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Overview

High Sugar: Treatment, Procedure, Cost and Side Effects

What is the treatment?

Hyperglycemia is a condition that is caused due to high glucose levels in blood and which can lead to diagnosis of diabetes. Hyperglycemia is defined by certain high levels of blood glucose like fasting levels above 7.0 mmol/L or 126 mg/dL and two hours postprandial levels greater than 11.0 mmol/L or 200 mg/dL. The symptoms of high sugar or hyperglycemia are thirst, vision problems, stomach pain, increased hunger, nausea, drowsiness, lethargy, exhaustion, sweating, confusion, vomiting, inability to concentrate, weight loss that leads to coma and frequent urination.

High sugar or hyperglycemia can occur due to a number of causes. They are eating more with less or no exercise, insulin resistance in Type-2 diabetes, onset of illnesses like flu, emotional and psychological stress, insufficient amount of insulin treatment and early morning hormone surge which is also known as dawn phenomenon or dawn effect. Some of the other physical manifestations that a person may experience if he/she has high blood sugar are: vaginal and skin infections, stomach and intestinal problems like diarrhea and constipation and nerve damage which can result in cold and insensitive feet, loss of hair and erectile dysfunction.

There are a number of home treatments that a person can undertake to address hyperglycemia. They are exercising regularly, taking recommended medication, adhering to the eating plan set by the doctor, adjusting insulin dosage to check hyperglycemia and monitoring blood sugar levels regularly. Treatment for severe hyperglycemia involves fluid replacement, electrolyte replacement and insulin therapy.

How is the treatment done?

There can be different approaches to treat high sugar on the basis of the amount of blood sugar present in blood. If blood test shows that the sugar levels are slightly above normal, a person should exercise regularly, drink more water or sugar-free drinks, regularly monitor blood sugar levels and also consider injecting additional insulin if it has been recommended by the doctor.

If the blood sugar levels are moderately high, a person should abstain from any strenuous activity, avoid drinks which contain sugar, inject additional insulin, chart blood-glucose test results, regularly monitor blood sugar levels and also try to find out the root cause for increase in blood glucose levels.

If blood sugar levels are alarmingly high, a doctor should be immediately consulted. A person should adhere to the rest of the guidelines that he/she followed when he/she has moderately high blood sugar levels. However, ketone levels are to be tested if recommended by a doctor.

If a person is suffering from severe hyperglycemia, there are a few treatments that may help to address this condition. Firstly, there is the fluid replacement therapy whereby a person receives fluid, either orally or intravenously until he/she is rehydrated. A person may lose excess fluid due to frequent urination and so this loss is compensated with the help of fluid replacement therapy. This procedure also helps to dilute the excess sugar in the blood. Lower levels of insulin in people with hyperglycemia lower the levels of several electrolytes. Thus the electrolyte replacement therapy provides electrolytes through the veins so as to keep the heart, muscles and nerve cells healthy. Insulin therapy involves the administration of insulin through the veins. This reverses the processes that result in the build-up of ketones in the body.

Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)

A person is eligible for treatment of high sugar or hyperglycemia if he has been diagnosed by a registered medical practitioner and/or has exhibited some of the symptoms associated with this condition. There are two methods by which it can be understood whether a person has high sugar or not. One is the fasting hyperglycemia blood test and the other is the post-prandial or after-meal hyperglycemia blood test. The symptoms that a person suffering from high sugar include increased thirst, frequent urination, blood sugar level more than 180 mg/dL , weight loss, fatigue, headaches and vision problems.

Who is not eligible for the treatment?

A person who has not been properly diagnosed as suffering from high sugar and who does not experience symptoms associated with this condition are not eligible for treatment. Home-based treatment requires a person to exercise regularly. But if a person is physically invalid, he/she cannot opt for home treatment. A person with kidney problems should consult a doctor before going for fluid replacement therapy.

Are there any side effects?

