Common Specialities
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Overview

Surgery - Treatment, Procedure And Side Effects

What is the treatment?

A medical specialty, surgery is known to treat diseases and medical problems through incisions, where the body is opened and operated on. A medical professional who performs a surgery is called a surgeon. A surgeon needs to be highly trained in the related medical field. Surgery residency generally extends up to 5 years and involves training for many more years after that.

Surgery can mean a small outpatient procedure, which has very low chances of complications and entails fast recovery or a long major procedure that requires proper care and longer time for recovery. The severity of the procedure depends on the kind of surgery that is being performed and the medical condition it is treating

Surgeries may be performed on the heart, brain, bones, organs as well as tissues. Various types of surgeries include- Surgery for cancer, general surgery, endocrine surgery, Gynecological surgery, Neurosurgery, Orthopedic surgery, Ophthalmological surgery, Pediatric surgery, Plastic and reconstructive surgery, Trauma surgery, thoracic surgery, minimally invasive surgery.

Today a number of different types of surgeries are performed. Here are some common types of surgeries -

  • General surgery- This procedure treats a number of diseases and conditions. General procedures often involve the use of minimally invasive methods, thus reducing risk and allowing faster recovery.
  • Gynecological surgery- Procedures performed to treat the reproductive system of women come under gynecological surgery. Some of these procedures include- Endometrial ablation and gynecology cancer procedure.
  • Neurosurgery- It deals with treating problems of the brain and the nervous system. A number of surgeries fall under this category such as spine surgery, surgery for brain tumor etc.
  • Orthopedic surgery- It deals with treating problems of the bones and muscles. The different types of procedures include shoulder and knee surgery.

How is the treatment done?

Humans started undergoing surgical procedures about 30,000 years ago. During a surgery, the particular part of the body that is being treated is opened up. Thus, in the case of a bypass surgery, the heart is opened up and the blockage is then located and removed. In the case of a knee ligament tear surgery, the ligament is removed and replaced with a rod.

Various instruments and machines are used during surgical procedures. These instruments and machines help surgeons perform the procedure effectively. Thousands of years ago, bone needles were used and surgeries were known to be highly risky. But today, surgical procedures have become simpler because of the advent of medical technology. The use of lasers, robots, and radiation has become common during surgical procedures. Thus, as medical technology advances, the meaning and definition of surgery are slowly altering. Now minimally invasive techniques have come up, which do not require the body to be opened completely. Only minor incisions are made on the part of the body which is being operated. It generally involves the introduction of a tube into the body to make the necessary alterations.

Minimally invasive techniques are generally less expensive and safer than normal surgery. The recovery period is also less in this case and the body heals faster.

Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)

Eligibility for surgery depends on the type of surgery one is seeking to undergo. Depending on the health and the medical problems that an individual has, he may be eligible or not for a certain type of surgical procedure.

Who is not eligible for the treatment?

Non-eligibility for a surgical procedure depends on the type of surgery one is undergoing,

Are there any side effects?

The side-effects depend on the type of surgery a patient is undergoing. But some common side-effects that patients generally face after any surgery include-

  • Slight fever- A slight temperature generally follows a major surgery. If it persists a doctor should be consulted.
  • Swelling- Swelling around the incision is common.
  • Pain- Pain is very common and is generally curbed with medication.
  • Redness around the incision area
  • Itching as the incision heals
  • Infection- Infection after a surgery can result in unwanted complications, thus one should be very careful in treating the surgical wound.

What are the post-treatment guidelines?

Post surgery guidelines too vary as per the surgical procedure a patient undergoes. But, recovery after every surgical procedure is important and it is essential that one rests and regains health as per the doctor’s advice. Even minute post-surgery guidelines should be followed for optimum benefit from the procedure. Most surgeries also require certain lifestyle changes afterward. These lifestyle changes include a healthy diet, getting proper sleep and exercising regularly. Such changes should be adopted under the doctor’s guidance.

How long does it take to recover?

The recovery period varies according to the procedure that a patient undergoes. For instance, recovery after bypass surgery takes about 12 weeks, while recovery after dental surgery takes about a week.

