilators for pulmonary hypertension is epoprostenol (Flolan, Veletri). The drawback to epoprostenol is that the effect lasts only for few minutes. This drug is continuously injected through an intravenous (IV) catheter via a small pump that you wear in a pack on your belt or shoulder.
  2. Ventavis: Another form of the drug, iloprost (Ventavis), can be inhaled six to nine times a day through a nebulizer, a machine that vaporizes your medication. Because it's inhaled, it goes directly to the lungs.
  3. Treprostinil (Tyvaso, Remodulin, Orenitram): It is another form of the drug, which can be given four times a day and can be inhaled or can be taken as an oral medication and can also be administered through injection.
  4. Endothelin receptor antagonists: These medications reverse the effect of endothelin, a substance in the walls of blood vessels that causes them to narrow. These drugs may improve your energy level and symptoms. However, these drugs shouldn't be taken if you're pregnant. Also, these drugs can damage your liver and you may need monthly liver monitoring.
  5. Sildenafil and tadalafil: Sildenafil (Revatio, Viagra) and tadalafil (Cialis, Adcirca) are sometimes used to treat pulmonary hypertension. These drugs work by opening the blood vessels in the lungs to allow blood to flow through more easily.
  6. High-dose calcium channel blockers: These drugs help relax the muscles in the walls of your blood vessels. They include medications, such as amlodipine (Norvasc), diltiazem (Cardizem, Tiazac, others) and nifedipine (Procardia, others). Although calcium channel blockers can be effective, only a small number of people with pulmonary hypertension respond to them.
  7. Soluble guanylate cyclase (SGC) stimulator: Soluble guanylate cyclase (SGC) stimulators (Adempas) interact with nitric oxide and help relax the pulmonary arteries and lower the pressure within the arteries. These medications should not be taken if you're pregnant. They can sometimes cause dizziness or nausea.
  8. Anticoagulants: Your doctor is likely to prescribe the anticoagulant warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven) to help prevent the formation of blood clots within the small pulmonary arteries. Because anticoagulants prevent normal blood coagulation, they increase your risk of bleeding complications. Take warfarin exactly as prescribed, because warfarin can cause severe side effects if taken incorrectly. If you're taking warfarin, your doctor will ask you to have periodic blood tests to check how well the drug is working. Many other drugs, herbal supplements and foods can interact with warfarin, so be sure your doctor knows all of the medications you're taking.
  9. Digoxin: Digoxin (Lanoxin) can help the heart beat stronger and pump more blood. It can help control the heart rate if you experience arrhythmias.
  10. Diuretics: Commonly known as water pills, these medications help eliminate excess fluid from your body. This reduces the amount of work your heart has to do. They may also be used to limit fluid buildup in your lungs.
  11. Oxygen: Your doctor might suggest that you sometimes breathe pure oxygen, a treatment known as oxygen therapy, to help treat pulmonary hypertension, especially if you live at a high altitude or have sleep apnea. Some people who have pulmonary hypertension eventually require continuous oxygen therapy.

Surgeries:

  1. Atrial Septostomy: If medications don't control your pulmonary hypertension, this open heart surgery might be an option. In an atrial septostomy, a surgeon will create an opening between the upper left and right chambers of your heart (atria) to relieve the pressure on the right side of your heart.
  2. Lung Transplantation: In some cases, a lung or heart lung transplant might be an option, especially for younger people who have idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension.

Reducing Complications:

  1. The complications need to be reduced by taking proper health care. Healthy diet needs to be taken regularly along with proper medications. Smoking should be stopped and exercising sessions should be attended daily without any fail
  2. Overweight or obesity needs to be controlled properly for reducing the complications. Specialized caring strategies need to be maintained for avoiding severe kinds of health complications that are quite annoying. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Pulmonologist.
1872 people found this helpful

Pulmonary Hypertension: How to Treat It?

MD - Pulmonary, DTCD
Pulmonologist, Faridabad
Pulmonary Hypertension: How to Treat It?

