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Overview

Plague - Symptom, Treatment And Causes

Whta is Plague?

Plague is a serious infection caused by bacteria, which is a deadly disease. Plague is also often referred as “black death”. This disease is caused by a bacterium strain known as Yersinia pestis. The Yersinia pestis bacteria is found on animals all over the world and is generally transmitted to humans through fleas.

The risk of this disease is more in areas that are overcrowded, have poor sanitation or have a large population of rodents.In the medieval ages this disease was responsible for killing millions of peoples in Europe. Although, nowadays death from plague are considerably low, with highest incidents reported in Africa.Plague is a very rapidly progressing disease, which if left untreated lead to death.

There are three basic forms of plague:

Bubonic Plague

This is the most common form of plague. This disease is contracted when someone gets infected with this bacteria from a flea bite or from an infected rodent. Rarely this disease can occur from materials that has come in contact with an infected person suffering from plague.Bubonic plague infects the immune system or the lymphatic system, which cause inflammation. If left untreated this disease can move into the bloodstream causing septicemic plague or into the respiratory system causing pneumonic plague.

Septicemic Plague

When the Yersinia pestis bacterium enters the blood circulatory system it multiplies over there and cause septicemic plague. When pneumonic and bubonic plagues are left untreated, it develops into this disease.

Pneumonic Plague

When the Yersinia pestis bacterium spreads inside the lungs, patients have pneumonic plague. This is the most lethal form of this disease. When patients infected with this kind of plague coughs, the Yersinia pestis bacterium from the patient’s lungs gets expelled into the air. Other people who breathe this air can also develop this form of plague. Pneumonic plague is the only type of plague that can be transmitted from one human to another. It is a highly contagious form of this disease. If doctors suspect that you have been infected with plague, the will check for the presence of Yersinia pestis bacteria in the patient’s body.While blood test are done for detecting septicemic plague, for bubonic plague, doctors take the sample of the fluid in the patient’s swollen lymph glands. Endoscopy is done on the patients suffering from pneumonic plague, for extracting the sample fluid from the patient’s airway.

Treatment :

Plague is most commonly treated with antibiotics. When this disease is suspected doctors generally start the medications even before the arrival of the laboratory reports.

Treatable by medical professional Require medical diagnosis Lab test required Short-term: resolves within days to weeks Spread through the air or contaminated surfaces
Symptoms
Fever and chill along with severe headache. Trouble in breathing. Bloody sputum Diarrhea along with abdominal pain and extreme weakness.

Popular Health Tips

Can Genital Tract Infections Lead to Infertility?

DGO, MBBS
Gynaecologist, Delhi
Can Genital Tract Infections Lead to Infertility?

Disregarding genital tract infections and issues including the symptoms of the same can lead to problems when it comes to fertility. It may also cause problems in your sexual life. Genital problems can also lead to infertility. These days, infertility is a noteworthy and very important occurrence that plagues many couples.

Common Infections: A large portion of these genital tract diseases occurs because of infections. Salpingitis happens in close to 15% of ladies in their reproductive age and 2.5% of all ladies get to be infertile as an aftereffect of salpingitis by age 35. Many times, symptoms of conditions and STDs like Chlamydia  trachomatis trachomatis are usually nonexistent. The real rate of ladies with upper genital tract infections is presumably underestimated.

Infection and Infertility: Infectious agents can hinder different vital human functions, including reproduction. Bacteria, fungi, infections and viruses can meddle with the reproductive capacity in both genders. Diseases of male genito-urinary tract represent around 15% of the instance of male infertility. Diseases can influence distinctive areas of the male regenerative tract, for example, the testis, epididymis and male sex organs and glands. Urogenital diseases at various levels of their advancement, development and transport can affect the sperms themselves in this manner. Among the most widely recognized microorganisms required for sexually transmitted diseases, meddling with male fertility are Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhea.