Safety: Medium Effectiveness: Medium Timeliness: Medium Relative Risk: Medium Side Effects: Medium Recovery Time: Medium Price Range: Rs. 15,000 - Rs. 25, 00,000

Popular Health Tips

Piles - Recovery Tips After The Surgery!

MBBS, MS
General Surgeon, Faridabad
Piles - Recovery Tips After The Surgery!

Piles or Hemorrhoids is a common condition that can affect a man or woman at any stage of their life. This is not life-threatening but it can be extremely painful and uncomfortable. Therefore, seeking the proper treatment at the right time is necessary. Surgery is one of the best forms of treatment for this condition. This is known as a hemorrhoidectomy. It ensures that the problem does not recur. Recovering from a surgery to remove piles can take 2-3 weeks. Here are a few tips to ensure fast healing.

Take a sitz bath
A sitz bath can help relieve pain and discomfort after a hemorrhoidectomy. This involves filling a shallow tub with warm water and sitting in it. It is important not to add anything to this water. A sitz bath can be taken multiple times in a day in the first week following surgery. The warm water helps relax the muscles and reduces swelling and pain. Once the water cools down, you may follow a sitz bath with an ice pack. This should not be placed in direct contact with the skin and should be held in place for not longer than 5-10 minutes.

Use a handheld shower to keep the area clean
It is important to keep the surgery site clean at all times. However given the sensitivity around the area, this can be difficult especially after passing stool. Using a handheld shower or bidet attachment can make this process easier and less painful. Air dry the area or pat it dry with a soft towel. Do not rub the area as it may damage the skin.

Use medication wisely
Your doctor will probably prescribe painkillers after the surgery. This prescription must be followed strictly as overuse of opioid painkillers can result in constipation. Along with this, a laxative or stool softener may also be prescribed. The instructions given with this medication must be followed strictly. Taking excessive doses can lead to diarrhoea that may, in turn, slow down the healing process.

Eat Right
To prevent constipation and speed up the healing process, the patient must have a well-balanced diet. This should be rich in fibre to enable waste to travel smoothly through the digestive system. The patient must also drink a minimum of 8-10 glasses of water a day. This does not include soft drinks, juices, tea, coffee etc. This keeps stools soft and makes their excretion less painful.

1166 people found this helpful

Does Surgery Help In Treating A Traumatic Injury?

MBBS, MS
General Surgeon, Faridabad
Does Surgery Help In Treating A Traumatic Injury?

A traumatic injury refers to a serious brain injury that affects all the aspects of a person including his or her personality. This may be the result of a severe fall, a car accident, firearms etc. Unlike an injury to the arm or leg, no two traumatic injuries have the same effect. These injuries also do not heal like other injuries.

There are many different kinds of treatment options available for traumatic injuries. Initially, treatment aims at stabilizing the individual and assessing the scope of the injury. Acute treatment is used to minimize secondary injuries. In many cases, surgery is also required to prevent secondary injuries and to help maintain a steady flow of oxygenated blood to the brain. This relieves the internal swelling and pressure. It also minimized additional damage to brain tissue. Most patients also need rehabilitative care to get back to their normal life.

Surgical treatment is usually advised in the case of a traumatic head injury. However, in the case of internal brain injuries, this may not be the first preference. In such cases, an intracranial pressure monitoring device or a bolt is implanted to monitor pressure levels in the brain. Only then surgery may be required to drain bleeding in the skull cavity and to repair the torn tissues. Blood clots or hematomas will also need to be removed surgically. Sometimes, surgery may also be required to create a window in the skull so as to relieve internal pressure.

In severe cases, if there is extensive tissue damage, the damaged portion of the brain may be surgically removed. This creates space for the healthy brain tissue to heal. In the case of an open brain injury, surgery is the first course of treatment. In such cases, the doctor’s first sim is usually to repair the fractured skull and remove damaged tissue. This minimizes pressure on the brain and also helps prevent secondary infections and injuries.

These surgeries are generally performed while the patient is under general anaesthesia. Recovering from a traumatic brain injury takes time and hospitalization is usually required for a few weeks. Once the injury has healed considerably, rehabilitation is then required to relearn basic skills. This may begin as an inpatient procedure and later be transferred to an outpatient exercise. The duration and type of rehabilitation required vary from case to case and depends on the type and severity of the injury.

