Ciprofloxacin 250 MG Tablet is an antibiotic that is a member of the quinolone family of medicines. It is effective in treating infections that are caused by bacteria. Ciprofloxacin 250 MG Tablet is used to treat patients with bacterial infections such as pneumonia, anthrax, syphilis, gonorrhea, bronchitis, gastroenteritis and plague. This antibiotic is also used to fight against infections of the throat, skin, ears, nose, sinus, bones, respiratory system and urinary tract.
Ciprofloxacin 250 MG Tablet inhibits the regular synthesis of bacterial DNA, obstructing the process of their cell division. Therefore, it destroys the existing bacteria that are causing the infection, and it inhibits the growth of new bacteria.
Ciprofloxacin 250 MG Tablet is an anti-biotic, which is a member of the fluoroquinolone family. It helps fight against infections caused by bacteria. It is used to treat severe bacterial infections including pneumonia, respiratory or urinary tract infections, gonorrhea, anthrax, gastroenteritis as well as infections of the sinus, bones, skin and joints. It is also effective in treating septicemic plague.
Ciprofloxacin 250 MG Tablet works by destroying the existing bacteria, that cause infections, from within the body and preventing the growth of new bacteria. The regular synthesis of DNA requires the presence of enzymes of bacterial DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. Ciprofloxacin 250 MG Tablet inhibits the activity of DNA gyrase, thus preventing DNA relaxation, encouraging the damage of double stranded DNA and inhibiting the cell division of bacteria. In this way, Ciprofloxacin 250 MG Tablet is efficient in fighting against bacterial infections within the body.
Ciprofloxacin 250 MG Tablet is available in many forms such as tablets, oral solution, ophthalmic ointment and a solution that can be injected. It is important to read the label of this medicine and follow the exact guidelines of the doctor’s prescription. Do not take an extra pill to make up for a missed dose, if you forget to take a dose. Instead, just continue with the next dose.
Ciprofloxacin 250 MG Tablet can cause a few common side effects like headaches, diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, mouth sores, heartburn and fatigue. Consult your doctor, if you notice any of these side effects. Some of the major side effects that can occur in rare cases include loss of consciousness, irregular heartbeats, difficulty breathing, muscle aches, liver dysfunction, increased risk of tendonitis and severe rashes. If you detect any of the symptoms mentioned above, you must seek immediate medical attention. If you are allergic to Ciprofloxacin 250 MG Tablet, you will experience rashes, hives, breathing problems, swelling of the throat, tongue, face or limbs and itchiness. If you notice these symptoms, it is advisable to stop taking this medicine immediately and contact your doctor.
In some cases, patients having certain disorders, who take this antibiotic, are more susceptible to its side effects. Therefore, before starting a prescription of this medicine, you should consult the doctor if you are allergic to Ciprofloxacin 250 MG Tablet, blood disorders, conditions of the heart and low levels of magnesium in the blood. Children and pregnant women should exercise caution before taking this medication. Although this antibiotic does treat infections, it does not treat infections like influenza, cold and viral infections.
Caused by Bacteria M. avium "M.A.C." / M. intrracelulare "M.A.I"
Outer ear infections can be caused by bacteria, virus, or yeast. Also known as swimmer’s ear, as it is very common in swimmers who keep their ears immersed in water for prolonged periods of time. It can also occur when the skin in the outer ear gets infected due to regular use of cotton buds to remove wax. Though it is very common in children, it can be seen in adults too.
The first step in managing an outer ear infection is to identify it.
Do not treat ear infections on your own. The actual agent causing the infection needs to be identified and treated accordingly. A bacterial infection may require a course of antibiotics, a viral one should be watched and allowed to run its course.
Typhoid is as an acute illness commonly characterized by high fever and an impaired digestive system. This illness is caused by the bacterium ‘Salmonella Typhi’ and generally spreads from one person to another by means of food or water.
Causes of typhoid
The symptoms generally appear within 1-3 weeks, after coming in contact with the already infected individual. The ensuing fever and discomfort remains for about 3-4 weeks. The symptoms are:
However, in most of the cases, the symptoms tend to improve from the third week itself.
The following treatments can be implemented in order to cure typhoid fever:
Needs and Indications for Hospitalization-
Hospital admission is usually recommended if you have severe symptoms of typhoid fever, such as persistent vomiting, severe diarrhoea or a swollen stomach. As a precaution, young children who develop typhoid fever may be admitted to hospital. In hospital, you'll have antibiotic injections and you may also be given fluids and nutrients directly into a vein through an intravenous drip. Surgery may be needed if you develop life-threatening complications of typhoid fever, such as internal bleeding or a section of your digestive system splitting. However, this is very rare in people being treated with antibiotics. Most people respond well to hospital treatment and improve within three to five days. However, it may be several weeks until you're well enough to leave hospital.