Symptoms: If the following symptoms of a genital tract infection are ignored, it can definitely lead to the person being infertile in some stage of life or immediately. These are as follows:


The signs and symptoms in males are

  1. Changes in the way you discharge
  2. Bleeding while urinating or discharge
  3. Thick white, yellow or green release from the tip of the penis along with pain in urethra or pain while urinating
  4. A hard but painless sore on the penis along with swelling of the lymph hubs in the crotch
  5. Pain or uneasiness while urinating or discharge from the urethra
  6. Difficult or irritated red spots and small blisters on the penis
  7. Chestnut bits on the hair around the penis
  8. Gentle delicacy around one of the testicles
  9. Delicate swelling in the scrotum on one or both sides
  10. Extreme pain after injury to your penis

The signs and symptoms in women are as follows:

  1. Irregular vaginal discharge with a pungent smell
  2. Burning sensation while urinating
  3. Tingling or itching in the outer area of vagina
  4. Uneasiness and pain during sex
  5. Sore vagina
  6. Foamy greenish-yellow discharge with a foul smell
  7. Light bleeding after intercourse
  8. Warts in the vagina

Regular check-ups and visits to the gynecologist are very essential. One should always keep the partner updated about their sexual health problems to practice a healthy and honest relationship and to avoid further contagious infections from occurring.

2983 people found this helpful

Multivessel Stenting Vs Bypass Surgery - Which is Better?

DM Cardiology
Cardiologist, Delhi
Multivessel Stenting Vs Bypass Surgery - Which is Better?

The results of a study conducted by the Department of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Korea, show that multivessel coronary stenting can be performed with a high success rate along with an acceptable clinical outcome. Coronary stenting has proven itself to be an accepted means for treating of obstructed coronary arteries. The need for multivessel coronary stenting has been inflated because of the larger number of patients with unfavourable cardiac profiles. Conventionally, bypass surgery is regarded as a standard means for relieving angina in cardiac patients with multivessel coronary disease as it could lead to a downright revascularization. Further, it also allows a prolongation of lifespan in a specified subgroup of patients.

How are they performed: Despite the coming of modern generation of stents, patients with multiple stringent arteries in the heart receiving coronary after bypass have recovered better than those whose arteries were grafted with balloon angioplasty or stenting. This report is presented in the 64th Annual Scientific Session in the American College of Cardiology. This report echoes past studies which shows that patients afflicted with multiple narrowed arteries receive better results with coronary artery bypass grafting, which is also known as CABG or bypass heart surgery. In case of multivessel stenting, which is known as angioplasty or percutaneous coronary intervention or PCI, a stent is put within the arteries to hold it wide open and facilitate the flow of blood.

Which one is better: In a new study, it is reported that patients with new stents are susceptible to 47% higher risk of any of the outcomes like death or cardiac arrest as compared to patients who undergo bypass surgery. In CABG, a vein or artery from other parts of the body is grafted on the constricted coronary artery for allowing easy blood flow to and from heart. This study reinforces present regulations that recommend CABG to treat patients with substantial constrictions in various arteries, a condition often termed as multivessel coronary artery ailment.


Renowned cardiologist Seung Jung Park from Asan Medical Centre in Seoul, South Korea opines that CABG is still a much preferred option on the basis of their medical data. Another study known as Bypass Surgery Versus Everolimus - Eluting Stent Implantation for Multivessel Coronary Artery Disease or BEST trial deserves mention. It is one of the two randomly controlled trials for comparing bypass to angioplasty since the introduction of modernised stents that emits medication, which would prevent blood clot.

This study was implemented on 880 patients at 27 healthcare centres in four countries. Each patient had multivessel coronary artery disease and were determined to be equally eligible to go through either of the methods. Half of these patients were randomly chosen to be given angioplasty with everolimus-eluting stents, and the other half received bypass surgery.

All the patients were tracked for about five years and during this prolonged follow up, angioplasty was related to a considerable upsurge in the incidence of myocardial infarction, target vessel revascularization and often death. Because, it is a more invasive process, bypass surgery is normally recommended only for patients afflicted with higher-risk constrictions in more than one artery.

If you are one of these patients and this concern plagues you, it is recommended to talk to a cardiologist without much delay.

3743 people found this helpful

The Worst Foods for Heartburn

MBBS, MS - General Surgery , DNB (General Surgery), MNAMS (Membership of the National Academy), Fellow HPB Surgery & Liver Transplant (Singapore) , FICS - RPSLH - RPSLH
Gastroenterologist, Hyderabad
The Worst Foods for Heartburn

Picture this, you're in a restaurant for a lunch date with your friend. It's a great place and the food is delicious. While you're having a super time, you suddenly start feeling a discomfort in your chest area, and your appetite completely goes down the drain. Chances are that you might be experiencing heartburn.

