A medical specialty, surgery is known to treat diseases and medical problems through incisions, where the body is opened and operated on. A medical professional who performs a surgery is called a surgeon. A surgeon needs to be highly trained in the related medical field. Surgery residency generally extends up to 5 years and involves training for many more years after that.
Surgery can mean a small outpatient procedure, which has very low chances of complications and entails fast recovery or a long major procedure that requires proper care and longer time for recovery. The severity of the procedure depends on the kind of surgery that is being performed and the medical condition it is treating
Surgeries may be performed on the heart, brain, bones, organs as well as tissues. Various types of surgeries include- Surgery for cancer, general surgery, endocrine surgery, Gynecological surgery, Neurosurgery, Orthopedic surgery, Ophthalmological surgery, Pediatric surgery, Plastic and reconstructive surgery, Trauma surgery, thoracic surgery, minimally invasive surgery.
Today a number of different types of surgeries are performed. Here are some common types of surgeries -
Humans started undergoing surgical procedures about 30,000 years ago. During a surgery, the particular part of the body that is being treated is opened up. Thus, in the case of a bypass surgery, the heart is opened up and the blockage is then located and removed. In the case of a knee ligament tear surgery, the ligament is removed and replaced with a rod.
Various instruments and machines are used during surgical procedures. These instruments and machines help surgeons perform the procedure effectively. Thousands of years ago, bone needles were used and surgeries were known to be highly risky. But today, surgical procedures have become simpler because of the advent of medical technology. The use of lasers, robots, and radiation has become common during surgical procedures. Thus, as medical technology advances, the meaning and definition of surgery are slowly altering. Now minimally invasive techniques have come up, which do not require the body to be opened completely. Only minor incisions are made on the part of the body which is being operated. It generally involves the introduction of a tube into the body to make the necessary alterations.
Minimally invasive techniques are generally less expensive and safer than normal surgery. The recovery period is also less in this case and the body heals faster.
Eligibility for surgery depends on the type of surgery one is seeking to undergo. Depending on the health and the medical problems that an individual has, he may be eligible or not for a certain type of surgical procedure.
Non-eligibility for a surgical procedure depends on the type of surgery one is undergoing,
The side-effects depend on the type of surgery a patient is undergoing. But some common side-effects that patients generally face after any surgery include-
Post surgery guidelines too vary as per the surgical procedure a patient undergoes. But, recovery after every surgical procedure is important and it is essential that one rests and regains health as per the doctor’s advice. Even minute post-surgery guidelines should be followed for optimum benefit from the procedure. Most surgeries also require certain lifestyle changes afterward. These lifestyle changes include a healthy diet, getting proper sleep and exercising regularly. Such changes should be adopted under the doctor’s guidance.
The recovery period varies according to the procedure that a patient undergoes. For instance, recovery after bypass surgery takes about 12 weeks, while recovery after dental surgery takes about a week.
Piles or Hemorrhoids is a common condition that can affect a man or woman at any stage of their life. This is not life-threatening but it can be extremely painful and uncomfortable. Therefore, seeking the proper treatment at the right time is necessary. Surgery is one of the best forms of treatment for this condition. This is known as a hemorrhoidectomy. It ensures that the problem does not recur. Recovering from a surgery to remove piles can take 2-3 weeks. Here are a few tips to ensure fast healing.
Take a sitz bath
A sitz bath can help relieve pain and discomfort after a hemorrhoidectomy. This involves filling a shallow tub with warm water and sitting in it. It is important not to add anything to this water. A sitz bath can be taken multiple times in a day in the first week following surgery. The warm water helps relax the muscles and reduces swelling and pain. Once the water cools down, you may follow a sitz bath with an ice pack. This should not be placed in direct contact with the skin and should be held in place for not longer than 5-10 minutes.
Use a handheld shower to keep the area clean
It is important to keep the surgery site clean at all times. However given the sensitivity around the area, this can be difficult especially after passing stool. Using a handheld shower or bidet attachment can make this process easier and less painful. Air dry the area or pat it dry with a soft towel. Do not rub the area as it may damage the skin.
Use medication wisely
Your doctor will probably prescribe painkillers after the surgery. This prescription must be followed strictly as overuse of opioid painkillers can result in constipation. Along with this, a laxative or stool softener may also be prescribed. The instructions given with this medication must be followed strictly. Taking excessive doses can lead to diarrhoea that may, in turn, slow down the healing process.
To prevent constipation and speed up the healing process, the patient must have a well-balanced diet. This should be rich in fibre to enable waste to travel smoothly through the digestive system. The patient must also drink a minimum of 8-10 glasses of water a day. This does not include soft drinks, juices, tea, coffee etc. This keeps stools soft and makes their excretion less painful.
A traumatic injury refers to a serious brain injury that affects all the aspects of a person including his or her personality. This may be the result of a severe fall, a car accident, firearms etc. Unlike an injury to the arm or leg, no two traumatic injuries have the same effect. These injuries also do not heal like other injuries.