1836 people found this helpful

Surgery For Kidneys - Know The Benefits!

MBBS, MS - General Surgery, Laparoscopic, Burns & Plastic
General Surgeon, Delhi
Surgery For Kidneys - Know The Benefits!

Surgery is basically the most important treatment for majority of kidney cancer and without undergoing surgery, the chances of survival for the patient are very small. Surgery for kidney tumor is also beneficial for the people who has cancer in different other organs of the body. People also live longer with the help of the removal of the kidney which contains cancer thus even if cancer has spread beyond just the Kidneys, the doctor might suggest kidney surgery.

The removal of kidney tumor can also be used to prevent or reduce symptoms like abnormal bleeding or pain. Some of the tissues surrounding the kidney or the entire kidney might be removed depending on the location or other factors involving the tumor for cancer.

Risks or Side-effects of the Surgery
Surgery of any type might have some risks which can be short term like abnormal bleeding, blood clots which will eventually lead to infection. Majority of people does tend to have pain after undergoing the operation which usually could be benefited with the help of pain medicines. Some other possible risks are:

  1. Some internal organs such as spleen, pancreas, large or small bowel or some blood vessels might be damaged after undergoing the operation.
  2. Internal organs might observe some bulging near the area of surgery because of the issues with the healing of the wound which is known as incisional hernia
  3. If the remaining kidney is unable to operate then there might be the risk of Kidney failure.
  4. Is the chest cavity lets in unwanted air then there is a risk of Pneumothorax.
  5. There is always a risk of urine leaking into the abdomen.

Advantages of Kidney Surgery
Transplantation surgery tends to have some benefits. Which minimises the need for dialysis and helps the patients enjoy life at its best which more freedom productivity and energy. Although majority of the patients before being first evaluated for surgery are on dialysis. But the patients who are undergoing end stage renal disease might be referred for surgery even ahead of dialysis.

A successful kidney surgery can provide you with more than just your health back. It can also provide you with an even better quality of life. There are several cases where the majority of patients return home and also good work and still lead a quality life after the transplantation therefore this treatment is preferable for several patients.

Common Surgical Complications That One Should Be Prepared For?

MBBS, MS - General Surgery, FRCS (edinburgh), MD - R & D, FRCS Intercollegiate
Liver Transplant Surgeon, Bangalore
Common Surgical Complications That One Should Be Prepared For?

The liver has a significant role to play in metabolism and digestion. The failure of a liver can lead to significant health issues. There are some causes for liver failure, which cannot be treated with medications. In these people, a transplant, which is replacing the diseased or injured liver with another liver, is the only definitive treatment option.

Some conditions which can require a liver transplant are:

Types of transplant:

  • Living donor transplant: In some patients, partial liver can be removed from a close family member and transplanted into the affected individual. The liver is known for its regeneration ability, and over time, will grow in the recipient.
  • Cadaveric transplant: Immediately after death, a liver can be removed and transplanted.

While the concept of a transplant sounds quite convincing and appealing for those with a severe liver disease, it is also important to note that not all would qualify for a liver transplant. The conditions which would disqualify a recipient are discussed below:

  • Significant heart disease: Those with severe coronary artery disease, valvular disease, cardiomyopathy, aortic stenosis, and cardiomyopathy are not candidates for a liver transplant.
  • Severe lung disease: Those with poor lung perfusion do not qualify for a liver transplant.
  • Advanced age: Greater the age, lesser the survival rates. So, people aged more than 70 are usually not considered for a transplant.
  • Obesity: A person with a BMI of more than 35 is often not a good candidate for a transplant. The overall health should be managed in these people.
  • Malnutrition: On the other extreme, severely malnourished individuals are also not considered for a transplant.
  • HIV infection: A person who is HIV-infected does not qualify for a liver transplant.
  • Substance abuse: Anyone who is actively abusing alcohol and/or substances is definitely removed from the list for a transplant.
  • Metastasis: If a patient is looking for a liver transplant due to hepatic cancer, it is essential that the cancer is contained. If it has spread to various parts, then containing it would be difficult, and a transplant may not succeed.
  • Multisystem organ failure: Other than heart and lungs, even people with poor renal function are not ideal candidates for a liver transplant.

