A medical specialty, surgery is known to treat diseases and medical problems through incisions, where the body is opened and operated on. A medical professional who performs a surgery is called a surgeon. A surgeon needs to be highly trained in the related medical field. Surgery residency generally extends up to 5 years and involves training for many more years after that.
Surgery can mean a small outpatient procedure, which has very low chances of complications and entails fast recovery or a long major procedure that requires proper care and longer time for recovery. The severity of the procedure depends on the kind of surgery that is being performed and the medical condition it is treating
Surgeries may be performed on the heart, brain, bones, organs as well as tissues. Various types of surgeries include- Surgery for cancer, general surgery, endocrine surgery, Gynecological surgery, Neurosurgery, Orthopedic surgery, Ophthalmological surgery, Pediatric surgery, Plastic and reconstructive surgery, Trauma surgery, thoracic surgery, minimally invasive surgery.
Today a number of different types of surgeries are performed. Here are some common types of surgeries -
Humans started undergoing surgical procedures about 30,000 years ago. During a surgery, the particular part of the body that is being treated is opened up. Thus, in the case of a bypass surgery, the heart is opened up and the blockage is then located and removed. In the case of a knee ligament tear surgery, the ligament is removed and replaced with a rod.
Various instruments and machines are used during surgical procedures. These instruments and machines help surgeons perform the procedure effectively. Thousands of years ago, bone needles were used and surgeries were known to be highly risky. But today, surgical procedures have become simpler because of the advent of medical technology. The use of lasers, robots, and radiation has become common during surgical procedures. Thus, as medical technology advances, the meaning and definition of surgery are slowly altering. Now minimally invasive techniques have come up, which do not require the body to be opened completely. Only minor incisions are made on the part of the body which is being operated. It generally involves the introduction of a tube into the body to make the necessary alterations.
Minimally invasive techniques are generally less expensive and safer than normal surgery. The recovery period is also less in this case and the body heals faster.
Eligibility for surgery depends on the type of surgery one is seeking to undergo. Depending on the health and the medical problems that an individual has, he may be eligible or not for a certain type of surgical procedure.
Non-eligibility for a surgical procedure depends on the type of surgery one is undergoing,
The side-effects depend on the type of surgery a patient is undergoing. But some common side-effects that patients generally face after any surgery include-
Post surgery guidelines too vary as per the surgical procedure a patient undergoes. But, recovery after every surgical procedure is important and it is essential that one rests and regains health as per the doctor’s advice. Even minute post-surgery guidelines should be followed for optimum benefit from the procedure. Most surgeries also require certain lifestyle changes afterward. These lifestyle changes include a healthy diet, getting proper sleep and exercising regularly. Such changes should be adopted under the doctor’s guidance.
The recovery period varies according to the procedure that a patient undergoes. For instance, recovery after bypass surgery takes about 12 weeks, while recovery after dental surgery takes about a week.
Did you know that you can get a face lift without invasive surgery? One of the latest advancements in cosmetic surgery is known as silhouette face lift or thread lift. This procedure uses fine threads to uplift sagging skin and add volume to the face and neck. So why go under the knife when you can get that perfect look with it?
In reality, a thread lift is not a new procedure. It originated in the late 1990s but lost its popularity by mid-2000. Its recent bounce back is due to new technology that makes the process quicker and relatively painless. The speed at which this procedure can be performed has also given rise to its nick name that is lunchtime lift. In most cases, all you need is just an hour or two to undergo this procedure. As compared to other cosmetic procedures such as dermal fillers, this procedure is much faster and has quicker results.
As the name suggests a thread lift uses fine absorbable sutures. These are typically made from biodegradable polymers. Before beginning the procedure, local anesthetic is injected into the area to be addressed. The threads are then inserted into the skin and passed through a specific path to lift problem areas. It is commonly used to address sagging skin in the cheeks, lips, neck and jowls. The thread is also attached to tiny cones that cause slight inflammation. This stimulates collagen production and helps increase volume naturally over time.
There may be slight swelling after the procedure but you may go back to work immediately. In some cases, a slight depression may appear at the insertion point but this should relieve itself within a few days. Some patients may also experience slight bruising and discomfort in the area where the thread was inserted. Applying a cold pack and sleeping on a high pillow can help prevent such side effects. It is also important to avoid wearing make up for at least 24 hours and to not rub the face aggressively for a minimum of 5 days after the procedure. Saunas and any kind of dental surgery should not be scheduled for at least 3 weeks after the procedure.
The results of a silhouette face lift can last for one to two years. The cones attached to the thread will stimulate collagen production even after the procedure, ensuring that the results you see immediately after the procedure improve over the next few months. Surely, you would get a smooth toned skin that will enhance your looks and beauty with Silhouette face lift. But it is quite costly and you should make a decision in choosing the best treatment.
What is an Endocrine Surgery?