There are many different kinds of treatment options available for traumatic injuries. Initially, treatment aims at stabilizing the individual and assessing the scope of the injury. Acute treatment is used to minimize secondary injuries. In many cases, surgery is also required to prevent secondary injuries and to help maintain a steady flow of oxygenated blood to the brain. This relieves the internal swelling and pressure. It also minimized additional damage to brain tissue. Most patients also need rehabilitative care to get back to their normal life.
Surgical treatment is usually advised in the case of a traumatic head injury. However, in the case of internal brain injuries, this may not be the first preference. In such cases, an intracranial pressure monitoring device or a bolt is implanted to monitor pressure levels in the brain. Only then surgery may be required to drain bleeding in the skull cavity and to repair the torn tissues. Blood clots or hematomas will also need to be removed surgically. Sometimes, surgery may also be required to create a window in the skull so as to relieve internal pressure.
In severe cases, if there is extensive tissue damage, the damaged portion of the brain may be surgically removed. This creates space for the healthy brain tissue to heal. In the case of an open brain injury, surgery is the first course of treatment. In such cases, the doctor’s first sim is usually to repair the fractured skull and remove damaged tissue. This minimizes pressure on the brain and also helps prevent secondary infections and injuries.
These surgeries are generally performed while the patient is under general anaesthesia. Recovering from a traumatic brain injury takes time and hospitalization is usually required for a few weeks. Once the injury has healed considerably, rehabilitation is then required to relearn basic skills. This may begin as an inpatient procedure and later be transferred to an outpatient exercise. The duration and type of rehabilitation required vary from case to case and depends on the type and severity of the injury.
Surgery is basically the most important treatment for majority of kidney cancer and without undergoing surgery, the chances of survival for the patient are very small. Surgery for kidney tumor is also beneficial for the people who has cancer in different other organs of the body. People also live longer with the help of the removal of the kidney which contains cancer thus even if cancer has spread beyond just the Kidneys, the doctor might suggest kidney surgery.
The removal of kidney tumor can also be used to prevent or reduce symptoms like abnormal bleeding or pain. Some of the tissues surrounding the kidney or the entire kidney might be removed depending on the location or other factors involving the tumor for cancer.
Risks or Side-effects of the Surgery
Surgery of any type might have some risks which can be short term like abnormal bleeding, blood clots which will eventually lead to infection. Majority of people does tend to have pain after undergoing the operation which usually could be benefited with the help of pain medicines. Some other possible risks are:
Advantages of Kidney Surgery
Transplantation surgery tends to have some benefits. Which minimises the need for dialysis and helps the patients enjoy life at its best which more freedom productivity and energy. Although majority of the patients before being first evaluated for surgery are on dialysis. But the patients who are undergoing end stage renal disease might be referred for surgery even ahead of dialysis.
A successful kidney surgery can provide you with more than just your health back. It can also provide you with an even better quality of life. There are several cases where the majority of patients return home and also good work and still lead a quality life after the transplantation therefore this treatment is preferable for several patients.
The liver has a significant role to play in metabolism and digestion. The failure of a liver can lead to significant health issues. There are some causes for liver failure, which cannot be treated with medications. In these people, a transplant, which is replacing the diseased or injured liver with another liver, is the only definitive treatment option.
Some conditions which can require a liver transplant are:
Types of transplant:
While the concept of a transplant sounds quite convincing and appealing for those with a severe liver disease, it is also important to note that not all would qualify for a liver transplant. The conditions which would disqualify a recipient are discussed below:
A detailed liver recipient evaluation assessing the severity of liver disease, chances of survival, and overall health are done before a person is listed for liver transplant. This evaluation ensures a better success rate with the transplant.
The gallbladder is a very important organ in the human body. This is a pear-shaped organ which is used for storing the bile. Bile is a fluid which helps in digesting your food. When the gallbladder does not function well, then hard fragments will form in the gallbladder and they are calledgallbladder stones. The size of these stones differs from person to person. For a few people, they are just the size of a small rice grain and for few, it can be as large as a golf ball.
When gallbladder stones are formed, they will not vanish by themselves. They will cause pain and many other symptoms which are unbearable. You need to consult a doctor and you may have to get the gallbladder removed. This kind of gallbladder removal surgery is called cholecystectomy.
How are gallbladder stones removed?
More than 80 percent of people with gallbladder stones will need a cholecystectomy. This surgery can be performed in two different ways.
Before performing the laparoscopic gallbladder removal surgery, you will have to undergo a few tests such as blood test, complete physical test, gallbladder imaging tests and a review of your past medical history. After going through the reports of all these tests and checking all other medications that you take, your doctor will decide if you need gallbladder surgery or not.
Post Gallbladder surgery: Post-surgery, you may see some symptoms, but they are rare and mild. One of the common symptoms experienced after the surgery is diarrhea. You can start walking as soon as you start feeling better. But you should talk to the doctor in order to get back to your normal routine.
Regarding your diet, you will have to start with a liquid diet and make sure that you do not take heavy and fatty food. Your body will take some time to get back to digesting a normal diet and hence you will have to take good care.