Common Specialities
Common Issues
Common Treatments


Last Updated: Sep 23, 2019
Change Language

Surgery - Treatment, Procedure And Side Effects

What is meant by surgery? What is the difference between operation and surgery? Types of surgeries: Checklist while Preparing for Surgery: Why can't you eat before surgery? What are the side effects of surgery? How long does it take to recover? What is the cost of various surgeries in India?

What is meant by surgery?

A medical specialty, surgery is known to treat diseases and medical problems through incisions, where the body is opened and operated on. A medical professional who performs a surgery is called a surgeon. A surgeon needs to be highly trained in the related medical field. Surgery residency generally extends up to 5 years and involves training for many more years after that.

What is the difference between operation and surgery?

Operation is a general term which involves surgical procedures while surgery is a medical procedure which involves major incision and medical to cure the diseases or to replace any organ. In the United Kingdom, surgery is also known as a place where the doctor practices his/her work. Patients visit the surgery to get them treated and get medical services.

Types of surgeries:

Below we have listed the types of surgery:

  • Appendectomy:

    It is the process of removal of the appendix. This surgery is performed to treat appendicitis, which is an inflammatory condition of the appendix. An appendix is a small tube-like structure attached to the large intestine. It is located on the right side of your abdomen.

  • Carotid endarterectomy:

    It is a surgical procedure which helps in removing a blockage from carotid arteries (these are situated in the neck which supplies blood to the brain). It is to be mentioned that if this problem is not treated on time, it can cause a stroke.

  • Breast biopsy:

    It is done to diagnose breast cancer. In this process, the surgeon takes a small sample of tissue and study under a microscope. This process is also done to remove abnormal breast tissue. The biopsy is done using a hollow needle to remove tissue (also known as needle biopsy).

  • Cesarean section:

    Also known as c-section is performed to deliver a baby. This is done by making an incision or cut in the mother’s abdomen and uterus. This surgery is only done when doctors prefer it to be safer to deliver a baby than a vaginal delivery.

  • Cataract surgery:

    It is a clouding of the lens which lessens the vision. It affects slowly and can damage both the eyes with time. The symptoms of a cataract may include faded colours, double vision, halos around lights, blurred vision, trouble in night vision. This type of surgery is done to clear the lens of the eyes and removes the cloudy lens.

  • Cholecystectomy:

    This surgery is performed to remove the gallbladder. It is a pear-shaped sac, located at the right side of the liver that holds bile. Cholecystectomy is done to remove gallstones as it could become cancerous.

  • Coronary artery bypass:

    Commonly known as bypass surgery is done when a patient is suffering from angina or coronary artery disease. This surgery is done to improve blood flow of the heart. The surgeon sometimes takes a vein from the leg or sometimes arteries from the chest to improve the flow of blood.

  • Dilation and Curettage (D&C):

    It is a type of surgery which is done to widen the cervix. It is a procedure which is performed usually after the miscarriage or abortion.

  • Debridement:

    It is a procedure to remove foreign material or dead or infected tissue from a wound, injury or burn.

  • Free skin graft:

    This is a process in which healthy skin is removed from one part of the body to repair the damaged or lost skin of the other parts of the body. It is performed to remove the diseased skin and is repaired by stitching or natural healing.

  • Hysterectomy:

    This surgery is performed to remove the uterus in a woman. This process is done by making a cut in the abdomen and using a laparoscope. It also involves the removal of the cervix, ovaries, fallopian tubes.

  • Hemorrhoidectomy:

    It is done to remove hemorrhoids. During this surgery, your surgeon will give you general anesthesia or spinal anesthesia so that the patient will feel no pain. The cuts are made in the tissue found around hemorrhoid. These are distended veins present in the anus.

  • Hysteroscopy:

    It is a process which helps in treating uterine disorders using a hysteroscope. It is a tool which helps the doctor to see the canal of the cervix and the inside area of the uterus. This tool shows the image of the area in the computer monitor.

  • Low back pain surgery:

    This pain can have many causes which include abnormal backbone structure, stress on the back, kind of physical disorder that affect the bones of the spine. It is to be mentioned that the surgery is not performed immediately. First of all, patients are said to take medications, rest and perform some exercises.

  • Inguinal hernia repair:

    This is done to repair a weakness in the abdominal wall that allows abdominal things to fall into the inguinal canal in the groin.

  • Partial colectomy:

    It is the process done to remove a part of the large intestine (colon). It is performed to treat colon cancer or conditions like ulcerative colitis or diverticulitis.

  • Prostatectomy:

    It is the process to remove the part or entire prostate gland. It helps in treating prostate cancer (which is also known as benign prostatic hyperplasia).

  • Tonsillectomy:

    It is a process in which both the tonsils are removed. These tonsils hold them from entering viruses and bacteria which prevent them from entering the body through the nose and mouth.

