Hyperglycemia is a condition that is caused due to high glucose levels in blood and which can lead to diagnosis of diabetes. Hyperglycemia is defined by certain high levels of blood glucose like fasting levels above 7.0 mmol/L or 126 mg/dL and two hours postprandial levels greater than 11.0 mmol/L or 200 mg/dL. The symptoms of high sugar or hyperglycemia are thirst, vision problems, stomach pain, increased hunger, nausea, drowsiness, lethargy, exhaustion, sweating, confusion, vomiting, inability to concentrate, weight loss that leads to coma and frequent urination.
High sugar or hyperglycemia can occur due to a number of causes. They are eating more with less or no exercise, insulin resistance in Type-2 diabetes, onset of illnesses like flu, emotional and psychological stress, insufficient amount of insulin treatment and early morning hormone surge which is also known as dawn phenomenon or dawn effect. Some of the other physical manifestations that a person may experience if he/she has high blood sugar are: vaginal and skin infections, stomach and intestinal problems like diarrhea and constipation and nerve damage which can result in cold and insensitive feet, loss of hair and erectile dysfunction.
There are a number of home treatments that a person can undertake to address hyperglycemia. They are exercising regularly, taking recommended medication, adhering to the eating plan set by the doctor, adjusting insulin dosage to check hyperglycemia and monitoring blood sugar levels regularly. Treatment for severe hyperglycemia involves fluid replacement, electrolyte replacement and insulin therapy.
There can be different approaches to treat high sugar on the basis of the amount of blood sugar present in blood. If blood test shows that the sugar levels are slightly above normal, a person should exercise regularly, drink more water or sugar-free drinks, regularly monitor blood sugar levels and also consider injecting additional insulin if it has been recommended by the doctor.
If the blood sugar levels are moderately high, a person should abstain from any strenuous activity, avoid drinks which contain sugar, inject additional insulin, chart blood-glucose test results, regularly monitor blood sugar levels and also try to find out the root cause for increase in blood glucose levels.
If blood sugar levels are alarmingly high, a doctor should be immediately consulted. A person should adhere to the rest of the guidelines that he/she followed when he/she has moderately high blood sugar levels. However, ketone levels are to be tested if recommended by a doctor.
If a person is suffering from severe hyperglycemia, there are a few treatments that may help to address this condition. Firstly, there is the fluid replacement therapy whereby a person receives fluid, either orally or intravenously until he/she is rehydrated. A person may lose excess fluid due to frequent urination and so this loss is compensated with the help of fluid replacement therapy. This procedure also helps to dilute the excess sugar in the blood. Lower levels of insulin in people with hyperglycemia lower the levels of several electrolytes. Thus the electrolyte replacement therapy provides electrolytes through the veins so as to keep the heart, muscles and nerve cells healthy. Insulin therapy involves the administration of insulin through the veins. This reverses the processes that result in the build-up of ketones in the body.
A person is eligible for treatment of high sugar or hyperglycemia if he has been diagnosed by a registered medical practitioner and/or has exhibited some of the symptoms associated with this condition. There are two methods by which it can be understood whether a person has high sugar or not. One is the fasting hyperglycemia blood test and the other is the post-prandial or after-meal hyperglycemia blood test. The symptoms that a person suffering from high sugar include increased thirst, frequent urination, blood sugar level more than 180 mg/dL , weight loss, fatigue, headaches and vision problems.
A person who has not been properly diagnosed as suffering from high sugar and who does not experience symptoms associated with this condition are not eligible for treatment. Home-based treatment requires a person to exercise regularly. But if a person is physically invalid, he/she cannot opt for home treatment. A person with kidney problems should consult a doctor before going for fluid replacement therapy.
The side-effects of insulin therapy are as follows: headache, hunger, sweating, tremor, weakness, fast heartbeat accompanied with rapid breathing and fainting or seizure. Electrolyte replacement therapy can cause too much sodium to appear in blood. Excess sodium may cause convulsions, dizziness, high blood pressure, irritability, restlessness, muscle twitching, weakness and swelling of feet or lower legs. The side effects of Fluid replacement therapy include hypernatremia or high levels of sodium, high blood pressure, heart failure, injection site reactions and electrolyte abnormalities.