Heartburn is something which is used in both the literal and metaphorical senses. However, the discomfort it entails means that it is no joking matter and your food intake habits are probably responsible if you suffer from it!

The good thing about heartburn causing foods is that they are easily recognisable, which is quite great. But, they make up a large portion of people's normal diets, which is not as great, as they are hard to refrain from. A few common examples are listed below:

  1. Chocolate: To start off, there is something which is surprisingly a cause for heartburn and is likely to be the cause of a lot of disappointment: chocolate. The sad thing about chocolate is that the key things it is known to cause reflux. Take, for example, cocoa; it is a prime cause for reflux. Also, the caffeine in chocolate as well as something called theobromine is the major culprits of reflux. If a person who loves chocolate seems to be suffering from reflux, he or she knows why now!
  2. Coffee: Talking about caffeine, the automatic suspect that is coffee is deeply guilty, as well! Having coffee once in a while may not cause much harm but making it a habit leads to a person setting himself or herself up for a lot of heartburn.
  3. Soda: Anything which is acidic is not good for reflux but the thing is that most sodas are very acidic! This is also the case when it comes to fruit, though fruit is generally said to be good for the body. Certain types of fruit, like citrus fruit only worsens the effects of heartburn and can cause a whole load of discomfort to the person who eats them.

A lot of the foods, which should be avoided actually have their own health benefits. The case in point is garlic. But, a person should try to have food like cottage cheese or lean chicken, both of which do not cause any heartburn at all. Also, keeping away from food that is fried has a range of benefits from lower consumption of fat, to a reduced risk of cancer as well as a massive drop in heartburn. Deep fried foods should be avoided like the plague!

The rule of the thumb when it comes to the issue of heartburn is that if anything happens to be acidic, it is likely to cause heartburn to be aggravated. As long as a person can keep this in mind as a guiding principle, there is no way that they will be suffering from heartburn any more. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a dietitian-nutritionist.

4468 people found this helpful

Say Yes to Vitamins and No to Hair Fall

MD - Ayurveda Scholar, Diploma In Skin Aesthetics, Cosmetology and Trichology, Diploma In skin aesthetics, Diploma In cosmetology, Diploma In Trichology, Diploma In Nutrition & Diet Planning, Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)
Trichologist, Mumbai
Say Yes to Vitamins and No to Hair Fall

Hair fall is a very common phenomenon that plagues millions of people around the globe. Most of you take supplements of vitamin on a regular basis as it aids the buildup of new hair and skin cells. Read on to find out how exactly do the various vitamins help your hair:

  1. Vitamin A: This vitamin controls the production of retinoic acid in your hair follicle. It is not only helpful for skin care but stimulates hair growth. It is immensely fruitful in moisturizing your hair and keeping it healthy. Vitamin A is usually found in sweet potatoes, carrots, tuna, lettuce, mango, sweet red peppers, green leafy vegetables and spinach.
  2. Vitamin B: Variants of this, such as B12, aid in hair growth by managing stress. Vitamin B is found in fruits such as oranges and papayas, and beans.
  3. Vitamin C: This vitamin helps you absorb iron from the food you eat which is an absolute essential for hair growth. It also boosts the synthesis of collagen that is required to repair the damage and sustain the structure of your hair. Fruits such as papayas, guavas, lemons, sweet lime, orange, kiwi, vegetables such as broccoli, yellow bell peppers and leafy vegetables are replete with Vitamin C.
  4. Vitamin D: This vitamin rejuvenates the hair cells in order to form new shafts of hair. Vitamin D is found in dairy products, mushrooms, soy milk, tofu, and cheese. Vitamin D is also naturally made by your body when you expose your skin to the sun, and is called the sun-shine vitamin.
  5. Vitamin E: This aids in stimulating capillaries and enhancing blood circulation on the scalp. This additionally contributes to hair growth due to its high anti-inflammatory properties and antioxidant content. Certain foods loaded with Vitamin E are pumpkin, broccoli, olive oil, sunflower seeds, almonds, avocado, tofu and spinach.
  6. Vitamin B5: It is also known as Panthenol, is a vital ingredient that is used in medicines to regulate hair fall. Foods enriched with Vitamin B5 are sweet potatoes, sunflower seeds, avocados, cheese and mushrooms.