  • Mastectomy:

    It is the procedure of removal of all parts of the breast. It is performed to treat breast cancer. Types of mastectomies include partial mastectomy, total mastectomy, modified radical mastectomy.

Who needs a surgery?

Eligibility for surgery depends on the type of surgery one is seeking to undergo. Depending on the health and the medical problems that an individual has, he may be eligible or not for a certain type of surgical procedure.

Who doesn't need a surgery?

Non-eligibility for a surgical procedure depends on the type of surgery one is undergoing,

Checklist while Preparing for Surgery:

Here is a list of what you must ask your doctor:

  • Is the doctor qualified?
  • What is the status of your health?
  • Who will provide you anaesthesia and what will be the procedure?
  • What will be the medications and habits that you just need to follow?
  • Can you use alcohol or other beverages or not?
  • How much time will it take you to recover properly?
  • What should be your pre-surgical diet?

Why can't you eat before surgery?

Surgery is a typical process. You doctor will not allow you to eat or drink something before the process. This is because, under anaesthesia, your body’s reflexes are stopped on a temporary basis. So, if you eat or drink something, the risk of vomiting and regurgitation rises up. If this happens that your food could get into your lungs and affect your breathing and cause damage to the lungs.

Your doctor will tell you how much time before you need to consume food as it will depend on the procedure. In general, your surgeon will advise you to have the food six to eight hours before the surgical process.

What are the side effects of surgery?

The side-effects depend on the type of surgery a patient is undergoing. But some common side-effects that patients generally face after any surgery include-

  • Slight fever- A slight temperature generally follows a major surgery. If it persists a doctor should be consulted.
  • Swelling- Swelling around the incision is common.
  • Pain- Pain is very common and is generally curbed with medication.
  • Redness around the incision area
  • Itching as the incision heals
  • Infection- Infection after a surgery can result in unwanted complications, thus one should be very careful in treating the surgical wound.

What are the post-treatment guidelines?

Post surgery guidelines too vary as per the surgical procedure a patient undergoes. But, recovery after every surgical procedure is important and it is essential that one rests and regains health as per the doctor’s advice. Even minute post-surgery guidelines should be followed for optimum benefit from the procedure.

Most surgeries also require certain lifestyle changes afterward. These lifestyle changes include a healthy diet, getting proper sleep and exercising regularly. Such changes should be adopted under the doctor’s guidance.

How long does it take to recover?

The recovery period varies according to the procedure that a patient undergoes. For instance, recovery after bypass surgery takes about 12 weeks, while recovery after dental surgery takes about a week.

What is the cost of various surgeries in India?

Cost of various surgeries in India
Name of the Surgery Average Cost in India (INR)
Appendectomy 25,000 to 2,80,000
Carotid endarterectomy 1,50,000 to 3,00,000
Breast biopsy 20,000 to 40,000
Cesarean section 8,000 to 40,000
Cataract surgery 25,000 to 60,000
Cholecystectomy 50,000 to 70,000
Coronary artery bypass 1,50,000 to 2,50,000
Dilation and Curettage (D&C) 1,00,000 to 1,50,000
Hysterectomy 50,000 to 1,00,000
Hemorrhoidectomy 25,000 to 90,000
Hysteroscopy 1,50,000 to 2,50,000
Low back pain surgery 10,000 to 50,000
Inguinal hernia repair 4,00,000 to 5,00,000
Partial colectomy 2,00,000 to 2,50,000
Prostatectomy 5,00,000 to 7,00,000
Tonsillectomy 2,00,000 to 3,00,000

Popular Questions & Answers

I have under gone a by pass surgery in 2002. I was I was prescribed: stir as 10 mg ,ecosprin 75 mg covance 25 mg. I have been taking these medicines since then. Now I consulted a doctor and he added two more medicines: tab kovandil 5 mg ,tab flavedon Mr. Should I take these medicines also. My bp remains 125/60 or130/70 .i am 79 years old. Thanks.

MCh (CTVS), MS - General Surgery, MBBS, MS
Cardiothoracic Vascular Surgery, Noida
Hello, the new medications mentioned are dilators to prevent chest pain by improving circulation in vessels of your heart. Advised is to start on these as your vital parameters are ok. You may need further test if you get any symptoms. Thanks.

I had lasik 16 days ago and now since two days i’m taking flotral and soliten, as I was experiencing some bloating in the lower abdomen and frequent urination. Will flotral affect my lasik recovery? And will I have to take flotral and soliten forever?

MBBS, DNB - Ophthalmology, FCE
Ophthalmologist, Mumbai
Regarding how long you will have to take the medications- you will need to speak with the Dr. who prescribed them since he would have examined and prescribed accordingly. And just for 2 days there won't be any effects on your lasik surgery outcome...

My father is 80 years old and he got heart by pass surgery 6 years back should I give him spirulina capsules .is it better for him.