It is a surgery of one or more endocrine glands. Endocrine glands are glands which secrete hormones and control function of almost all the cells in the body. It is a surgical subspecialty. It includes surgery of endocrine glands, such as the thyroid gland, the parathyroid gland, the adrenal gland, glands of the endocrine pancreas, and some neuroendocrine glands.
Which are the Clinical Conditions that require Endocrinal Surgeries?
The conditions which require endocrinal surgery are as follows:
Which surgeries are included in it?
Surgeries can be minimally invasive, such as laparoscopic surgeries or open surgeries. It includes following surgeries:
What Care needs to be Taken Preoperatively?
Following tests need to be done prior to the surgeries:
After completing the tests, the doctor will evaluate the reports and will advise undergoing surgery accordingly.
Which medication needs to be adjusted?
Medications which need to be adjusted before the surgery are as follows:
What are the complications of surgery?
Following are the most common complications:
What Is Ulcerative Colitis?
Ulcerative colitis is a chronic, inflammatory condition of the colon and the rectum. It affects the mucosal lining of the large intestine (colon) and the rectum. The rectum is present just above the anus.
In this condition, patients have ulcers and abscesses in their colon and rectum.
Symptoms are seen periodically. The symptoms are severe pain in the abdomen, blood in stools and diarrhea. Anemia is seen due to decreased healthy red blood cells as a consequence of bleeding in stools.
When is surgery required?
There are 2 types of surgeries:
Procedures for the surgery
Some people experience incontinence after the surgery. Medications may help control the function of the pouch.
Some women may become infertile after the procedure.
Recovery after Surgery
Both sets of the procedure will require a four-to-six-week recovery period.
Cartilage is a fine, rubbery elastic tissue that acts as cushion between the bones in the joint spaces. It is a connective tissue and enables the joints to move freely and smoothly. It acts as a shock absorber and reduces the friction between the joints. This cartilage could either be damaged as a result of injury or degeneration as part of normal ageing process. Either of this causes friction during joint movement, causing painful, stiff movements and in some cases, even swelling of the joint spaces.
There is also a covering around the joints known as synovium. When there is a cartilage damage, this synovium is irritated, leading to increased secretion of synovial fluid, which can cause swelling in joints. There is also reduction in the range of motion of the affected joint.
Most commonly affected joints include knees, hips, shoulders, elbows and ankles. Other than degeneration that happens with ageing, cartilage damage is mainly caused by injury or trauma including fall/impact, joint dislocation, infection, ligament tear, meniscus tear, and inflammation (gout, arthritis, etc.)
Read on to know some of the most common causes for cartilage damage and ways to manage it.
Age and trauma are the main reasons for cartilage damage.
The presenting symptoms of a person with any affected joint would be pain, discomfort and stiffness with movement. In addition to history and physical examination, MRI and arthroscopy can be used to confirm the diagnosis.
Start with a conservative approach and gradually switch to more advanced treatments. Conservative approach includes a combination of pain killers, steroid injections, and exercise (at a clinic or at home). If these do not work, the following surgical options are available:
Obesity surgery is more commonly referred to as bariatric surgery. It is a surgery done on the stomach and/or intestines of a person with morbid obesity so that he or she loses weight. It is believed that as of now, bariatric surgery is the only option that almost always works to help overly obese people lose a lot of weight, which automatically makes the associated chronic conditions vanish.
How does this surgery work? Bariatric surgery works by changing the anatomy of the stomach and the digestive system (gastrointestinal tract) or by causing different physiologic changes in the body, which in turn changes the energy balance and fat metabolism. Technically, eating fewer calories than they are burned by the body, results in gradual and long-lasting weight loss. Bariatric surgery is the best option for people who have a body mass index (BMI) above 40. It can also be recommended for people with a BMI in between 35 and 40 and who have health problems such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, or higher risk of heart diseases.
Types of obesity surgery: There are four types of bariatric surgical procedures that can be done to promote weight loss. This includes:
However, only a surgeon is able to decide which surgery will be the best for a patient. The decision is made after carefully considering the condition, requirement and manifestations of a patient. Moreover, the surgeon will also consider the advantages and disadvantages of each obesity surgery type before choosing the most suitable one for an individual.
Benefits of obesity surgery: Bariatric surgery continues to benefit people worldwide who fight against morbid obesity. Obesity is associated with impairment in the quality of life. In particular, obesity can cause increased physical limitations, body pain, fatigue, high blood pressure, and even diabetes. Bariatric surgery also acts as a preventive intervention against these serious health problems caused by obesity. Numerous studies have suggested that not just physical but many individuals have reported improvement in psychological functioning as well.
Bariatric surgery can help improve patient’s overall mood and psychological health. Patients who have undergone these procedures report decreased feeling of depression and anxiety, as well as an increase in energy to take up more active lifestyle post-surgery. Obese patients who undergo bariatric surgery not only live longer but also live much better.