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Overview

Surgery - Treatment, Procedure And Side Effects

What is the treatment?

A medical specialty, surgery is known to treat diseases and medical problems through incisions, where the body is opened and operated on. A medical professional who performs a surgery is called a surgeon. A surgeon needs to be highly trained in the related medical field. Surgery residency generally extends up to 5 years and involves training for many more years after that.

Surgery can mean a small outpatient procedure, which has very low chances of complications and entails fast recovery or a long major procedure that requires proper care and longer time for recovery. The severity of the procedure depends on the kind of surgery that is being performed and the medical condition it is treating

Surgeries may be performed on the heart, brain, bones, organs as well as tissues. Various types of surgeries include- Surgery for cancer, general surgery, endocrine surgery, Gynecological surgery, Neurosurgery, Orthopedic surgery, Ophthalmological surgery, Pediatric surgery, Plastic and reconstructive surgery, Trauma surgery, thoracic surgery, minimally invasive surgery.

Today a number of different types of surgeries are performed. Here are some common types of surgeries -

  • General surgery- This procedure treats a number of diseases and conditions. General procedures often involve the use of minimally invasive methods, thus reducing risk and allowing faster recovery.
  • Gynecological surgery- Procedures performed to treat the reproductive system of women come under gynecological surgery. Some of these procedures include- Endometrial ablation and gynecology cancer procedure.
  • Neurosurgery- It deals with treating problems of the brain and the nervous system. A number of surgeries fall under this category such as spine surgery, surgery for brain tumor etc.
  • Orthopedic surgery- It deals with treating problems of the bones and muscles. The different types of procedures include shoulder and knee surgery.

How is the treatment done?

Humans started undergoing surgical procedures about 30,000 years ago. During a surgery, the particular part of the body that is being treated is opened up. Thus, in the case of a bypass surgery, the heart is opened up and the blockage is then located and removed. In the case of a knee ligament tear surgery, the ligament is removed and replaced with a rod.

Various instruments and machines are used during surgical procedures. These instruments and machines help surgeons perform the procedure effectively. Thousands of years ago, bone needles were used and surgeries were known to be highly risky. But today, surgical procedures have become simpler because of the advent of medical technology. The use of lasers, robots, and radiation has become common during surgical procedures. Thus, as medical technology advances, the meaning and definition of surgery are slowly altering. Now minimally invasive techniques have come up, which do not require the body to be opened completely. Only minor incisions are made on the part of the body which is being operated. It generally involves the introduction of a tube into the body to make the necessary alterations.

Minimally invasive techniques are generally less expensive and safer than normal surgery. The recovery period is also less in this case and the body heals faster.

Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)

Eligibility for surgery depends on the type of surgery one is seeking to undergo. Depending on the health and the medical problems that an individual has, he may be eligible or not for a certain type of surgical procedure.

Who is not eligible for the treatment?

Non-eligibility for a surgical procedure depends on the type of surgery one is undergoing,

Are there any side effects?

The side-effects depend on the type of surgery a patient is undergoing. But some common side-effects that patients generally face after any surgery include-

  • Slight fever- A slight temperature generally follows a major surgery. If it persists a doctor should be consulted.
  • Swelling- Swelling around the incision is common.
  • Pain- Pain is very common and is generally curbed with medication.
  • Redness around the incision area
  • Itching as the incision heals
  • Infection- Infection after a surgery can result in unwanted complications, thus one should be very careful in treating the surgical wound.

What are the post-treatment guidelines?

Post surgery guidelines too vary as per the surgical procedure a patient undergoes. But, recovery after every surgical procedure is important and it is essential that one rests and regains health as per the doctor’s advice. Even minute post-surgery guidelines should be followed for optimum benefit from the procedure. Most surgeries also require certain lifestyle changes afterward. These lifestyle changes include a healthy diet, getting proper sleep and exercising regularly. Such changes should be adopted under the doctor’s guidance.

How long does it take to recover?

The recovery period varies according to the procedure that a patient undergoes. For instance, recovery after bypass surgery takes about 12 weeks, while recovery after dental surgery takes about a week.

What is the price of the treatment in India?

Prices of surgery depend on the complexity of the medical condition and procedure. Generally, surgery prices range from Rs 15000- Rs 25, 00,000.

Are the results of the treatment permanent?

Most surgeries have permanent results when post-surgery guidelines are carefully followed. In the case of cosmetic procedures, some are permanent while some may be temporary.

What are the alternatives to the treatment?

Alternatives to surgical procedures include- oral medications, lifestyle changes, herbal medication, and acupuncture.