The side-effects of insulin therapy are as follows: headache, hunger, sweating, tremor, weakness, fast heartbeat accompanied with rapid breathing and fainting or seizure. Electrolyte replacement therapy can cause too much sodium to appear in blood. Excess sodium may cause convulsions, dizziness, high blood pressure, irritability, restlessness, muscle twitching, weakness and swelling of feet or lower legs. The side effects of Fluid replacement therapy include hypernatremia or high levels of sodium, high blood pressure, heart failure, injection site reactions and electrolyte abnormalities.

What are the post-treatment guidelines?

There are a few post-treatment guidelines that a person will need to adhere to in order to keep high sugar levels in check. A person taking insulin or oral diabetes medication has to be consistent about the amount and timing of his/her meals. The food must be balanced with the insulin working in your body. Person will have to regularly monitor his/her blood sugar levels and report to the doctor immediately if there are any anomalies. A person with high sugar levels is supposed to exercise. But if he/she is not being able to adhere to the workout plan, he/she should consult a doctor and get the medications altered. Furthermore, it is of paramount importance that a person take the prescribed medicines regularly.

How long does it take to recover?

High sugar or hyperglycemia can be a serious condition and it can lead to diabetes in the long run. The treatment for hyperglycemia involves some home remedies such as shifting to a healthy diet, exercising and also monitoring the blood glucose levels. So, a person may require a long time to get his blood sugar levels in check as he/she would have to adhere to strict guidelines recommended by a physician. Use of electrolyte replacement, insulin therapy and fluid replacement may help to bring down the high blood sugar levels. But to maintain the low levels and to prevent it from flaring up again may require a person to undergo treatment for a lot of time.

What is the price of the treatment in India?

Insulin therapy may cost between Rs 14, 500 to Rs 47,000 for a year. Blood sugar checking machines are available between Rs 750 and Rs 2200 in India. The cost of a check-up will depend on which place the patient is going for the check-up and also on the individual doctor. Government hospitals generally provide free check-ups for the poor and also provide some free medicine. Intravenous fluids are available between Rs 22 and Rs 200.

Are the results of the treatment permanent?

No, the results are not permanent. Home remedies like healthier lifestyle, exercising, medication as well as fluid replacement and insulin therapies helps to control the high blood glucose levels in blood. However, due to multiple reasons, a person may suffer from hyperglycemia again. A person may again suffer from high sugar if he/she leads an unhealthy lifestyle, has an infection or under too much stress. Thus it is imperative to continue the treatment for high sugar for a long period of time.

What are the alternatives to the treatment?

People with high levels of sugar can include apple cedar vinegar in their diet as this helps to decrease fasting and post-meal blood sugar levels. Consuming foods that are rich in fiber helps to keep the blood sugar levels steady and prevent frequent fluctuations. Sleeping for at least 7-9 hours per day helps our body to utilize insulin better. Cinnamon extracts can also help to improve fasting blood sugar levels.

Safety: Medium Effectiveness: High Timeliness: Medium Relative Risk: Low Side Effects: Medium Time For Recovery: Medium Price Range:

Rs 22 - Rs 47000

Popular Health Tips

PCOS And Pre-Diabetes: Know The Connection

Diploma In Diabetology, MD - Diabetology
Endocrinologist, Delhi
PCOS And Pre-Diabetes: Know The Connection

Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome (PCOS) is a disorder of the endocrine system which leads to an imbalance of sex hormones in women. However, women are aware of the PCOS, but many of them do not know that is a pre-diabetic stage causes hormonal imbalance and infertility.

PCOS is known as a pre-diabetic stage because just like diabetes, it also starts resisting the insulin and causes a high sugar level in body. The study reveals women having PCOS three to five times are more prone to have diabetes hence, both the conditions are interrelated. PCOS is a condition that cannot be cured, but awareness can help a lot as one can recognize symptoms and prevent the further complication by diagnosing it in an early stage. The common sign and symptoms are given below:

PCOS is not a curable disease but can be managed to prevent the further complication. Birth control pills are prescribed by a doctor as they help to regulate the proper mensuration cycle, clear ance and reduce the androgen level. One can reduce the symptoms of PCOS by including exercise and proper balanced diet in daily routine.