A detailed liver recipient evaluation assessing the severity of liver disease, chances of survival, and overall health are done before a person is listed for liver transplant. This evaluation ensures a better success rate with the transplant.

3080 people found this helpful

What To Expect From Laparoscopic Gallbladder Surgery?

Fellowship in Gastrointestinal and Endocrine Surgery, Fellowship in Advanced Laproscopy & Bariatric Surgery
General Surgeon, Hyderabad
What To Expect From Laparoscopic Gallbladder Surgery?

 The gallbladder is a very important organ in the human body. This is a pear-shaped organ which is used for storing the bile. Bile is a fluid which helps in digesting your food. When the gallbladder does not function well, then hard fragments will form in the gallbladder and they are calledgallbladder stones. The size of these stones differs from person to person. For a few people, they are just the size of a small rice grain and for few, it can be as large as a golf ball.

When gallbladder stones are formed, they will not vanish by themselves. They will cause pain and many other symptoms which are unbearable. You need to consult a doctor and you may have to get the gallbladder removed. This kind of gallbladder removal surgery is called cholecystectomy.

How are gallbladder stones removed?
More than 80 percent of people with gallbladder stones will need a cholecystectomy. This surgery can be performed in two different ways.

  • Open gallbladder surgery: In an open gallbladder surgery, a 5-inch incision is made in the abdominal area which is not required for a laparoscopic surgery. Nowadays, people are opting for laparoscopic surgery for any kind of surgery as it is safe, less painful, requires a shorter stay at the hospital and there are fewer scars.
  • Laparoscopic gallbladder surgery: In a laparoscopic gallbladder surgery, 4 small incisions are made in the abdominal area. A small tube with a very small camera and light will be inserted into the abdomen through one of the incisions made. Equipment required for the removal of the gallbladder is also inserted through the other incisions and the surgery is performed.

Before performing the laparoscopic gallbladder removal surgery, you will have to undergo a few tests such as blood test, complete physical test, gallbladder imaging tests and a review of your past medical history. After going through the reports of all these tests and checking all other medications that you take, your doctor will decide if you need gallbladder surgery or not.

Post Gallbladder surgery: Post-surgery, you may see some symptoms, but they are rare and mild. One of the common symptoms experienced after the surgery is diarrhea. You can start walking as soon as you start feeling better. But you should talk to the doctor in order to get back to your normal routine.

Regarding your diet, you will have to start with a liquid diet and make sure that you do not take heavy and fatty food. Your body will take some time to get back to digesting a normal diet and hence you will have to take good care.

Popular Questions & Answers

I'm a kidney stone patient and was operated on both my kidneys. (open surgery) in 2016 Oct. Till today I pass out stones. Can you suggest something. I now discovered that I have diabetes very high.

MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, MS - General Surgery, Genito Urinary Surgery
Urologist, Ludhiana
Stone disease is recurrent problem. They form again. So keep drinking plenty of fluid daily around 4-5 litres. Regarding diabetes you need to consult an endocrinologist near you.
1 person found this helpful

My mother had a left side breast cancer &doctor recommend for biopsy &biopsy result say its er/pr/her- 2 neu before biopsy doctor said radiation not needed but after biopsy report he said firstly chemo have to be done of epirubicin 150 mg & endoxan 1000 mg of 4 cycles &then 12 cycles of trumab 440 mg &paclitaxel 125 mg weekly then surgery &after that radiation is also necessary so Dr. Please help me to give information that this treatment is given by Dr. Is correct or not for my mother.

MD - Obstetrtics & Gynaecology, FCPS, DGO, Diploma of the Faculty of Family Planning (DFFP)
Gynaecologist, Mumbai
Most of medical problems need personally taking detailed medical history and examination with need of new+old reports so meet concerned doctor-Oncosurgeon more so who is specialised in breasts. So instead of looking for answers from others stick to specialist.

Hello sir good morning. I'm brijesh, I want to know. How to fight against radiation and chemotherapy? Coz I have oral CANCER and already done SURGERY. Thank you sir.

MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, Diploma In Medical Radio Therapy, DNB
Oncologist, Bangalore
Hi, it's not fight against radiotherapy and chemotherapy, it's go along with them. You need to fight against the cancer. During the above said treatments you will be regularly monitored by your Doctors for the toxicities and managed accordingly. Additionally you should be having a positive thoughts and hopes that you will successfully fight against the cancer and follow the instructions given to you by your doctors.
3 people found this helpful

Sir ji LASIK Leger surgery ke ba da me Army navy medical test me eyes test me pass to ho skte hai. LASIK ke kya side effects hai and fess. LASIK ke ba da me eyes kb tak perfect rhte hai.

MBBS, MS - Ophthalmology, Fellowship in Cornea and Anterior Segment
Ophthalmologist, Delhi
LASIK is approved by the Indian army. That's how accurate it is. The few common side effects can be dryness and glare which subsided with drops in most cases.
9 people found this helpful

Which type of operation need for 2nd degree piles? When the anus increase time of bwl movement bit after it this turns into normal position but some skin felt outside anus. There is no blood and pain. There is any chance for surgery? If you understand this what types of surgery options?

DNB (Surgical gastroenterology, MS( General Surgery), MBBS, Fellowship in Minimal Access Surgery, Diploma in Minimal Access Surgery, Fellow of International College of Robotic Surgeons
Surgical Gastroenterologist, Delhi
Could be skin tags which can easily be excised. However could also be hemorrhoids protruding out. Please get examined by a general/GI Surgeon for confirmation of diagnosis and further treatment. Early hemorrhoids can be treated by banding / sclerotherapy. For advanced cases staplers hemorrhoidectomy is recommended. Not aware of any non- Surgical treatment for advanced piles. Surgical treatment however is very effective. Kindly get examined by a general/GI Surgeon to decide on mode of treatment.

Table of Content

What is the treatment?
How is the treatment done?
Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)
Who is not eligible for the treatment?
Are there any side effects?
What are the post-treatment guidelines?
How long does it take to recover?
Play video
Piles
Piles are collections of tissue and vein that become inflamed and swollen.Piles occur due to chronic constipation, chronic diarrhea, lifting heavy weights, pregnancy, or straining when passing a stool.A doctor can usually diagnose piles on examination.
Play video
Preparing For Brain Surgery
Hi,

My name is much that you tell and I am a neurosurgeon at Wockhardt hospitals in Mumbai central as well as an assistant professor at the grant Medical College and sir JJ group of hospitals. I am going to talk to you about how can one prepare for brain surgery once one is diagnosed with a problem that requires a brain operation.

You could be even having a brain tumor or a vascular problem in the brain or refractory epilepsy requires something called as a craniotomy. It can be Priya Nursing for the patient is well as for the family we usually do all investigations on an outpatient basis and ensure that the patient is fit for surgery to undergo a pre-anesthetic evaluation and make sure that all the blood tests are in order typically used something called as neuronavigation.

At surgery which enables us to approach the exact location of the problem in a three-dimensional space in gases towards that location of patients ask me if there will head is going to be saved before surgery news me that's not the case which is save strip of hair along which where we meet me in station. So what typically happens is patience cremated one day prior to surgery the anaesthesia doctor takes 1 final look at them to make sure that heart rate blood pressure everything is under control and the next morning there being into the operating room xxvi anaesthesia doctors will wake you up a certain monitors the ECG leads extra before putting a tube done your throat to give you something college general anaesthesia when which your unconscious throw the operation there are some operations where in which humans are located in elopement areas of the brain and we need patients to be awake so that we can check their motor function and actually we can do the operation when patients are awake and talking to US and moving the hands and legs and that's something college in awake craniotomy which requires a slightly different preparation the operation takes place and the extremely sterile conditions and everything is cleaned and raped in a systematic fashion the protocol of which is completely standardized you make a skin incision usually using a drill remove the part of the bone that is wire to be removed.

