Common Specialities
Common Issues
Common Treatments


Surgery - Treatment, Procedure And Side Effects

What is the treatment?

A medical specialty, surgery is known to treat diseases and medical problems through incisions, where the body is opened and operated on. A medical professional who performs a surgery is called a surgeon. A surgeon needs to be highly trained in the related medical field. Surgery residency generally extends up to 5 years and involves training for many more years after that.

Surgery can mean a small outpatient procedure, which has very low chances of complications and entails fast recovery or a long major procedure that requires proper care and longer time for recovery. The severity of the procedure depends on the kind of surgery that is being performed and the medical condition it is treating

Surgeries may be performed on the heart, brain, bones, organs as well as tissues. Various types of surgeries include- Surgery for cancer, general surgery, endocrine surgery, Gynecological surgery, Neurosurgery, Orthopedic surgery, Ophthalmological surgery, Pediatric surgery, Plastic and reconstructive surgery, Trauma surgery, thoracic surgery, minimally invasive surgery.

Today a number of different types of surgeries are performed. Here are some common types of surgeries -

  • General surgery- This procedure treats a number of diseases and conditions. General procedures often involve the use of minimally invasive methods, thus reducing risk and allowing faster recovery.
  • Gynecological surgery- Procedures performed to treat the reproductive system of women come under gynecological surgery. Some of these procedures include- Endometrial ablation and gynecology cancer procedure.
  • Neurosurgery- It deals with treating problems of the brain and the nervous system. A number of surgeries fall under this category such as spine surgery, surgery for brain tumor etc.
  • Orthopedic surgery- It deals with treating problems of the bones and muscles. The different types of procedures include shoulder and knee surgery.

How is the treatment done?

Humans started undergoing surgical procedures about 30,000 years ago. During a surgery, the particular part of the body that is being treated is opened up. Thus, in the case of a bypass surgery, the heart is opened up and the blockage is then located and removed. In the case of a knee ligament tear surgery, the ligament is removed and replaced with a rod.

Various instruments and machines are used during surgical procedures. These instruments and machines help surgeons perform the procedure effectively. Thousands of years ago, bone needles were used and surgeries were known to be highly risky. But today, surgical procedures have become simpler because of the advent of medical technology. The use of lasers, robots, and radiation has become common during surgical procedures. Thus, as medical technology advances, the meaning and definition of surgery are slowly altering. Now minimally invasive techniques have come up, which do not require the body to be opened completely. Only minor incisions are made on the part of the body which is being operated. It generally involves the introduction of a tube into the body to make the necessary alterations.

Minimally invasive techniques are generally less expensive and safer than normal surgery. The recovery period is also less in this case and the body heals faster.

Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)

Eligibility for surgery depends on the type of surgery one is seeking to undergo. Depending on the health and the medical problems that an individual has, he may be eligible or not for a certain type of surgical procedure.

Who is not eligible for the treatment?

Non-eligibility for a surgical procedure depends on the type of surgery one is undergoing,

Are there any side effects?

The side-effects depend on the type of surgery a patient is undergoing. But some common side-effects that patients generally face after any surgery include-

  • Slight fever- A slight temperature generally follows a major surgery. If it persists a doctor should be consulted.
  • Swelling- Swelling around the incision is common.
  • Pain- Pain is very common and is generally curbed with medication.
  • Redness around the incision area
  • Itching as the incision heals
  • Infection- Infection after a surgery can result in unwanted complications, thus one should be very careful in treating the surgical wound.

What are the post-treatment guidelines?

Post surgery guidelines too vary as per the surgical procedure a patient undergoes. But, recovery after every surgical procedure is important and it is essential that one rests and regains health as per the doctor’s advice. Even minute post-surgery guidelines should be followed for optimum benefit from the procedure. Most surgeries also require certain lifestyle changes afterward. These lifestyle changes include a healthy diet, getting proper sleep and exercising regularly. Such changes should be adopted under the doctor’s guidance.

How long does it take to recover?

The recovery period varies according to the procedure that a patient undergoes. For instance, recovery after bypass surgery takes about 12 weeks, while recovery after dental surgery takes about a week.

What is the price of the treatment in India?

Prices of surgery depend on the complexity of the medical condition and procedure. Generally, surgery prices range from Rs 15000- Rs 25, 00,000.