Pulmonary hypertension mainly occurs due to narrowing of the arteries of the lungs as a result of which the flow of blood is restricted. In this kind of condition, blood fails to carry oxygen to your heart and thus your heart gets adversely affected. The blood pressure of your body will get increased to a great extent if this situation remains untreated, thus leading to bdreadful consequenses, specifically situation like heart failure, serious pulmonary diseases, blood clots in lungs and congenial heart defects, etc.

There are certain forms of pulmonary hypertension, which are serious in nature and worsen with time, so much so that they are even fatal at times. It also includes forms which are non curable in nature, however, in order to improve the quality of life, symptoms can be reduced with proper treatment. The treatment for pulmonary hypertension is often complex and it takes some time to find the most appropriate treatment and requires extensive follow-up care. Your doctor might also need to change your treatment if it's no longer effective. However, when pulmonary hypertension is caused by another condition, your doctor will treat the underlying cause whenever possible.

Common Treatments for pulmonary hypertension:

Medications:

  1. Blood vessel dilators (vasodilators): Vasodilators open narrowed blood vessels. They are one of the most commonly prescribed vasodilators for pulmonary hypertension is epoprostenol (Flolan, Veletri). The drawback to epoprostenol is that the effect lasts only for few minutes. This drug is continuously injected through an intravenous (IV) catheter via a small pump that you wear in a pack on your belt or shoulder.
  2. Ventavis: Another form of the drug, iloprost (Ventavis), can be inhaled six to nine times a day through a nebulizer, a machine that vaporizes your medication. Because it's inhaled, it goes directly to the lungs.
  3. Treprostinil (Tyvaso, Remodulin, Orenitram): It is another form of the drug, which can be given four times a day and can be inhaled or can be taken as an oral medication and can also be administered through injection.
  4. Endothelin receptor antagonists: These medications reverse the effect of endothelin, a substance in the walls of blood vessels that causes them to narrow. These drugs may improve your energy level and symptoms. However, these drugs shouldn't be taken if you're pregnant. Also, these drugs can damage your liver and you may need monthly liver monitoring.
  5. Sildenafil and tadalafil: Sildenafil (Revatio, Viagra) and tadalafil (Cialis, Adcirca) are sometimes used to treat pulmonary hypertension. These drugs work by opening the blood vessels in the lungs to allow blood to flow through more easily.
  6. High-dose calcium channel blockers: These drugs help relax the muscles in the walls of your blood vessels. They include medications, such as amlodipine (Norvasc), diltiazem (Cardizem, Tiazac, others) and nifedipine (Procardia, others). Although calcium channel blockers can be effective, only a small number of people with pulmonary hypertension respond to them.
  7. Soluble guanylate cyclase (SGC) stimulator: Soluble guanylate cyclase (SGC) stimulators (Adempas) interact with nitric oxide and help relax the pulmonary arteries and lower the pressure within the arteries. These medications should not be taken if you're pregnant. They can sometimes cause dizziness or nausea.
  8. Anticoagulants: Your doctor is likely to prescribe the anticoagulant warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven) to help prevent the formation of blood clots within the small pulmonary arteries. Because anticoagulants prevent normal blood coagulation, they increase your risk of bleeding complications. Take warfarin exactly as prescribed, because warfarin can cause severe side effects if taken incorrectly. If you're taking warfarin, your doctor will ask you to have periodic blood tests to check how well the drug is working. Many other drugs, herbal supplements and foods can interact with warfarin, so be sure your doctor knows all of the medications you're taking.
  9. Digoxin: Digoxin (Lanoxin) can help the heart beat stronger and pump more blood. It can help control the heart rate if you experience arrhythmias.
  10. Diuretics: Commonly known as water pills, these medications help eliminate excess fluid from your body. This reduces the amount of work your heart has to do. They may also be used to limit fluid buildup in your lungs.
  11. Oxygen: Your doctor might suggest that you sometimes breathe pure oxygen, a treatment known as oxygen therapy, to help treat pulmonary hypertension, especially if you live at a high altitude or have sleep apnea. Some people who have pulmonary hypertension eventually require continuous oxygen therapy.