Safety: Medium Effectiveness: Medium Timeliness: Medium Relative Risk: Medium Side Effects: Medium Recovery Time: Medium Price Range: Rs. 15,000 - Rs. 25, 00,000

Popular Health Tips

Choose Laparoscopy If You Are Scared of Surgery!

Dr. Yogesh Patil 88% (47 ratings)
M.S.GENERAL SURGERY
General Surgeon, Nashik
Choose Laparoscopy If You Are Scared of Surgery!
Traditional open surgery requires an 8-10 cm incision to expose the surgical area of the abdomen which needs to be operated. This large incision is a major post-operative side-effect which results in longer recovery period. The alternative technique, laparoscopy also known as minimally invasive surgery or keyhole surgery, is a modern surgical procedure in which small incisions of about 0.5 1.5 cm are made far from the location of the operation. One or more such holes on the abdominal wall serve as passageways for a specialised instrument called a laparoscope. A long, thin tube headed by a high-resolution camera and a high-intensity guiding light is inserted through the incision. As the instrument moves along, the camera transmits images to a video monitor enabling your surgeon to see inside without opening up your body for surgery. This process is used to diagnose unidentified abdominal or pelvic pain. Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is usually performed when all non-invasive alternatives have been tried. Imaging techniques like ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are sometimes unable to provide enough data for diagnosis. Laparoscopic surgery is used for the removals of an inflamed appendix, gall bladder, hernias, and cancer-affected organs, fibroids from the uterus, the womb (hysterectomy) and also for performing weight-loss surgeries. Laparoscopy has a lot of advantages over the more common, open procedure. They are: 1. Less post-operative pain 2. Smaller scars 3. Reduced haemorrhaging and blood loss 4. Shorter recovery period 5. Less pain medications and analgesia requirements 6. Reduced exposure to internal organs 7. Faster return to normal activity 8. Reduced risk of infection Laparoscopy is a proven safer choice with a fast-healing process side-stepping conventional surgery!

How Breast Cancer Patients Can Get Benefit from Physical Therapy?

BPTh/BPT
Physiotherapist, Kolkata
How Breast Cancer Patients Can Get Benefit from Physical Therapy?
Physical therapy can help, ease the symptoms of treatment and aid in rehabilitation following reconstructive surgery. Easing pain Reducing fatigue Promoting bone density Stimulating the immune system Reducing stress and depression Ridding the body of toxins Decreasing swelling and inflammation Treating lymphedema One of the most beneficial treatments for cancer patients is exercise to prevent bone loss and maintain strength. A customized exercise program will be created that factor in the type of cancer treatments you re receiving, your overall health and physical condition. Breast cancer strikes fear into the hearts of men and women who have been diagnosed, along with family and loved ones. Physical therapists has treatments and therapies to help ease the effects of chemotherapy, radiation, mastectomy and reconstructive surgery. Breast cancer and associated treatments can be scary and have far reaching effects. Physical therapy can help you meet those challenges of the body, mind and quality of life.

Complication After Liposuction: What You Need To Know?

Dr. M Rajkumar 86% (47 ratings)
M.Ch (Plastic)
Cosmetic/Plastic Surgeon, Chennai
Complication After Liposuction: What You Need To Know?
Sometimes, even a strict diet and strenuous exercise regime don't give you the body shape you dream of. In such cases, liposuction can be the answer to the problem of excess fat you are facing. Liposuction is a surgical procedure of removing stubborn fat bulges from the body. Age is not a major consideration with liposuction as long as your skin is firm and elastic. Else, your skin may begin to sag in places from where the fat has been removed. It is important to note that liposuction does not remove cellulite but only removes fat. Thus, for people with cellulite, liposuction may not give them the results they desire. If you're thinking of undergoing liposuction, do not expect the procedure to give you a supermodel's figure. Be realistic in your expectations. Here are a few other things to keep in mind. Liposuction does not show instant results: Recovery from a liposuction surgery is quick and you may be back to your normal routine within a few weeks. However, the treated area may still look swollen. This can take two to three months to subside. Hence, work backwards and time your surgery with regard to major life events. The results are long lasting: Undergoing liposuction surgery does not mean that you will not be overweight again, but it means that fat will not collect in the areas that have been treated. If you do gain weight, the fat will be redistributed to other areas. Smoking and alcohol must be avoided: Smoking and alcohol both inhibit healing. It also increases your risk of complications during the surgery. Stop drinking and smoking at least three weeks prior to your surgery, and avoid it until your body has healed completely. Can be beneficial for many parts of the body: Liposuction can be performed on many areas of the body. The thighs, abdomen, breasts and buttocks are common areas where this surgery is performed. Other areas are the back, face and neck. Like any other surgery, liposuction has its risks. While some risks are very rare, others can be quite common. Here are three minor risks that you should be aware of: 1.Excessive liposuction: Removing too much fat can leave your skin looking unnatural and uneven. 2. Skin discoloration: When making an incision for liposuction, the skin cells in the area may rupture and release melanin into the surrounding area. This can cause prolonged hyper pigmentation that can take 4-6 months to heal. Patients with a dark skin tone have a higher risk of hyper pigmentation. 3. Swelling and bruising: When liposuction is performed on the lower part of the body, swelling and bruising are common side effects. This usually disappears within 2-3 days. Choosing open drainage vs. placing sutures on the incision sites can reduce the chances of this happening.