When there is a covering of the brain called the dura which is what we cut and then enter the appropriate space and deal with the pathology it will be the beer tumor it will be a vascular malformation it could be anything that requires to be removed or transacted or disconnected usually Brain Tumor operation last for about 3 or 4 hours on an average it could be longer depending on the case what happens is 13 belt with the pathology we close that layer of dura back and we replace the bone flap and we fix it with plates and screws are often than not activated immediately after the operation in the operating room itself very rarely if the operation is really long or there is a lot of blood loss be kept overnight on a ventilator in extubated the next morning in the ICU typically there will into the ICU for about 24 hours after surgery.

Play video
Common Liposuction Myths Debunked
Hi,

I am Dr Ashutosh Misra enhance clinics.

Today we will be talking about liposuction and clearing the myths about liposuction. Liposuction is a wonderful and a very safe procedure to get rid of your unwanted body fat. The most important thing to understand is who are the candidates for liposuction again liposuction is to get rid of unwanted fat, person maybe of their normal body mass index but may have some unwanted body fats say in face, arms, tummy or thighs. Now this unwanted fat is because of the high concentration of fat cells which are there in that particular area and this is something which is genetically determined and you cannot get rid of it through just exercise and diet. So liposuction helps to get rid of that excess fat in those particular areas, so we call it as liposuction as a body contouring surgery not as a weight reduction surgery, having said that liposuction also helps in weight reduction and that is the second part of the liposuction when you have a body mass index which is more than normal and you are suffering from obesity not to that extent but yes unwanted fat in the abdomen and all. For this, we do liposuction to decrease a large volume of fats say more than around 4-5 litres which we called as large volume liposuction and that helps to decrease the weight as well. So just removing the fat does not actually decrease your weight but post liposuction doing a good amount of exercise that we tell our patients and a diet program help you to decrease the weight over a period of say 3 months. Post liposuction, we have to wear certain special garments and for around 3 months because the best results comes around 3 months time and you have to talk to your doctor about it how to wear it and what are the things you have to take precaution. It is a very safe procedure but if done by an expert, so you have to choose your doctor well, that's the most important thing and you should have realistic expectation what a liposuction can do. Some people think fat comes out and the skin becomes loose, no liposuction is a wonderful procedure about that it also causes skin contraction, so the technique of the liposuction is very important as if how much skin has to go and what we actually need about it. If we feel there is an extra skin which cannot go even by liposuction then the procedure becomes either a mini tuck or a complete tummy tuck to get rid of your extra skin. It's a day care procedure come in the morning and go back home in the evening or if you want to stay if it is a larger procedure say more than 4 litres, you stay overnight in the hospital and then go back home the very next morning. The pressure garments are from the start of the surgery and for first one month almost most of the time of the day, after one month it is around 12 hours when you are in your daily exercise and normal routine you can take off your pressure garments after around in the night time when you are taking rest. The other myths about liposuction is people think that fat comes back, no, the number of fat cells in the body are constant after a certain, age at a very young age, it's only the size of fat that can increase or decrease, if it become obese or normal. So when we are taking out the number of fat cells, the numbers of fat cells do not increase in body. It may only increase in their size or decrease in the size and that can be control with the help of diet. So once you get a good body shape once you get a good body shape than that shape won't be distorted but if you become obese gain weight later on the shape will remain the same but it will be you become more wide or more narrow. So, that is what a liposuction does.

Thank you.
Play video
Joint Replacement Surgery
Mai Dr Suhas Shah Orthopaedic Surgeon hoon, mera hospital hai Ashwini accident Hospital Mumbai mein. Mere hospital mein sabhi accident patient ko treatment milti hai, aur mai russian surgery specialist bhi hoon. Mai Global Hospital, Jaslok Hospital, aur Raheja Hospital mein attach hoon, meri hospital ki speciality hai ki yeh hospital mein total orthopaedic care under one roof is available. Mai spine surgery karta hoon, joint replacement surgery karta hoon, total knee joint replacement surgery yahan hoti hai and even hip joint replacement surgery is done, arthroscopy is done and all trauma care is available under one roof in one hospital. I am attached to jaslok, Raheja and global hospital also, I am attached to Corporation Bandra Bawa Hospital also and I am head of department there. I am a post graduate teacher and DNB teacher, students are trained under me, I am a examiner for DNB post graduation also, aur mere hospital mein sabhi suvidha deluxe room, semi special room and general ward is available, you can avail all these facilities with a very reasonable rate, you are welcome to our visit to our centre. Aapko agar mujhe contact karna hai toh aap lybrate.com se contact kar sakte hain, ya meri appointment lybrate.com se book kar sakte ho.
Play video
Cataract And Refractive Surgery: What Is The Difference?
Good morning friends.