Surgeries:

  1. Atrial Septostomy: If medications don't control your pulmonary hypertension, this open heart surgery might be an option. In an atrial septostomy, a surgeon will create an opening between the upper left and right chambers of your heart (atria) to relieve the pressure on the right side of your heart.
  2. Lung Transplantation: In some cases, a lung or heart lung transplant might be an option, especially for younger people who have idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension.

Reducing Complications:

  1. The complications need to be reduced by taking proper health care. Healthy diet needs to be taken regularly along with proper medications. Smoking should be stopped and exercising sessions should be attended daily without any fail
  2. Overweight or obesity needs to be controlled properly for reducing the complications. Specialized caring strategies need to be maintained for avoiding severe kinds of health complications that are quite annoying.
8741 people found this helpful

Pulmonary Hypertension - How Can It Be Treated?

Fellowship In Minimal Access Surgery, M.Ch - Cardio Thoracic & Vascular Surgery
Pulmonologist, Hyderabad
Pulmonary Hypertension - How Can It Be Treated?

Pulmonary hypertension mainly occurs from narrowing of the arteries of the lungs as a result of which blood-flow can be restricted. In this kind of condition, blood fails to carry oxygen to your heart and thus heart gets adversely affected.

The blood pressure of your body will get increased to a great extent if this situation remains untreated, and thus you might face dreadful consequences, especially heart failure, serious pulmonary diseases, blood-clots in lungs, congenial heart-defects and others.

Some forms of pulmonary hypertension are serious conditions that become progressively worse and are sometimes fatal. Although some forms of pulmonary hypertension aren't curable, treatment can help lessen symptoms and improve your quality of life.

It often takes some time to find the most appropriate treatment for pulmonary hypertension. The treatments are often complex and require extensive follow-up care. Your doctor might also need to change your treatment if it's no longer effective.

When pulmonary hypertension is caused by another condition, your doctor will treat the underlying cause whenever possible.

Commonest Treatments for Pulmonary Hypertension-

Medications...

Blood vessel dilators (vasodilators). Vasodilators open narrowed blood vessels. One of the most commonly prescribed vasodilators for pulmonary hypertension is epoprostenol (Flolan, Veletri). The drawback to epoprostenol is that its effects last only a few minutes.

This drug is continuously injected through an intravenous (IV) catheter via a small pump that you wear in a pack on your belt or shoulder.

Another form of the drug, iloprost (Ventavis), can be inhaled six to nine times a day through a nebulizer, a machine that vaporizes your medication. Because it's inhaled, it goes directly to the lungs.

Treprostinil (Tyvaso, Remodulin, Orenitram), another form of the drug, can be given four times a day. It can be inhaled, taken as oral medication or administered by injection.

Endothelin receptor antagonists. These medications reverse the effect of endothelin, a substance in the walls of blood vessels that causes them to narrow. These drugs may improve your energy level and symptoms. However, these drugs shouldn't be taken if you're pregnant. Also, these drugs can damage your liver and you may need monthly liver monitoring.

Sildenafil and tadalafil. Sildenafil (Revatio, Viagra) and tadalafil (Cialis, Adcirca) are sometimes used to treat pulmonary hypertension. These drugs work by opening the blood vessels in the lungs to allow blood to flow through more easily.

High-dose calcium channel blockers. These drugs help relax the muscles in the walls of your blood vessels. They include medications such as amlodipine (Norvasc), diltiazem (Cardizem, Tiazac, others) and nifedipine (Procardia, others). Although calcium channel blockers can be effective, only a small number of people with pulmonary hypertension respond to them.

Soluble guanylate cyclase (SGC) stimulator. Soluble guanylate cyclase (SGC) stimulators (Adempas) interact with nitric oxide and help relax the pulmonary arteries and lower the pressure within the arteries. These medications should not be taken if you're pregnant. They can sometimes cause dizziness or nausea.

Anticoagulants. Your doctor is likely to prescribe the anticoagulant warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven) to help prevent the formation of blood clots within the small pulmonary arteries. Because anticoagulants prevent normal blood coagulation, they increase your risk of bleeding complications.