Are the results of the treatment permanent?

Most surgeries have permanent results when post-surgery guidelines are carefully followed. In the case of cosmetic procedures, some are permanent while some may be temporary.

What are the alternatives to the treatment?

Alternatives to surgical procedures include- oral medications, lifestyle changes, herbal medication, and acupuncture.

Safety: Medium Effectiveness: Medium Timeliness: Medium Relative Risk: Medium Side Effects: Medium Recovery Time: Medium Price Range: Rs. 15,000 - Rs. 25, 00,000

Popular Health Tips

All About Cataract Surgery!

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All About Cataract Surgery!
All You Need to Know about Cataract Surgery A cataract is defined as a clouding of lens in the eye where your vision gets blurred. A cataract affects the eyes, when light that passes through the lens prevents a clearly formed image from reaching your retina. The disease is very common and usually develops as your eyes age or due to any injury caused to the tissues that cover your eye's lens. Types of cataracts: Senile Cataract: This is the commonest of all. It is age-related clouding of the lens. It can affect the near or distance vision and can also cause glare and change in glasses power. Secondary Cataract: It can be developed after surgery for other eye problems like glaucoma and other health conditions such as diabetes. Traumatic Cataract: It can develop many years later after an injury caused to your eye. Congenital Cataract: As the term explains, the disease may be inborn or some children might develop it at a later stage which often affects both eyes. Radiation Cataract: It can form after you are exposed to some form of radiation. A cataract surgery involves the extraction or cleaning of the cloudy lens, which is then replaced by a clear artificial lens. Why does it happen? There are lens that lies behind our iris and pupil which act much like a camera lens. It helps concentrate light onto the retina at the back of our eye to form a sharply defined image. Besides, the lens also helps our eyes to adjust focus and allows us to see things clearly both far away and up close. The lens is composed of protein and water where the protein is arranged in a manner to keep the lens clear thereby letting light pass through it. However, as we grow old, some of the protein starts to become thick and cloud a small lens area. This is known as a cataract. With the passage of time, it may inflate and cover more of the lens, making it difficult for us to see. Besides, there are other causes of cataract such as smoking, addiction of alcohol, prolonged sunlight exposure, to name a few. When should you opt for a cataract surgery? Believe it or not, but till date no eye drop or medication has proven to reverse or prevent the formation of a cataract. If a cataract is affecting your nearsightedness or alteration in your prescription, then new prescription eyeglasses may help to better your blurred vision. However, the only treatment for a cataract is the surgical removal of your natural lens. And, most eye doctors recommend this surgery only when the problem becomes severe and starts hampering your day-to-day activities, such as studying or driving at night. If you would like to consult with me privately, please click 'Consult'.
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Treating Enlarged Breasts In Men(gynecomastia) With Surgery!

Dr. Prashantha Kesari 90% (10 ratings)
MCh - Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, DNB, MS - General Surgery, MBBS
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Treating Enlarged Breasts In Men(gynecomastia) With Surgery!
Most men, about 60%, see some development of breast tissue in their lifetime. This growth could be round, symmetrical and occurs bilaterally. This growth of breast tissue in males is medically known as gynecomastia. Causes: The most common cause is an imbalance between the oestrogen and androgens, with excessive oestrogens leading to the growth of breast tissue. Excessive use of anabolic steroids Obesity Unknown reasons It can affect men of all ages, and if this presents as a serious problem, then surgery is the most definitive form of treatment. Surgical options: There are two major options available for correcting gynecomastia liposuction and excisive surgery. Liposuction: Done either under local sedation or under general anaesthesia depending on the extent of the tissue proliferation A small incision is made either in the armpit or around the areola Excessive fat tissue and breast gland tissue are suctioned out The chest contour also is altered at the same time, if desirable Post-surgery, the person is made to wear a compression garment for the first few days This helps in keeping the tissue in place and also helps reduce swelling Healing takes about a couple of weeks time, depending on the person s overall health status and the extent of surgery. Excisive surgery: This is done when the extent of gynecomastia is more severe These people would have sagging, stretched skin around the breast area More amount of fat and glandular tissue can be removed through excision This is more often done under general anaesthesia The incision is often done around the areala (dark portion around the nipple) so it is concealed or along the natural creases which are formed due to excessive breast tissue Excessive breast tissue is removed and the incisions are closed There could be swelling, pain, bruising, and higher chances of post-surgical infections Recovery will take about ten days to two weeks Refraining from exercise is often advised for up to 2 weeks Benefits: Restore a masculine appearance Shorter surgery Faster recovery Minimal or invisible scars Almost immediate results that can be dramatic Improved confidence and self-image After the surgery: Surgery is definitely a sure way to remove the male breast tissue, it is almost a permanent treatment for this condition. It is very important to get a trained, experienced surgeon for the procedure It is important to follow post-op instructions including pain management, infection control, and recovery If it was caused by use of steroids or obesity, lifestyle modification is essential to prevent recurrence