Two types of vaccines are available
The injected vaccine is more commonly used and is also known as inactivated typhoid shot . It is injected in one single shot an it can easily provide protection against typhoid. This type is widely prevalent in cases where one has to travel to a typhoid infected place. However, one must be careful and should keep a tab as to what they eat or drink at the time of travelling. Also, this type of vaccine should not be administered on kids below 2 years old.
If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor.
What is typhoid fever?
Typhoid fever or enteric fever is a digestive tract infection in which there is fever, headache, and abdominal pain or discomfort. It is very common in developing countries like india.
What are the causes and risk factors?
Typhoid fever is caused by a bacterium called salmonella typhi which is transmitted through contaminated water or food (feco-oral or urine-oral route).
Risk factors include:
How will you know if you have typhoid fever?
Signs and symptoms develop gradually over the period of 10-14 days after exposure to the bacteria.
Signs and symptoms include an irregular fever that can go up to 104.9 ˚f (40.5 ˚c), headache, pain in abdomen, tiredness, muscle pain, loss of appetite, nausea, constipation or diarrhoea, skin rash.
How is typhoid fever diagnosed?
Your doctor will do a physical examination and carry out some tests.
Physical findings in early stages include abdominal tenderness, enlarged spleen and liver, enlarged lymph nodes, and development of a rash (also known as rose spots because of their appearance).
What is the treatment for typhoid fever?
What are the complications of typhoid fever?
If not treated and sometimes even after treatment, there can be serious complications due to typhoid like pneumonia, meningitis (inflammation of meninges of brain), infection in bones (osteomyelitis), intestinal perforation and intestinal haemorrhage.
A doctor needs to be consulted if a person starts developing the symptoms few days after travelling to a place where typhoid is prevalent.
How can typhoid fever be prevented?
Acute pyelonephritis is a suppurative inflammation of the renal parenchyma and the renal pelvis. It is a potentially life threatening condition caused by bacterial infection. It can occur suddenly and causes the kidneys to swell, which may damage them permanently too. If the condition occurs repeatedly, it is termed as chronic pyelonephritis.
The most common bacteria involved in causing pyelonephritis is Escherichia coli. Other causative bacteria are Klebsiella and Pseudomonas. Infection starts in the lower urinary tract as a urinary tract infection. Urethra provides an entry for the bacteria, which enter the tract and begin to multiply and spread up to the bladder. They further travel through the ureters to the kidneys. Any septic infection in the bloodstream can also spread to the kidneys and cause acute pyelonephritis.
How it spreads - Pyelonephritis spreads through two routes, homogenous or from the lower ascending tract (ascending infection).
Risk factors - Urinary obstruction, vesicoureteral reflex, catheterization, pregnancy, Diabetes Mellitus, age over 65.
Symptoms - The symptoms are observed within two days of infection. Common symptoms include:
The symptoms observed can vary in children and older adults than they are in other people. Mental confusion is common in older adults and it often is their only symptom. In chronic pyelonephritis, people experience only mild symptoms or may even lack noticeable symptoms altogether, which is the major reason of negligence by the patient towards treatment. Flank pain in the abdomen and signs of infection can be observed.
Diagnosis - Uncentrifused urine is analyzed for the presence of pus cells. The leucocyte esterase dipstick method is used to check for Pyuria. However, it is less sensitive than microscopy. In the urine culture, significant bacteriuria is detected on presence of more than 105 colonies/ml of the sample. Imaging studies can be done to check for the presence of kidney stones. Amongst the inflammatory markers, the values of C-reactive protein (CRP), ESR, and plasma viscosity may be raised. An elevated white cell count with neutrophilia is seen on blood culture.
Complications - Abscess formation in either the kidney parenchyma or the surrounding retroperitoneal spaces is a common complication. Other complications include the development of a xantho-granulomatous or emphysematous pyelonephritis. In severe cases, there can be chronic renal failure too.
Treatment - The duration of treatment depends on spread of infection. Empirical antibiotic treatment can be started until the confirmatory tests reports of culture and sensitivity are observed. Antibiotics like Ciprofloxacin, Amoxicillin, Cefixime can be given. Medications for acute pyelonephritis are continued for up to 3 weeks, whereas for chronic conditions medicines should be given for 6 months.
Chronic pyelonephritis - It is a morphologic entity which is associated with a predominant interstitial inflammation and scarring of the renal parenchyma. There is a grossly visible scarring and deformation of the pelvic-calyceal system. Chronic pyelonephritis further leads to chronic renal failure.
The two forms of chronic pyelo-nephritis are
Management includes controlling blood pressure to slow the progression of chronic kidney disease, long term antibiotic coverage for urinary tract infection, removal of calculi and antibiotic prophylaxis for vesico-ureteral reflex.