7 Precautions To Be Taken After Undergoing A Hernia Surgery

Dr. Kinker. Mrinal 84% (10 ratings)
MBBS, MS - General Surgery
General Surgeon, Kota
Hernia is generally an effect of intense physical exertion and the chances of ailing from hernia largely depend on genetics. It is a condition when a specific organ pushes through a muscle wall or any membrane inside a human body and is treated via surgical procedures. Post-operative hernia care is very critical to avoid any potential complications. People treated via a surgical technique for hernia need to give themselves sufficient days of bed rest, followed by weeks of relaxation to avoid straining the body in any way. During the recovery phase, it is essential to follow the advised post-operative care like to avoid smoking, running up the stairs, or following any strenuous exercise regime. One can definitely go for a walk and drink lot of fluids or consume a lot of fibre and vegetables. A big no to smoking and yes to fluids! ncreased intake of fluids is recommended after patients who have undergone a surgical treatment to treat hernia. We receive a good amount of fluid before and during surgery, however post-surgery the fluid intake typically decreases. Minimizing fluid consumption can lead to constipation. Avoiding fluids after hernia surgery can interfere with the bowel movements as the stools become dry and hard. Higher fluid intake will soften the stools and make bowel movements easier. As the body passes the unwanted food via large intestine, water re-absorption occurs here. If consumption of nicotine and narcotic pain medications is increased, it affects this process further. If the body does not replenish the fluids adequately it is known to cause dehydration and further drying and hardening of the stools. To restore proper hydration to all aspects of the body, is it imperative to re-establlish the adequate fluid intake soon after surgery. One should also limit nicotine intake after hernia surgery. Risk of complications post-surgical treatments are heightened to a great extent if one stays on a smoking regime. Possibilities of developing an infection in the surgical incision are increased. It is also known to cause acid reflux symptoms. Smoking after hernia repair should be avoided until six to eight weeks post-surgery. Exercise to maintain a healthy weight Though strenuous workouts are not encouraged after hernia surgery, physical activity under guidance can stimulate bowel movements and relieve constipation. Light exercises such as walking are encouraged to promote weight loss. Exercises focused on muscle movement of legs, arms and shoulders and chest and back help burn calories and enhance metabolism. This aids in weight reduction. Try to begin with an exercise plan at least consult your therapist immediately. You can start walking to the extent you feel comfortable after surgery. With no specific limitation, always remember to listen to your body. One should avoid lifts and exercises like squatting. You can work out on your abs gradually with minor sit-ups. Strengthening abdominal muscles is advised by conducting exercises like lifting the knees in the air and shoulders slowly off the ground. If there is no pain, this exercise can be repeated. Deep breathing exercise should also be practiced to oxygenate the blood flow thereby expediting the healing process. Increased usage of laxatives To stimulate and hydrate the intestinal tract and avoid constipation, one should enhance the usage of laxatives and stool softeners. Consult your medical expert to opt for an over-the-counter laxative for hernia repair. One should not hesitate take an over-the-counter laxative for the first week after surgery. Use bulk-forming laxatives. They help in easier defecation of stools. It should take about three to five days to see positive results. Some examples of bulk-forming laxatives include methylcellulose, oat bran and polycarbophil. The dosage of such laxative should be increased gradually for the digestive system to adjust to this change. Other laxative agents such as Milk of Magnesia, Metamucil and Dulcolax tablets are also available in the market, which can be consumed after consulting the medical expert. These agents are safe and effective. Common problem after an an inguinal hernia repair is constipation which may also be worsened by pain killers. Consequently, they also help with post-operative constipation. Consumption of fibre and vegetables Fibre to an individual s diet should be added slowly post hernia surgery as it can lead to complications varying from gas and bloating to abdominal cramps. Since hernia operation involves intestines to be pushed back inside the abdominal wall, intake of diet rich in fibre and fruits and vegetables will ensure smooth and easy bowel movements. This also helps to relieve the pain post inguinal surgery. Any excessive intake of dairy products should be avoided to ward off constipation. Some examples of foods rich in fibre are beans, whole grains, fruits and green leafy vegetables which are also known to prevent irritable bowel syndrome. Fibre rich food also helps to maintain the integrity of collagen and elastin of the abdominal wall along with lubrication of the intestines. Keep the wound clean Cleanliness is the key to quick recovery after surgical treatment of hernia. It is advisable to use a sponge or a towel for the first few days. This will help to keep the wound clean and avoid any kind of infections. Always follow your doctor s instructions. Precautions like covering the wound while coughing helps. Surgical treatments can get contaminated too soon, therefore always follow stringent measures to keep the area clean and sterilized at all times. Until the incision heals, hygiene is of utmost importance. Before taking a shower, cover the surgical area with a plastic bag or use another technique to keep it dry. Keep a watch for any signs of infection. The use of non-absorbable mesh grafts could lead to infections or foreign body reactions if sanitation is not taken care of. Any kind of swelling or bluish discoloration at the incision site should be treated with an ice pack for 24-48 hours to relieve the swelling and discomfort. You may opt to keep a small pillow with you to avoid any discomfort while coughing. Taking a shower is advisable only after 24 hours after you go home unless you have drains. In case of metal clips or sutures not being visible, they are under the skin and will dissolve after 3 4 weeks. Resuming activity after hernia repair You will be able to mobilize post hernia surgery depending upon your surgical treatment. Hernia can be treated with various medical techniques like conventional surgery or laparoscopic surgery depending on the condition of the patient. The hernia which has been treated laproscopically allows the patient to return to their regular routine faster as compared to recovery from the conventional surgery which takes a little longer due to pain and soreness around the wound. Generally a doctor advises the patient on the amount of discomfort they might experience and precautions that need to be taken before resuming to daily routine. Precautions like standing up slowly should be taken care of Activities such as swimming or driving need to be avoided as they put a strain on the incision. The same holds true for office routine. Individuals who are in a desk job can usually can return to work within a week or two but where work require strenuous activity or heavy lifting require several more weeks of rest before they return to their job. Follow-up on your appointment It is imperative to schedule a follow-up visit 7-10 days after your surgery. Your doctor will check if the wound has healed completely or in case you need some special care including dosage of anti-biotics for few more days. He will also let you know in case any special precautions need to be taken to expedite the healing. In case of any change in your diet is required, your medical expert will guide you through it. In case your insision has not healed or if there is any kind of discomfort, talk to your doctor about it. If all is well, your doctor will remove your stitches in case they are not the ones that dissolve on their own. Or maybe your dressing will be changed depending upon the wound healing and the swelling and bruising checked. At this stage the doctor will also discuss the post-operative care and assess your condition to return to work. It is highly unlikely to suffer from any severe post-operative snags. Mild complications like blood clots or urinary problems may persist, for which your doctor will advise required medications, but these are extremely rare. You should also consult your doctor about when you can resume specific activities such as sports, heavy labor and lifting. Post your initial check-up, you should plan on weekly checkups to further avoid any risks until next four weeks. It is important to get regular medical checkups while following the precautions.