There are a few post-treatment guidelines that a person will need to adhere to in order to keep high sugar levels in check. A person taking insulin or oral diabetes medication has to be consistent about the amount and timing of his/her meals. The food must be balanced with the insulin working in your body. Person will have to regularly monitor his/her blood sugar levels and report to the doctor immediately if there are any anomalies. A person with high sugar levels is supposed to exercise. But if he/she is not being able to adhere to the workout plan, he/she should consult a doctor and get the medications altered. Furthermore, it is of paramount importance that a person take the prescribed medicines regularly.
High sugar or hyperglycemia can be a serious condition and it can lead to diabetes in the long run. The treatment for hyperglycemia involves some home remedies such as shifting to a healthy diet, exercising and also monitoring the blood glucose levels. So, a person may require a long time to get his blood sugar levels in check as he/she would have to adhere to strict guidelines recommended by a physician. Use of electrolyte replacement, insulin therapy and fluid replacement may help to bring down the high blood sugar levels. But to maintain the low levels and to prevent it from flaring up again may require a person to undergo treatment for a lot of time.
Insulin therapy may cost between Rs 14, 500 to Rs 47,000 for a year. Blood sugar checking machines are available between Rs 750 and Rs 2200 in India. The cost of a check-up will depend on which place the patient is going for the check-up and also on the individual doctor. Government hospitals generally provide free check-ups for the poor and also provide some free medicine. Intravenous fluids are available between Rs 22 and Rs 200.
No, the results are not permanent. Home remedies like healthier lifestyle, exercising, medication as well as fluid replacement and insulin therapies helps to control the high blood glucose levels in blood. However, due to multiple reasons, a person may suffer from hyperglycemia again. A person may again suffer from high sugar if he/she leads an unhealthy lifestyle, has an infection or under too much stress. Thus it is imperative to continue the treatment for high sugar for a long period of time.
People with high levels of sugar can include apple cedar vinegar in their diet as this helps to decrease fasting and post-meal blood sugar levels. Consuming foods that are rich in fiber helps to keep the blood sugar levels steady and prevent frequent fluctuations. Sleeping for at least 7-9 hours per day helps our body to utilize insulin better. Cinnamon extracts can also help to improve fasting blood sugar levels.
Rs 22 - Rs 47000
Performing physical activities on a daily basis always have its benefits, but doing exercise in a well-planned manner is essential for those people who suffer from either type-1 or type 2 diabetes. Becoming more active helps lower blood sugar levels and keep diabetes under control.
Relation between exercise and sugar levels
The food we consume contains sugars which are stored in our blood in the form of glucose. This glucose is absorbed by the muscles in our body, but body fat is the enemy of this absorption process. An obese person is prone to type-2 diabetes since excessive amounts of fat are present in the body which does not allow the muscles to absorb the glucose from the blood. This results in more glucose or sugar levels in the blood which leads to diabetes.
By regularly exercising, a person not only burns his/her excessive body fat, but also makes use of the muscles in his body thus allowing the muscles to absorb the glucose present in the blood readily. This helps reduce the sugar level in the blood. Moreover, doing exercise on a regular basis helps increase insulin sensitivity. It helps cells to use available insulin in taking up glucose during and after physical activity.
Understanding blood glucose reaction
The duration for which you perform physical activities will determine your blood glucose level. Physical activity has its effect on your blood glucose level and can keep it in check for up to 24 hours by increasing your body’s insulin sensitivity. Every individual needs to monitor how his body responds to physical exercise by regularly monitoring the blood sugar level before and after exercise or as advised by the doctor.
Once you are familiar with the results you achieve with respect to duration and types of exercises you perform you shall be able to control your blood sugar levels more effectively and prevent your sugar levels from going either too high or too low.
Hypoglycemia and physical activity
People who have diabetes should be prepared to treat hypoglycemia or low blood sugar level. Hypoglycemia is more common in people with type-1 diabetes, and people with type-2 diabetes are at lesser risk unless they are on insulin. Individuals who experience Hypoglycemia during or after exercise should consult a doctor immediately.