Take warfarin exactly as prescribed, because warfarin can cause severe side effects if taken incorrectly. If you're taking warfarin, your doctor will ask you to have periodic blood tests to check how well the drug is working. Many other drugs, herbal supplements and foods can interact with warfarin, so be sure your doctor knows all of the medications you're taking.

Digoxin. Digoxin (Lanoxin) can help the heart beat stronger and pump more blood. It can help control the heart rate if you experience arrhythmias.

Diuretics. Commonly known as water pills, these medications help eliminate excess fluid from your body. This reduces the amount of work your heart has to do. They may also be used to limit fluid buildup in your lungs.

Oxygen. Your doctor might suggest that you sometimes breathe pure oxygen, a treatment known as oxygen therapy, to help treat pulmonary hypertension, especially if you live at a high altitude or have sleep apnea. Some people who have pulmonary hypertension eventually require continuous oxygen therapy.

Surgeries-

Atrial Septostomy. If medications don't control your pulmonary hypertension, this open-heart surgery might be an option. In an atrial septostomy, a surgeon will create an opening between the upper left and right chambers of your heart (atria) to relieve the pressure on the right side of your heart.

Lung Transplantation. In some cases, a lung or heart-lung transplant might be an option, especially for younger people who have idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension.

Reducing Complications-

The complications need to be reduced by taking proper health care. Healthy diet needs to be taken regularly along with proper medications. Smoking should be stopped and exercising sessions should be attended daily without any fail.

Overweight or obesity needs to be controlled properly for reducing the complications. Specialized caring strategies need to be maintained for avoiding severe kinds of health complications that are quite annoying.

Fatty Liver - Causes, Symptoms, Treatment And Prevention!

MD - Acupuncture, Diploma In Accupuncture, Advanced Diploma In Accupuncture
Acupuncturist, Delhi
Fatty Liver - Causes, Symptoms, Treatment And Prevention!

Fatty Liver
Building up of fat in the liver is known as a fatty liver. There is some amount of fat in the liver which is normal for a healthy individual, but excessive fat accumulation in the liver can be a matter of serious concern.

The liver is an important organ which performs various necessary functions. It is the second largest organ in the human body and performs the function of processing the food and water that the body intakes and filters the unwanted and harmful substances from the blood. This function of the liver might be compromised if there is excessive fat accumulation in the liver. In this condition, vacuoles of triglyceride fats are present in the cells of the liver because of the abnormal lipid retention in the cells. When the fat metabolism process is disturbed it leads to the accumulation of high amounts of fat which results in a fatty liver.

Fatty liver can be an indicator of serious conditions if left untreated. Collection of fat cells in the liver is termed steatosis. In case inflammation is caused in the liver tissue because of these excess fat cells, the condition is known as steatotic hepatitis which should be taken seriously. A major cause of steatotic hepatitis is alcohol consumption or conditions which cause biochemical changes in the body. In case the problem is because of reasons other than alcohol, it is known as Non-Alcoholic Steatotic Hepatitis or NASH.

In case there is inflammation of the fatty liver, it can lead to scarring and also fibrosis of the liver. This is a serious condition which is known as cirrhosis and can lead to difficulties if left untreated.

This condition is reversible and can most often be taken care of by making healthy changes in one’s lifestyle. Fatty liver shows no signs in most of the cases and does not lead to any permanent damage to the liver in most of the cases unless the situation worsens or progresses. This condition can also become hazardous in case the underlying cause is not timely recognized and treated.

Grades/Stages of Fatty Liver
Fatty liver is most often not a serious and critical condition. The levels of development of the disease are divided into three grades, Grade 1, Grade 2 and Grade 3. Each one of these stages is related to different signs and symptoms which become severe as the disease progresses. The first two stages can be handled with proper medicinal treatment but treating grade 3 fatty liver might be more challenging.

Fatty liver grade 1 is the onset of the disease. It is the beginning stage of accumulation of fats in the liver. The symptoms in this stage are not severe and it is not serious in most cases.