Fracture Pain - How To Deal With It?

Dr. Poonam Patel Vasani 90% (891 ratings)
MBBS, MD - Anaesthesiology, FIPM, Fellowship in palliative medicine, certificate in interventional pain management, Multidisciplinary pain management course
Pain Management Specialist, Pune
Fracture Pain - How To Deal With It?
Breaking a bone no matter how small is painful. This pain is caused both by the actual break in the bone and the damage to surrounding muscles, ligaments, nerves and other soft tissue. There are three stages of pain caused by a fracture: Acute Pain: Pain that occurs immediately after a bone is fractured Sub-Acute Pain: Pain experienced while the one and soft tissues heal Chronic Pain: Pain experienced after the fracture has healed Any kind of fracture can cause these types of pain. However, it is not essential for everyone who has had a fracture to experience all the three kinds of pain. Many people experience pain only when the fracture occurs but in few cases, a person may break a bone and not realize it. Each type of pain needs to be dealt with in a different way. Acute Pain: Acute pain reduces as the fracture heals. For this, the fractured bone must be reset in place and held together with a splint, brace or cast so as to immobilize it. In some cases, surgery may also be needed. Over the counter pain medication is often prescribed to help deal with this type of pain. The patient is also advised to rest the broken bone and avoid certain types of movement that could worsen the break. A broken bone takes a minimum of 6 to 8 weeks to heal. However, in cases of other conditions such as osteoporosis, this time period could be much longer. Sub-Acute Pain: As the injury heals, the sub-acute pain experienced reduces. Immobilizing a broken bone to help it heal causes the muscles and soft tissues around it to stiffen and weaken thus triggering this type of pain. Physical therapy can be very helpful in dealing with this type of pain. Along with strengthening the muscles and reducing stiffness, physical therapy also helps reduce inflammation and scar tissue. Physical therapy can be provided in many ways including exercises, electrical stimulation, ultrasounds, massage etc. It is important to remember that at this stage of treatment, the more the affected limb is used, the faster it will heal. However, it is advisable to avoid putting too much pressure on the bone. Chronic Pain: Some people may experience pain for several months and even years after a fracture has healed. This is usually caused by nerve damage or the development of scar tissue. Underlying conditions such as arthritis could also trigger this type of pain. Management of chronic pain varies from individual to individual. Treatment usually takes the form of medication, exercises and physical therapy. It is important not to avoid this type of pain and consult a doctor to ensure that it is not being caused by any other condition.