Other Ways to Help Hair-
We have gone over the vitamins that may be important for the health of your hair. But lifestyle changes can help just as much. Try:

  1. cutting back on gels, blow-drying, and brushing hair when wet
  2. lowering your stress by exercising at least 30 minutes a day
  3. drinking enough water, 6-8 glasses a day

Being mindful of the foods and drinks you consume, the products you use, and the way you manage stress, can all help improve the well-being of your hair. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a dermatologist.

6639 people found this helpful

Pansexuality - All You Need To Know!

Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine & Surgery (BAMS)
Sexologist, Lucknow
Pansexuality - All You Need To Know!

Gone are the days when a man is only attracted towards a woman and vice-a-versa. In today's fast changing scenario one can experience physical attraction towards anyone. With the ever widening spectrum of definitions attached to gender and sexuality, we acquaint ourselves with an enormous range of gender notions and understandings pertaining to sexuality. Gone are the days of the water-tight polarities of male and female bodies and their mutual attractions. The society is by and large opening up to the possibility of sexual attractions besides and beyond the normative bounds of heterosexuality or so we hope. 

One of the most significant struggles of contemporary times is the quest for acceptance and acknowledgement of queer identities and breaking all the discriminatory stigmas attached to them. While one cannot really be inveigled into advocating one form of sexuality over the other, the main argument of the movement is to allow anyone and everyone to freely express and exercise their sexual affinities and identities beyond the restrictions of sex, gender, class, caste, race or any such constructed categories. 

Amidst the struggle for championing the cause of free love, there are certain nuances about one's sexuality that have emerged as discrete identities within the larger understanding of the LGBTQ movement. 
Among the others, Pansexuality is relatively a more incipient concept. 

Unlike bisexuality, which conforms to the conventional gender definitions, i.e. male and female and professes attraction to both or either, pansexuality is a more inclusive expression of sexuality wherein one feels attracted to anyone, irrespective of one's sex or gender identity. Pansexuality vouches for strong sexual feelings for those who may not identify with a specific gender and consequently, includes transgender and transsexuals within its purview. 


A pansexual is never inhibited or restricted by a person's gender or sex. Initially coined by Sigmund Freud to describe the basis of human interactions in purely sociological terms, the term was later adopted by the LGBTQ activities to describe the group of people whose sexual predispositions were not delineated by gender constructs. For a pansexual, there is a lurking and consistent possibility of getting attracted to anybody at any given situation. Numerous celebrities like Laci Green and Miley Cyrus are explicitly pansexual. 

However, the pansexual community is constantly plagued by myriad indignities and disgraces. Many have labelled them debauch and promiscuous while others try to sympathize with them perceiving them as led awry and confused. In fact one of the major misconception with regard to pansexuality is that it is synonymous to bisexuality. Yet others deride this claim by stating that it is merely a modern fad with no genuine basis. 

Like it or not, pansexuality is a reality, relevant to a lot of our lives. In fact, it secularized love to an unprecedented extent and really lets nothing come in the way. In a world strewn with hostility, hatred and violence, if a sizeable number wishes to advocate indiscriminate and unhindered love, it surely bodes happiness for all. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a sexologist.

5324 people found this helpful

Popular Questions & Answers

What happens if a rat bites your head and hair. will i can get disease like plague or rabies?

C.S.C, D.C.H, M.B.B.S
General Physician, Alappuzha
The common symptoms of a rat bite are pain, redness, swelling around the bite and, if secondary infection occurs, a weeping, pus-filled wound. Symptoms usually occur 3-10 days after an infected rat bites a person. Remove brush, rock piles, junk, cluttered firewood, and possible rodent food supplies, such as pet and wild animal food. Make your home and outbuildings rodent-proof. Wear gloves if you are handling or skinning potentially infected animals to prevent contact between your skin and the plague bacteria.

What are the symptoms of plague. I have a doubt that I am suffering from this disease because my street & my house is full of rats / mice .so I want your help to suggest me plz.