How can PCOS lead to diabetes?
A study revealed that around 10 million women in the world suffer from Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome (PCOS), a disorder of the endocrine system. PCOS is the pre-diabetic stage that causes the imbalance of sex hormones in the women. This imbalance of hormone resists the excretion of insulin, which results in a high blood sugar level, Diabetes. Women who experience PCOS at an early age are more prone to have diabetes and heart problems. PCOS can be controlled by taking proper diet and starting a day with a physical exercise.

  1. Prevention measures: In this prevention measures taken to cure PCOS will indirectly help to prevent diabetes.
  2. Exercise: Regular exercise is vital for a healthy body as it is a remedy for obesity and diabetes. Regular exercise helps to burn the excessive sugar and make cell sensitive to insulin. This permit the body to use insulin in a better way and beneficial for both PCOS and diabetes.
  3. Balanced dietA balanced diet is fundamental to manage the overweight and reduce the risk of PCOS and diabetes. Make sure your diet is full of nutrients, including whole grain, lean proteins and healthy fats.
  4. Regular visits to the doctor: If you are suffering from PCOS consult to doctor for proper treatment and medication, this will help you to reduce the risk of diabetes. Minor life changes and medication can help to prevent these diseases.

Conclusion
PCOS is a deadly disease if not treated at early stage causes severe problems such as diabetes. It cannot be cured by can be prevented or manage to add exercise and diet into your routine. If you are experiencing any of symptoms, consult your doctor as it helps to avoid further complications.

18 people found this helpful

Why Exercising Is Important In Reducing Sugar Level In Blood?

Dip.Diab, Fellowship Diabetology (Gold Medallist), MBBS
Diabetologist, Thane
Why Exercising Is Important In Reducing Sugar Level In Blood?

Performing physical activities on a daily basis always have its benefits, but doing exercise in a well-planned manner is essential for those people who suffer from either type-1 or type 2 diabetes. Becoming more active helps lower blood sugar levels and keep diabetes under control.

Relation between exercise and sugar levels
The food we consume contains sugars which are stored in our blood in the form of glucose. This glucose is absorbed by the muscles in our body, but body fat is the enemy of this absorption process. An obese person is prone to type-2 diabetes since excessive amounts of fat are present in the body which does not allow the muscles to absorb the glucose from the blood. This results in more glucose or sugar levels in the blood which leads to diabetes.

By regularly exercising, a person not only burns his/her excessive body fat, but also makes use of the muscles in his body thus allowing the muscles to absorb the glucose present in the blood readily. This helps reduce the sugar level in the blood. Moreover, doing exercise on a regular basis helps increase insulin sensitivity. It helps cells to use available insulin in taking up glucose during and after physical activity.

Understanding blood glucose reaction
The duration for which you perform physical activities will determine your blood glucose level. Physical activity has its effect on your blood glucose level and can keep it in check for up to 24 hours by increasing your body’s insulin sensitivity. Every individual needs to monitor how his body responds to physical exercise by regularly monitoring the blood sugar level before and after exercise or as advised by the doctor.

Once you are familiar with the results you achieve with respect to duration and types of exercises you perform you shall be able to control your blood sugar levels more effectively and prevent your sugar levels from going either too high or too low.

Hypoglycemia and physical activity
People who have diabetes should be prepared to treat hypoglycemia or low blood sugar level. Hypoglycemia is more common in people with type-1 diabetes, and people with type-2 diabetes are at lesser risk unless they are on insulin. Individuals who experience Hypoglycemia during or after exercise should consult a doctor immediately.

If you choose to resume your exercise routine, make sure you take a break and treat your low blood sugar level. Once your sugar level gets normal, you can begin your physical activity. What you need to know is that a drop, in sugar level, can occur just after exercise or even long after exercise.

Chances of a drop, in sugar level, occur in those diabetic people who either take insulin, skip meals, or exercise for too long or too hard. If you are finding it hard to keep your sugar level in check, consult a doctor immediately and follow his advice diligently.

In order to avoid hypoglycaemia, you can eat a fruit or nuts before exercise. It is also very important to hydrate yourself during the exercise. Ideally, take a fruit half hour before exercising. Keep yourself hydrated during the workout. Avoid energy drinks. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

4746 people found this helpful

6 Things That Can Possibly Help In Reducing Blood Sugar Level!

MBBS, M.MED, DFM, FID, CCEBDM, ACMDC, CCMTD
Diabetologist, Hyderabad
6 Things That Can Possibly Help In Reducing Blood Sugar Level!