I m Dr. Harshavardhan Ghorpade from Fortis hospital Vashi, department of visual sciences. And Saroj Speciality Eye Clinic Vashi. I have done my MS. FRCS and I m a cataract, cornea and a refractive eye surgeon. You can contact me and know more about me through lybrate.com.

Today I m going to talk to you about one very important topic which is of interest to one and all i.e. cataract and refractive surgeries, the recent advances in these surgeries. Let me first start by telling you what is cataract surgery? In cataract surgery the procedure is to remove the opaque lens of the eye which is called a cataract and replaced it by a nice clean artificial lens so that a patient can see again. While refractive surgery is something where we do refractive correction i.e. correction of power of the glasses either by the laser or by a surgical procedure. Both the things can be combined to ultimately give clear vision to the patient. So let s start by starting with the recent advances in the cataract surgery. Well today cataract surgery has been sophisticated by doing procedures using ultrasound phaco probe which is about 2.2mm in size and it can be lesser of up to 1.8mm as well. We can do microincision cataract surgery through these probes. As a result of which we don t require any anesthesia, any stitch and any blood coming out during surgery. During surgery we enter the eye with a very small opening and with the help of this ultrasound probe the emulsify or break the cataract into small pieces and then it is absorbed into the system of the machine, this is then replaced by a very small foldable lens. The lenses are of various types. They are usually monofocal, multifocal, or cylindrical. When we use monofocal lens we try to give you correction for distance so that most of the vision is good without glasses. When we use multifocal lens which is necessary to be put in both the eyes we can give you distance as well as near vision and when we use a toric lens we try to correct your cylindrical power as well. So ultimately by doing cataract surgery we not only remove the cataract but we also correct the glasses power of the patient so the patient can see very well without being too much dependent on the glasses. Apart from the various types of lenses we have now different types of machines which do the surgery. As I said micro-incision surgery is possible by using phaco probe but nowadays we are using laser as well to do the surgeries. Laser was a common term used in public to know or to talk about phacosurgery but today actual laser can also be used to do the surgeries. Although it is very expensive as well as time consuming. So ultimately if we have a good surgeon or experience surgeon micro incision phaco surgery is the surgery of choice even today and with the various type of lenses that available we can get rid of glasses as well apart from removing cataract. Now coming to the refractive surgery. Refractive surgery means removal of power of glasses doing a procedure on the eyes, this is usually done on the surface of the eye using a laser. What we do over here is laser surface ablation of the cornea which can lead to removal of glasses without doing any type of incision any cut or any kind of trauma to the patient or lots of tissue. So this a bladeless procedure and the patient is absolutely comfortable during the procedure and he may have some discomfort in first three or four days but overall at the end of the week he is absolutely normal as he was before without his glasses. This is one of the recent advances of bladeless procedures in laser surgeries. The other advances that we are doing nowadays is in very high refractive power say a power of more than seventeen and eighteen we introduces a special lens which is called as ICL which is put inside the eye without removing the cataract. This lens is like a contact lenses that sits on the lens i.e. given to us by nature. As a result of which the power which is there say e.g. patient with minus eighteen end up with the power which is close to zero and he would be again not dependent on his thick glasses. So this is another advanced that is occurred so that we can correct even the higher refractive errors. So overall if you look at the cataract and the refractive surgeries today we are doing very good sort of very advanced sort of treatments to all our patients which start with the removal of cataract, putting a lens of different types, we can do laser procedure over it to get rid of glasses. We can also put intraocular contact lenses, called ICL, which helps in removal of numbers with high powers and so at the end of the day our patients seems very happy and satisfy with all these results that are coming with modern advancements in cataract and refractive surgeries.

I hope you have understood the topic and if you have any more queries you can get back to me on lybrate.com.
Having issues? Consult a doctor for medical advice