Thyroid Surgery - Why It Is Performed?

Dr. Nitin Jha 86% (13 ratings)
FAIS, FIAGES, MS - General Surgery, MBBS
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Thyroid Surgery - Why It Is Performed?
Thyroid surgery is performed with the partial or complete removal of the thyroid gland when the patient is diagnosed with thyroid cancer, abnormal cyst formation, goitre, hyperthyroidism or painful thyroid nodules. There are 3 types of thyroid surgery which are performed lobectomy (removal of part of the thyroid gland), subtotal thyroidectomy (characterized by the removal of the whole thyroid gland but presence of some of the thyroid tissues) and total thyroidectomy (removal of the whole thyroid gland and thyroid tissues). The surgery is performed on the patient under local anaesthesia with a small cut over the skin and the subsequent compression of the tissues and muscles to expose the thyroid gland for operation. The factors on which recovery depends mainly include the age of the patient, the type of surgery performed and the extent to which the cancer has spread. Here are the reasons because of which thyroid surgery is performed: Surgery might be performed if there is an abnormal enlargement of the thyroid gland, known as goitre, which obstructs common functions such as chewing foods, breathing and talking because of throat blockage. Surgery is a go-to respite for people suffering from hyperthyroidism as this disorder is impossible to diagnose by means of medications or radioactive iodine. Hyperthyroidism occurs because of a side-effect of another disorder called Grave s Disease. This disease makes the antibodies attack the thyroid gland, as a result of which the gland tends to overproduce hormones. The most common reason for getting a thyroid surgery is the presence of abnormal cysts or nodule formation in the thyroid gland. While most of the nodules are usually non-malignant in nature, some of them can be cancerous. The benign nodules can also cause significant obstruction with normal bodily functions if they are not treated on time. Risks Like any other major surgery, thyroid surgery has its own share of risks, which are: Severe bleeding, infection and allergic reactions to local anaesthetics. Significant damage to the parathyroid glands (which are responsible for controlling the calcium level of the body) and the laryngeal nerves (situated adjacently to the vocal chords). These risks can be prevented by prescribed dosage of supplements.

13 Tips to Help You Recover from Hernia Surgery

Dr. Tarun Agarwal 84% (10 ratings)
MBBS, MS - General Surgery
General Surgeon, Lucknow
13 Tips to Help You Recover from Hernia Surgery
Hernia surgery is performed for the correction of a hernia which refers to the bulging of internal organs or tissues through an abnormal opening. It is easy to detect hernia through any pain or discomfort while lifting heavy objects, cough and strain during urination or bowel movements or during prolonged standing or sitting. It can be found in both men and women. The Hernia can be congenital or can be developed over a period of time. If it doesn t get better over time and also does not go away by itself, then surgery becomes the only option. Types of Surgery There are two types of surgery for hernia treatment. One is the conventional open method, which requires an incision in the skin directly over the hernia. The other one is the Laparoscopic hernia repair in which surgery is performed using a small telescope known as a laparoscope. In this type of surgery minimal invasions are made and the hernia is repaired with only small incisions adjacent to the hernia. Most hernia operations are performed on an outpatient basis, which means that you can go home the very same day. Tips for early recovery Wear comfortable clothing with expandable waistbands. Keep yourself active by moving around as much as you can as it increases circulation, which further speeds up healing. Eat a diet rich in fibre, fresh fruits and vegetables. Drink lots of water and other fluids to avoid constipation. Do not lift any objects even if it is very light as it can bring back pain. Do not to pick up things from the floor as it will be difficult to bend. Hold a pillow against your stomach while sneezing or coughing to lessen the pain. Use stool softener for a few days before and after surgery to help you with your bowel movements. Avoid driving till the time you feel any pain and as long as you are taking narcotic pain medicines. Band-Aids which cover the incisions should be changed as and when needed. Refrain yourself from intercourse as it can be painful. Check with your doctor when to take a shower so as not to hurt your incisions, and make sure to gently dry your incisions and replace the Band-Aids after taking a shower. Do not consume any alcoholic drinks for at least 24 hours. The tips mentioned above will definitely provide help to cope up with post surgery blues. However, in case of fever, excessive sweating, difficulty in urinating, bleeding or any prolonged pain consult your doctor immediately.
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8 Types Pelvic and Abdominal Surgical Incisions