People who suffer from high blood sugar can find it quite hard to keep their sugar levels in check. While the common practice is to maintain a low carbohydrate diet that is useful on the whole, there are other alternative diet options as well. The food items mentioned below either help by lowering sugar level or by increasing insulin sensitivity.

Items to include in your diet

  1. Starch: One of the items that help lower sugar levels is resistant starch. Starches are long chains of glucose and are found in food items such as bananas, potatoes, oats and various others. There are a few varieties that pass through digestion unchanged and are not absorbed as glucose in the blood. They are known as resistant starch. This type of starch is also known to increase insulin sensitivity significantly. They help in transfering glucose from the bloodstream into cells thus lowering sugar level and offering energy to the individual after meals. It is advised to not consume potatoes, but take a resistant starch supplement since potatoes contain digestible carbohydrates that increase sugar level.
  2. Ceylon CinnamonThis is another great ancient remedy that has many compounds that prevent sugar from entering the bloodstream. It also enhances insulin sensitivity. Other great alternatives include cashews and almonds. These dry fruits are rich in Magnesium which is a mineral that ensures blood sugar regulation.
  3. FenugreekA powerful herb that is also a good source of soluble fiber. It has several compounds that are known to improve blood sugar control.
  4. Shirataki noodles: They are very low in carbohydrates and high in fiber. Keeping your carbohydrate consumption low is very important for diabetes management. So, these Japanese noodles help in doing so. Since they contain mostly glucomannan, an indigestible fiber, Shirataki noodles help in reducing blood sugar levels after meals while improving other metabolic health factors in diabetics.
  5. Dark Chocolate: Another good option is cocoa in dark chocolate. The cocoa comes from the cocoa plant and contains flavanols. Cocoa is known to improve insulin resistance and overall blood sugar regulation. However, dark chocolate does contain a little sugar so you would want to go in for 85% cocoa or more. Treat this item as a cheat item for those days when you need to cheat with your diet since this has a neutral effect. Switching to dark chocolate immediately is best for those who are addicted to chocolate. It will serve as a neutral item at worst and will help with blood sugar regulation at best.
  6. Apple cider vinegar: Another beneficial item to add to your diet is apple cider vinegar. It is an ancient folk remedy that is known to increase glucose metabolism by increasing the sugar uptake from blood into cells.

These items are known to be very helpful for lowering blood sugar levels and keeping it in check. It is advised to consult your doctor and seek his approval before you add any of these items to your regular diet. 

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3008 people found this helpful

Diabetes During Pregnancy - Know The Best Ways To Control It!

MBBS, MRSH, MDP(HM)
Gynaecologist, Delhi
Diabetes During Pregnancy - Know The Best Ways To Control It!

Pregnancy brings with it a set of challenges, and for a diabetic woman, these only increase further. Earlier, the risks of dealing with pregnancy and diabetes as a combination were too high. However, over the last few decades, things have changed. The age at which women are choosing to have a baby has gone up. On the other hand, the age of onset of diabetes has come down drastically.
These days, there are many diabetic women who go through pregnancy smoothly without major complications. Of course, there is extra care and precaution required, but it is not something that cannot be planned and managed well between the doctor and the mother-to-be.

The following are some rough guidelines for a pregnant diabetic woman.
Potential complications

  1. It increases the risk of polycystic ovaries, thereby making it difficult to conceive.
  2. Fluctuating sugar levels can be a reason for not being able to conceive, as the body does not see itself as healthy.
  3. It increased the chances of miscarriage.
  4. There are higher chances of birth defects in the developing baby due to very high sugar levels in the first trimester.

Preparation
If you are planning for a pregnancy, meet with your doctor to review your sugar levels. Chalk out a plan with your doctor, taking into account your diet and nutrition, exercise, lifestyle, and medications.