If you choose to resume your exercise routine, make sure you take a break and treat your low blood sugar level. Once your sugar level gets normal, you can begin your physical activity. What you need to know is that a drop, in sugar level, can occur just after exercise or even long after exercise.
Chances of a drop, in sugar level, occur in those diabetic people who either take insulin, skip meals, or exercise for too long or too hard. If you are finding it hard to keep your sugar level in check, consult a doctor immediately and follow his advice diligently.
In order to avoid hypoglycaemia, you can eat a fruit or nuts before exercise. It is also very important to hydrate yourself during the exercise. Ideally, take a fruit half hour before exercising. Keep yourself hydrated during the workout. Avoid energy drinks. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
People who suffer from high blood sugar can find it quite hard to keep their sugar levels in check. While the common practice is to maintain a low carbohydrate diet that is useful on the whole, there are other alternative diet options as well. The food items mentioned below either help by lowering sugar level or by increasing insulin sensitivity.
Items to include in your diet
These items are known to be very helpful for lowering blood sugar levels and keeping it in check. It is advised to consult your doctor and seek his approval before you add any of these items to your regular diet.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Pregnancy brings with it a set of challenges, and for a diabetic woman, these only increase further. Earlier, the risks of dealing with pregnancy and diabetes as a combination were too high. However, over the last few decades, things have changed. The age at which women are choosing to have a baby has gone up. On the other hand, the age of onset of diabetes has come down drastically.
These days, there are many diabetic women who go through pregnancy smoothly without major complications. Of course, there is extra care and precaution required, but it is not something that cannot be planned and managed well between the doctor and the mother-to-be.
The following are some rough guidelines for a pregnant diabetic woman.
If you are planning for a pregnancy, meet with your doctor to review your sugar levels. Chalk out a plan with your doctor, taking into account your diet and nutrition, exercise, lifestyle, and medications.
During pregnancy, constant monitoring and vigilance is required to ensure diabetes is under control.
Before you are affected by diabetes, a condition known as pre-diabetes is experienced, which indicates that a person might develop diabetes soon. In case you have pre-diabetes, your blood sugar level will be higher than the usual, but not as much as during diabetes. The condition is called borderline diabetes. During pre-diabetes, the production of insulin hormone gets decreased. You are more likely to get heart diseases and a stroke because of pre-diabetes.
Diagnosis There are three primary blood tests, which are used for the diagnosis of pre-diabetes:
Lifestyle changes required for managing pre-diabetes Lifestyle changes may help people in managing pre-diabetes and for preventing it from developing into diabetes. Here are some changes and habits you need to practice:
If you experience a rise in your blood sugar levels, you must consult a doctor immediately. With early diagnosis, you can take preventive measures and will be able to prevent pre-diabetes from developing into diabetes.
The adrenal glands are present above the kidneys (hence the name) and produces an important hormone known as cortisol. Cortisol is responsible for regulating multiple body functions, including controlling the blood pressure, protein and carbohydrate metabolism, and anti-inflammatory response, and stress management.
Under natural circumstances, the body produces excessive cortisol in the following situations:
Physically stressing situations like illness, surgery, injury, pregnancy, etc.
Causes: Cushing’s syndrome is a group of symptoms that manifest when there is too much cortisol in the body. It is more common in women than men, in the age group of 25 to 40. Some of the common causes for Cushing’s syndrome are listed below:
The first type is known as exogenous Cushing’s disease and the others are known as endogenous Cushing’s disease.
Signs and symptoms: Cushing’s disease produces characteristic features which are referred to as the Cushingoid appearance. These features include the following:
Complications: Untreated Cushing’s disease can lead to bone fractures, hypertension, full-blown infections, kidney stones, etc.
Treatment: This would depend on the cause. If you are on long-term steroids, the dose would need to be adjusted. This should always be done under medical supervision, as it requires constant adjustment. Underlying tumours (pituitary or adrenal) need to be diagnosed and treated. There are other hormones too which come into the picture and need to be monitored. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an endocrinologist..