Dr. Jagat Pal Singh 90% (10 ratings)
MBBS, MS - General Surgery, Fellowship in Minimal Access Surgery
General Surgeon, Agra
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At the time of a surgical procedure, while making an incision a doctor has to take care of a number of factors before making an incision. Considering a number of factors, different types of incisions have come into fore, such as Midline Incision: It s the commonest incision and is done along the linea alba (fibrous structure running through the mid of the abdomen). These are preferred, especially in diagnostic laparotomy as it permits a wide access to the abdomen. Pfannenstiel Incision: It is transverse in nature, extending from the umbilicus to the pubic-symphysis. It is generally employed for abdominal hysterectomy of benign nature and caesarean section. Chevron Incision: It is an incision under the rib-cage and is done on the abdomen. It starts from beneath the ribs on the right abdomen and extends till the other mid axillary line. Thus, the entire abdominal width is incised for proper reach into the liver. The incision can be up to 2 feet. Kustner Incision: It is transverse in nature and extends from the symphysis pubis till the iliac spine (anterior). This type of incision takes time to perform. A Pfannenstiel incision offers more exposure than a Kustner incision. Lanz Incision: It is a variation of the more common mcburney-incision (also known as Gridiron s incision). It is generally used for open appendectomies. There are quite a few variations for this type of an incision. Gridiron s incision: It is done for appendectomies. It is an oblique short incision which is done in the lower right quadrant in the abdomen. Kocher s Incision: It is oblique in nature, extending from the abdominal upper right quadrant and is generally used for performing an open cholecystectomy. Gallbladder, biliary tract and certain liver operations can be suited for a Kocher s incision. This however is different from the same named incision used for the thyroid gland surgery. Cherney Incision: It is transverse in nature. It allows a great range of exposure for the pelvic sidewall. It is less painful than a midline incision. It allows for the greatest pelvic exposure and hence is a widely preferred and practiced incision.

Popular Questions & Answers

Please suggest How much it cost for fistula surgery in mumbai? Can you please suggest me lower cost of surgery healthcare?

Dr. Bhagyesh Patel 93% (3754 ratings)
General Surgeon, Gandhinagar
Hello dear lybrate-user, hi Warm welcome to I have evaluated your query thoroughly.* In our set up at Gujarat, fistula surgery costs around Rs. 20,000 inclusive of all.* For cost in mumbai, have to consult nearby surgeon. Hope this clears your query. Wishing you fine recovery. Welcome for any further assistance. Regards take care.
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Is lasik best for me as I am wearing glasses since 2006 today my age is about 23 and glasses create problem for me in getting a job. Please advice

Fellowship of the Royal College of Surgeons (FRCS)
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LASIK is best for people above age of 18 year if the refraction is stable. You need to get cornea examinations (pentacam) done before you decide anything.

I'm 22 years old, I'm gonna do LASIK zyoptix HD surgery What are the defects may I will face in future,

Dr. Shreyas Shah 92% (122 ratings)
MBBS, DNB (Ophthalmology), ROP
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You won't have any major defects. But 5% of the patients have night glare and haloes. Apart from that, every procedure has some complications, so does this one.
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Hi I am 32 I had weak eyesight with cylindrical number. Should I go for Lasik or icl which one is better. And normal cost for both.

Dr. Jatin Soni 93% (28261 ratings)
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As you are having cylindrical number it means that you don’t have a normal corneal curve and hence lasik surgery is not advisable for you for refractive error purposes and if you are comfortable with your spectacle than continue wearing it

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