Fatty liver grade 2 is the situation when the amount of fat accumulation in the liver increases. As the level of the fat cells increases in the liver, the liver starts decreasing its functionality. Due to the invasion of fats into the cells of the liver, the cells that are responsible for carrying out different functions start dying. Medical attention is necessary at this stage.

Fatty liver grade 3 is the most severe and serious form of the condition. At this stage, the fat accumulation has spread to the entire liver. The liver becomes inflamed and the situation worsens. The blood vessels in the liver are not able to perform the function of pumping in the nutrients and pumping out toxins. Distension of the abdomen might also appear. The normal cells of the liver start fading and fibrotic cells start appearing. Significant diet changes are made at this stage. Fatty foods and red meat products should be avoided. Industrial cooking oils should not be used and should be substituted with coconut oil, flaxseed oil, sunflower oil etc. Intake of fresh fruits and vegetables should be increased.

Risk factors
The condition of fatty liver is due to the building up of more than normal fats in the liver. It is more prevalent in individuals who are obese or are overweight. Individuals suffering from Type 2 diabetes are also at a higher risk of developing fatty liver. Accumulation of fat is often connected to resistance to insulin which is the main cause of development of type 2 diabetes.

Other factors that are associated with the development of the condition are consumption of alcohol in excessive quantities, high levels of triglyceride fat cells in the body, a high level of cholesterol, high blood pressure patients taking long-term medicines for the condition, taking higher than usual and/or recommended dosage of some over the counter medicines like Tylenol etc. The risk is also heightened during pregnancy. Fatty liver might also affect individuals experiencing malnutrition. The condition of metabolic syndrome is also associated with the development of fatty liver.

Symptoms
Beginning stage of fatty liver disease generally shows no symptoms. Mild cases of fatty liver are mostly asymptomatic. Fatigue and abdominal discomfort might be experienced by the individual. This condition is usually uncovered during routine check-ups and physical examination. The liver might become enlarged which is detected by a physical examination.

Some people might experience vague symptoms such as fatigue even with little or moderate physical exertion, wanting to rest because of the feeling of discomfort, heaviness and fullness in the abdomen mostly in the upper right corner etc. Sometimes applying pressure might result in pain in the liver area. Liver inflammation might cause signs like confusion, pain in the abdomen, loss of weight, a poor appetite, weakness and fatigue etc.

If left unchecked and untreated, the fatty liver might transform into cirrhosis which is a serious and life-threatening condition. Symptoms of this condition include easy bleeding tendency, confusion, enlargement of the abdomen, fluid in the abdomen, symptoms of jaundice like dark coloured urine, yellow colour of the skin start appearing, inability of blood to clot, fine tremors of the fingers, poor memory and concentration, distending of veins in hands and legs, nauseavomiting, loss of appetite, giddiness etc.

Causes
Most often the fatty liver disease occurs in people who indulge in heavy drinking and their alcohol intake is higher. Though, it might occur in people without any drinking problems.

There are various causes other than alcohol for the occurrence of fatty liver disease. These include metabolic syndromes which lead to an imbalance in the metabolic capacity in the body like glycogen storage diseases, acute fatty liver of pregnancy, abetalipoproteinemia, Weber-Christian disease etc. Other conditions like diabetes, high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure, Wolman’s disease, Galactosemia, Wilson’s disease and infections like tuberculosis and malaria are also known to be causes of fatty liver disease.

Various nutritional causes like obesity, malnutrition, sudden weight loss, gastric bypass, total parenteral nutrition, refeeding syndrome, jejunal diverticulosis with overgrowth of bacteria, jejunoileal bypass etc. are also some of the factors aiding in the development of the fatty liver disease.

Certain drugs like Valproic acids used in epilepsy, Sedatives, Anti-retroviral drugs, corticosteroids, methotrexate, Vitamin A overdose, Tamoxifen which is used in the treatment of breast cancer, medications like amiodarone and diltiazem which are used in treatment of heart conditions like high blood pressure and irregular heartbeats environmental hepatotoxins like phosphorous and mushroom poisoning are also some causes of fatty liver disease. Inflammatory bowel diseasehepatitis C particularly genotype 3, HIVCeliac disease and alpha 1- antitrypsin deficiency can also be the cause of the development of a fatty liver.