PDDM, MHA, MBBS
General Physician, Nashik
Symptoms include swollen lymph nodes, which can be as large as chicken eggs, in the groin, armpit or neck. They may be tender and warm. Others include fever, chills, headache, fatigue and muscle aches.
1 person found this helpful

I am having yellow teeth with yellowish plague/tartar deposit. I got to know about scaling from internet. Is there a side effect with it regarding sensitivity to hot and cold temperature. If yes, then for many days? I do not drink or smoke.

BDS
Dentist, Jaipur
Hello There are no side effects of scaling. They are safe and helpful. Sensitivity comes when some kind of deposit is removed from the gum or teeth because that part becomes free for environment and can sense the touch of air and surroundings. It will last for few days and then will adapt the normal temperature. Regards

I see yellow plague forming around my teeth. Its been 2 months and I thought it would decrease. But its been increasing day by day.

BDS
Dentist, Delhi
Hi For better looking teeth, the first and most important thing is that you teeth should be clean, and free from plaque (accumulated food debris) and stains. For that, you must get professional scaling/cleaning done from a dentist. The tooth brush cannot reach all the surfaces of every tooth and therefore some areas remain unclean. Over time, the soft food debris hardens and turns into a more adherent, hard form called calculus, which can be removed only be a professional dentist. Also, along with cleaning of the teeth, antibacterial mouth washes are generally prescribed. For more specific answers, kindly consult me privately on librate. Regards.

Table of Content

Whta is Plague?

There are three basic forms of plague:

Treatment :

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Know More About Diabetes
There are a number of lifestyle ailments that plague people around the world. Cardiovascular diseases, high cholesterol, hypertension and diabetes are just a few of them. Diabetes means your blood sugar level, called glucose, is too high. Blood glucose is the main kind of sugar found in your blood and is supposed to be your main source of energy.
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Pigmentation Of Skin
Sometimes excessive oil gets trapped and stuck in the pores of your skin. If this persists, it leads to the eruption of pimples, an extremely uncomfortable and nagging problem that plagues, both men and women indiscriminately. The most distressing part about pimples, apart from their unavoidable presence on the face is the mark they inevitably leave behind, the remnants which refuse to disappear.
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Coronary Artery Disease
Here are Causes, Symptoms, Tests and Precautions of Coronary Artery Disease.

A big Hi to all the viewers. I am Dr. Hardik Thakkar an MB physician practicing in Mumbai. I would like to take this opportunity to talk to you about coronary artery disease.

As the word suggests coronary artery disease is a lifestyle disorder which affects the blood vessels of the heart. What happens in you is there are these cholesterol throbey blocks as we call them in layman s term which deposit in the arteries and then they cause blockage to your micro circulation in the heart. So because of this what happens is the patient complains of pain in the chest, breathlessness, leg swelling, and sometimes even palpitations and a lot of diabetic patients may just get asymptomatic MIs which is these blocks will be there but they may not have any symptoms as I mentioned before.

Now this disease is dreadful because a lot of times these episodes come suddenly in the middle of the night and you may not have enough time to respond and a lot of these patients if they have a very significant amount of block like more than 90 or may be a 100 percent block. They may even die within hours of reaching the hospital. This is the gravity of the situation and hence one has to act very very fast if it all you get a chest pain.

But to begin with since we are talking about lifestyle modification we want to know what is in the lifestyle which leads to the coronary artery disease. As we all know a lot of people from the urban areas who are having sedentary who are not eating right. They are not sleeping right and they are not even working out so all this puts a huge oxidant stress and the wrong diet along with high fi diet which leads to cholesterol deposition and the plagues in the coronary arteries. So what should be done? I mean we need to start at a young age because it is not as we have to wait till 40 and start acting because this plague starts developing as early as 15 years of age. To begin with to prevent the coronary artery disease you have to start early, eat healthy right from your young age. Workout regularly and have an active lifestyle and avoid smoking and alcohol. Smoking is one of the major confounding factors which predisposes to lot of damage to endothelium of your arteries.

So leading a good lifestyle right from the beginning is very very important to you know take care of your coronary artery disease and diabetics as a matter of fact are at a very high risk of having coronary artery disease as compared to the general population. And I would also recommend the public I mean the regular people at least above 40 years to have a stresses done at least once a year along with your lipid profile sugar. This is just to make sure you are on a right track and you are not missing a coronary artery disease. I would like to talk a little bit in brief on this stress test which is you know a test which used to diagnose Angina.