MCh (CTVS), MS (Gen. Surgery), MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
Cardiothoracic Vascular Surgery,
Spirulina capsule is found to be effective in reducing blood cholesterol levels. It contains various amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins and small amount of carbohydrates. In usa, it’s prescribed as food supplements. I will like to know current med...
1 person found this helpful

I had cabg 18 months ago but I am still taking same medicine as follow. clopidogrel 75 mg ascard 75 mg rosuvastatin 10 mg atenolol 50 mg should I continue both clopidogrel and ascard?

MCh (CTVS), MS (Gen. Surgery), MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
Cardiothoracic Vascular Surgery,
Yes please continue both clopidogrel and ascard 75 mg. These are blood thinners required lifelong after cabg surgery. If discontinued then the risk of graft blockage is high.

My father have 2 blockages in heart. Doctor recommended bypass surgery. It's really have to do bypass surgery or medicine treatment can best for patient.

MCh (CTVS), MS - General Surgery, MBBS
Cardiothoracic Vascular Surgery, Noida
Hello, can only confirm say after seeing the angiogram. But you can see a cardiologist to clarify if angioplasty is possible.

Popular Health Tips

Vascular Surgery - Can It Help For Dialysis?

MBBS, DNB - Peripheral Vascular Surgery, DNB - General Surgery, MNAMS
Vascular Surgeon, Nashik
Vascular Surgery - Can It Help For Dialysis?
Dialysis is a very important and life-saving procedure. It is performed to replace kidney function in case of renal failure. Wastes and extra fluids in the blood are filtered out during this process. To be able to perform Dialysis, the connection ...
1579 people found this helpful

Revision Replacement - What Should You Know?

MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, MS - Orthopedics, Fellowship, Depuy Joint Replacement
Orthopedic Doctor, Bhubaneswar
Revision Replacement - What Should You Know?
The shoulder is a complex joint consisting of a number of bones, ball, socket, and cartilage. For people suffering from arthritis of the shoulder joint, a total replacement of the shoulder joint is often a successful procedure. It significantly im...
5729 people found this helpful

FUE Over FUT For Hair Transplant - Know Why!

MBBS, MS - General Surgery, MCh - Plastic Surgery
Cosmetic/Plastic Surgeon, Vadodara
FUE Over FUT For Hair Transplant - Know Why!
In the past few years, the number of people who are looking to undergo hair transplants has increased significantly. This rise has been attributed to a rise in hair loss across age groups. In fact, hair loss was earlier thought to start only from ...
1052 people found this helpful

Endoscopic Spine Surgery Under Local Anaesthesia!

MBBS, MS - Orthopaedics
Orthopedic Doctor, Navi Mumbai
Endoscopic Spine Surgery Under Local Anaesthesia!
Your spine or backbone is composed of 26 bone discs, known as vertebrae. The vertebra shields your spinal cord and allows you to bend forwards and backwards, and stand. However, a number of problems, such as the following can change the structure ...
1965 people found this helpful

All You Must Know About Head Injury & Its Treatment!

MBBS, MS- General Surgery, M.Ch. - Neuro Surgery
Neurosurgeon, Meerut
All You Must Know About Head Injury & Its Treatment!
Injuries are very common, especially head injuries are one of the leading causes of death and disability in adults. As per surveys conducted, 1.7 million people suffer from head injuries every year and this estimation is increasing day by day. The...
1547 people found this helpful
Content Details
Written By
General Surgery
Play video
What Is Laparoscopy Surgery?
Hello friends, I am Dr. Dilip S Rajpal. I am a general and laparoscopic surgeon. I specialize in single incision laparoscopic surgery. Before single incision laparoscopic surgery, what is laparoscopic surgery? laparoscopic surgery is a minimally i...
Play video
Minimally Invasive Cardiac Surgery
Hello, I am Dr Krishna Prasad cardiothoracic surgeon from Mumbai. I would like to discuss with you all about minimally invasive cardiac surgery. Now recently minimally invasive cardiac surgery is picking up its interest and lot of surgeries can be...
Play video
Lasik Surgery - Things You Must Know About It!
Hello, I am Dr. Jatin Ashar. I am practising eye surgeon. I have been practising for the last 10 years. My areas of speciality are cornea, cornea transplant, lasik and laser refractive surgeries and customise cataract surgeries. Today I am speakin...
Play video
What Is Microsurgery?
Hello, I am Dr. Bheem Nanda, consultant plastic and microvascular surgeon in Delhi. Today we will talk about microsurgery. Like microsurgery is a surgery which requires very high magnification usually with the help of a microscope to operate on ne...
Play video
How To Select The Intraocular Lens?
Hello, I am Dr. Nikhil Nasta, Eye Care and Surgery. In today's video we are going to talk about something very interesting we are going to talk about how to select the intraocular lens. Now what is this I'm talking about, many of us have cataract ...
Having issues? Consult a doctor for medical advice