Popular Questions & Answers

I am suffering from diabetic from last 2 years morning diabetes is 200 n after meal 230 n am also heart patient I have gone in for angioplasty surgery also in 2009 so please advice me.

Dr. Bhagyesh Patel 93% (3012 ratings)
FMAS, MS
General Surgeon, Gandhinagar
Dear Dipak , hi Warm welcome to Lybrate.com I have evaluated your query thoroughly . * Guidelines for better recovery - Discuss with your doctor about the change of the molecule . - Strict dietary control . - Regular walking , exercises , YOGA help great . - Avoidance of stress , anxiety . - Manage to have regular sound sleep of 8 hours . - Avoid smoking , alcohol if using . Hope this clears your query . Wishing you fine health ahead . Regards dear take care .

Hi doc, I am Anand, currently working in private, I like know about the Lasik surgery, my eye power is -2.25 both. Is it safe to go for Lasik? Is it so then what is the cost for the surgery? And what is the procedure for the Lasik? I want get rid of my glasses, please help me.

Dr. Pulak Mukherjee 91% (2307 ratings)
BHMS
Homeopath, Hooghly
Well Lasik surgery is safe, you know in every surgery there is some risk but that are negligible, soo it will be better, after Lasik you don't need to wear specs, cost of Lasik surgery varies in different hospitals, from 20000,-50,000.

Is chin genioplasty safe or do involve complications. If do not that what is correct age to get it done.

BDS, MDS
Oral And Maxillofacial Surgeon, Chamarajanagar
The usual complications are relatively minor and include 1. Swelling, 2. Hematoma, 3. Weakness or numbness of the lower lip, (usually does not last long). 4. Infection, 5. Bony changes and 6. Displacement of the implant. Chewing should be kept at a minimum immediately after this procedure, and patients are recommended to eat only soft food and drink for a time after the surgery.

Hii, My question is for ophthalmologist. I am 31 year old female. I want to remove the eye glasses. My eye glasses no. Is. Cylindrical 3 in both eyes with different axis 40deg and 80deg. Spherical no is also 0.75. Last 3 year no change in my eye no, it was almost 3 but in july again my no changes upto 4. Please suggest About lasik.

Dr. Shriganesh Diliprao Deshmukh 91% (1272 ratings)
International Academy of Classical Homeopathy, BHMS
Homeopath, Pune
First go throw below course Eye sight weak Take CARBONEUM SULPHURATUM 6c, one dose every morning for 1 week Week 2: Take ARGENTINUM NIT 6c, one dose, every morning for 1 week Week 3 to 6: Take Natrum Mur 30c, once a week for 1 month (not daily, only once a week, say only on Sundays) All these three medicines will help to increase the general health as well. 1. Take one Raw Carrot, grated and eaten fresh every morning (eating by slowly chewing is important for complete digestion. Grating externaly helps to chew) 2. Doing some simple eye excercise helps to maximize the benefit of eye nutrition medicines given above.
2 people found this helpful

I am planning for Angioplasty in nashik hospital please tell cost breakup with brand and cost /stent Thanks and warm regards,

Dr. Tauseef Nissar 89% (31 ratings)
MBBS, Diploma in Cardiology
Cardiologist, Muzaffarpur
Procedure cost varies from hospital to hospital but there the stent price has been fixed now. Your doctor will tell you which stent you need according to your need after review of your angiography report and then he will let you know which stent you need.

Health Quizzes

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Lasik Surgery - Common Facts About It!

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Things to Know About Lasik Surgery

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The improvements in vision with Lasik are almost immediately noticeable. True or false? Take this quiz to know now.
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Busting Myths about Glasses and Contact Lenses

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