So what we do we make a patient run on treadmill for ten minutes and we record ECGs of all the ten minutes along with the BP changes and if it all if a person has a hidden heart disease not reflected on his symptoms we pick it up and this is followed by the angiography. Once the angiography is done depending on the amount if blocks that are found we treat the patient either medically or with stents or by bypass. This is dictated by the number of arteries the location of plague and the extent of the block. So that s about it for coronary artery disease at the moment.

If you wish to have more private consultation with me you can reach me through my website which is www.drhardikthakkar.com or also through the lybrate website which is www.lybrate.com. Thank you very much for your time.
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How To Maintain Oral Hygiene?
Hello friends! Myself Dr. Shelly Gupta. I have BDS from Sudha Rustagi College of Dental Sciences Research, Faridabad.

Today I want to discuss some tips with you all regarding how to maintain good oral hygiene. For this few things are very important. First is brushing, second toothpaste, third flossing and fourth is mouthwash. Now we will discuss all these things one by one. First is tooth brushing, selection of toothbrush is more important rather than a selection of a toothpaste. We should brush our teeth twice daily and our toothbrush should be soft. We should change our brush in every 3 months.

Change of toothbrush in every 3 months is more important and you can change it before time also. Floss before every brushing. Dental floss is a thin waxed thread which gently slides debris between teeth and eradicates plague, keeping mouth free from bacteria. Floss should be wrapped between around the fingers and then stretched tightly between the thumbs. Floss should be moved carefully up and down the side of the teeth. Other interdental devices are an interdental toothbrush, rubber or wooden tips.

A dentist is trained to determine the need of the patient that which kind of interdental device he or she should use. Now the third is mouthwash, the recommended dose of mouthwash is 10ml. rinse with 10ml solution of mouthwash once after breakfast and once at bedtime. Now the next point comes about the toothpaste. High fluoride content containing toothpaste must be used in case of dental advice only otherwise anyone can use toothpaste of creamy consistency.

Now the question arises that where does the dentist fit into good oral hygiene? Visit your dentist in every 6-12 months. The dentist is able to recommended cleaning techniques and products. Clean plague and calculus from teeth, fill cavities that could lead to further tooth decay. Administer fluoride treatment, treat mild gingivitis before it turns into periodontitis, take radiographs, reinforce oral hygiene instructions over the long term. So for further queries, you can contact me.

Thank you!
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Dental Health Care
Hello, I am Dr Rukmani Lalit and I am a dentist, practising since last 8 years. I am doing dentistry as my health job. Just to explain you few things about your health care and dental health care.

Nowadays people are very much interested in dental care, dental accessories, dental aesthetics cosmetics. By the basic thing is the cleaning of the oral cavity, the health of the oral cavity and the cleanliness. I just want to share the Dental cleanliness or the oral health cleanliness.

First thing is that how to do the brushing properly?

The teeth should be clean and clear. And not only it should be the brushing of teeth but also continues with the flossing of the teeth.

Do you all believe in the brushing of teeth after the meal?

It is not necessary to brush your teeth but you have to follow some flossing procedures. Brushing will help in teeth cleaning in the maximum aesthetic areas. But dirt collects in between the teeth as well which can be cleaned with the help of flossing. By the help of flossing you are not removing the plague, but also you can target those areas which might have been with the food stocks and get it cleaned.

When you floss, you are not only protecting your teeth but also self-guarding your gums. It is the cause of the development of the healthy tissues that loose the tooth. It may lead to Periodontal disease like Gingivitis, peritonitis. You may tatter away from the gums and keep the teeth healthy. It is a more appropriate reason for the healthy gums and the healthy teeth.

The second version of such case is when the plaque stays on the teeth for more than 24 hours, it can cause decay of the tooth enamel surface. It will cause decay of Dentinal tubules. It will cause soft tissue involvement which will lead to inflammation of your teeth. Actually, it is the main purpose to remove the plaque and the tartar, present in your oral cavity which should be clean and clear. It will increase your health, your oral health as well as your systematic health.

For further information or the consultation, you can contact me through Lybrate.

Having issues? Consult a doctor for medical advice