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Kidney Failure - Why It Happens?

Written and reviewed by
Dr. Kunal Raj Gandhi 93% (389 ratings)
MBBS, MD - General Medicine, DM - Nephrology
Nephrologist, Delhi  •  11 years experience
Kidney Failure - Why It Happens?

Nephrology is the study of kidney diseases and includes analysis of kidney issues. There are many factors that lead to dying of kidneys or failing (as doctors like to phrase it), it includes malformed, obstructed, or absent kidneys. ACE inhibitors taken while pregnant will cause the baby to be born with no kidneys and genetics. You need your kidneys because they filter waste products out of your blood stream, thereby purifying it. One such kidney disease is acute kidney injury.

Acute kidney injury occurs when the kidneys are no longer able to filter waste and water from the bloodstream.  There are three types of renal failure: prerenal, postrenal, and renal. Prerenal deals with blood flow problems before the blood reaches the kidneys, post renal deals with urine (wastewater) being unable to flow out of the kidneys, and renal deals with the kidneys being unable to properly filter the blood to produce urine.

About 60 to 70% of all renal failure cases are prerenal, meaning that not there is not enough blood flow to the kidneys to allow them to filter it properly.  Extreme dehydration and dramatic drops in blood pressure after surgery can cause this. It can also be caused by a blocked or narrowed blood vessel to the kidneys, heart failure or heart attacks causing low blood flow to the kidneys, and liver failure which causes the hormones that regulate blood flow to the kidneys to be affected.

People with renal failure tend to have to urinate frequently, retain fluid in the legs and eyes, high blood pressure, fatigue and weakness, appetite loss, nausea, and vomiting, and skin that itches and bruises easily, and is pale.

Post-renal-failure makes up 5 to 105 of all renal failure cases and is caused by urine being blocked from flowing out of the kidneys.  It can be caused by kidney stones, cancer of the urinary tract organs, and medications.

Renal failure is often times caused by primary renal failure (making up 25 to 40% of all cases).  This type of renal failure is caused by diseases of the blood vessels, a blood clot in the kidney vessel(s), kidney tissue or cell injury, glomerumelonephritis, acute interstitial nephritis, acute tubular necrosis, and polycystic kidney disease.  

People with acute renal failure tend to urinate less, have swelling in various parts of the body, have trouble concentrating, confusion, fatigue, lethargy, nausea, and/or vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and metallic taste in the mouth.  

Now that the some of the reasons why people’s kidneys can malfunction are known, people can preserve their kidney function by exercise and proper diet. Avoid unnecessary medications or consult with best doctor for ayurvedic treatment for kidney damage.

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