Diagnosis
Most often the diagnosis of fatty liver is incidental. Most of the individuals suffering from this condition are asymptomatic and the disease is uncovered through incidental abnormal tests like liver function tests or hepatomegaly done for other medical conditions that are unrelated. There is no particular test that can show whether the accumulation of fats in the liver is because of alcohol use or other factors. Thus, the doctor will inquire about the alcohol consumption habits of the individual to establish the reasons. This information helps the physician in determining whether the condition is ALD or NAFLD.

Various tests can be used by the healthcare practitioner to diagnose the disease. Some of the tests used are-

Physical Examination: In case of inflammation of the liver, the doctor can detect it by the examination of the abdomen for any enlargement of the liver. The doctor needs to be informed if the patient is experiencing fatigue, loss of appetite etc. The doctor also enquires about the alcohol history, medications and the history of supplement usage.

Blood tests: Blood tests might reveal high levels of liver enzymes in routine tests. Abnormal liver enzymes level in the blood give a deeper understanding of the cause of the disease as well as is an identifier of the problem. Liver function tests also provide an understanding of the efficiency of the treatment and the improvement that can be expected. But, this test does not fully confirm the diagnosis. Further analysis of the situation is necessary.

Imaging studies: Ultrasounds can also be conducted to diagnose the problem of fatty liver. It is a painless and a non-invasive test and can most often detect the condition accurately. The fat in the liver shows as a white patch on the ultrasound image.

Computed Tomography scan also knows as CT scan can also be performed as it can measure the organs and the inflammation accurately through the use of X-Rays. MRI or Magnetic Resonance Imaging can also be used to scan the internal organs. But these tests cannot confirm whether the individual has a simple fatty liver or NASH. Another kind of imaging study is a FibroScan, which helps in determining liver density and the fat tissues and normal tissues areas.

Liver Biopsy: In liver biopsy is performed, a needle is inserted into the liver for removal of tissue for examination. Anesthetics are given to the patient to relieve the pain. Through a liver biopsy, the doctor can certify of the disease and also know the cause of the condition.

Treatment-
There is no set method of treatment for fatty liver. Undergoing treatment for the underlying cause of the problem can help reverse the changes that have happened in the liver. Reducing the risk factors is often recommended. Some of the most common recommendations that are prescribed are:

Controlling cholesterol levels: Reducing the number of saturated fats in the diet can be a healthy approach which can help control and reverse the situation. Also, medications that lower cholesterol levels are also prescribed which can be used along with exercise and regular workouts to reduce and reverse fatty liver.

Exercise and Weight loss programs: The objective of these programs should be to lower the body mass index of the patient by around two units in comparison to the existing BMI. Aerobics is an effective way to burn off excess fat in the body. In order to reap long-term benefits, dedication and sustenance matter more than the intensity of the workout.

Controlling Diabetes: Lifestyle changes are required to move towards a healthy body and control diabetes. Management of sugar levels in the body can be done by taking proper medication. Controlling diabetes can stop the disease from advancing to the more stage of cirrhosis or failure of the liver.

Avoiding harmful substances: Substances like alcohol, certain drugs and fatty junk foods should be avoided to prevent the condition from advancing. Certain medications which can cause complications should also be substituted by consulting with a healthcare practitioner.

 

Prevention
Protecting the liver from harmful substances is the most important way to avoid the occurrence of fatty liver. The reduction in alcohol consumption is the most important method to eliminate the risk of fatty liver. Smoking should also be reduced as it leads to various biochemical and hemodynamic changes which can cause liver damage.

A proper check should be kept on the weight. A healthy routine of exercising and a healthy balanced diet should be followed to maintain a healthy weight. Omega 3 fatty acids have been shown to prevent fatty liver. It is found in various natural sources like fish oils, walnuts and flaxseed oils. Leading a healthy lifestyle is the key to a healthy body.

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