  1. Diet: Ensure you cautiously decide what and how to eat ahead of your pregnancy. Moving away from refined carbohydrates and processed foods towards wholesome food items like whole grains, fresh fruits and vegetables will make a difference.
  2. Exercise: Build an exercise routine to suit your body and keep yourself active. It is very important to stay active so that diabetes is under control.
  3. Lifestyle: Quit smoking and reduce alcohol use. This helps in managing stress also, which can help keep diabetes under check.
  4. Medications: Check with your doctor on the medicines you are taking and if dose adjustments are required to get sugar levels under control, plan them out.

During pregnancy, constant monitoring and vigilance is required to ensure diabetes is under control.

  1. Let your gynecologist know about your condition (stable/fluctuating), and if you are doubtful about them being able to handle your condition, do not hesitate to change.
  2. Many consider switching to oral medications as the risk of transmission to the baby is less and the control over sugar levels is better.
  3. Constant monitoring for daily blood sugars is essential.
  4. A regular, healthy lifestyle in terms of eating and sleeping should help keep the sugars under check.
  5. Constant monitoring of the baby is essential to ensure its normal growth with no developmental defects. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.

 

3769 people found this helpful

Pre-Diabetes Stage - How To Know If Your Suffering From It?

MBBS, MD, FAIIDR
Diabetologist, Vadodara
Pre-Diabetes Stage - How To Know If Your Suffering From It?

Before you are affected by diabetes, a condition known as pre-diabetes is experienced, which indicates that a person might develop diabetes soon. In case you have pre-diabetes, your blood sugar level will be higher than the usual, but not as much as during diabetes. The condition is called borderline diabetes. During pre-diabetes, the production of insulin hormone gets decreased. You are more likely to get heart diseases and a stroke because of pre-diabetes. 

Diagnosis There are three primary blood tests, which are used for the diagnosis of pre-diabetes: 

  1. Fasting plasma glucose test
    • You should not eat anything for eight hours before this blood test.
    • Blood sugar level is considered normal when it is less than 100.
    • If your blood sugar level is between 100 and 125, you are in the pre-diabetes stage.
    • If your blood sugar level is above 125, you are diagnosed with diabetes. 
  2. Oral glucose tolerance test
    • First, you need to have a fasting glucose test done and drink a sugary solution (75 gm glucose dissolve in water) after it.  After two hours, another blood test is taken. 
    • Blood sugar level is considered normal when it is lesser than 140. 
    • If your blood sugar level is between 140 and 199, you are in the pre-diabetes stage. 
    • If your blood sugar level is above 200, you are diagnosed with diabetes. 
  3. Hemoglobin A1C 
    • This blood test shows the average blood sugar level for three to four months in the past. It helps to check whether pre-diabetes is in control or not. 
    • Blood sugar level is considered normal when it is 5.6%. 
    • If your blood sugar level is between 5.7% and 6.4%, you are in the pre-diabetes stage. 
    • If your blood sugar level is 6.5% or above, you are diagnosed with diabetes. 
    • The test should be redone for checking or verifying the results. 

Lifestyle changes required for managing pre-diabetes Lifestyle changes may help people in managing pre-diabetes and for preventing it from developing into diabetes. Here are some changes and habits you need to practice: 

  1. Weight control: If you are obese and overweight, the pre-diabetes may turn into diabetes. Hence, losing some amount of body weight, at least 5% to 10%, makes quite a difference. 
  2. Exercise: You should perform moderate exercises regularly, such as swimming, cycling or walking briskly. This helps in the management of pre-diabetes. Aerobic exercise increases the heart rate and should be carried out for better benefits. 
  3. Nutrition: You must make some dietary changes as well. Consume food items, which contain low-fat protein. Eat a lot of vegetables and whole grains, limit your calorie intake and reduce the amount of sugar and starchy carbohydrates. Increase your intake of fiber-rich food. 

If you experience a rise in your blood sugar levels, you must consult a doctor immediately. With early diagnosis, you can take preventive measures and will be able to prevent pre-diabetes from developing into diabetes.

4502 people found this helpful

Popular Questions & Answers

Hi, My age is 32, Male, Physically fit, few days back checked blood sugar out of curiosity and blood sugar level as follows. Fasting 213, PP 394 (Used Device Acu Check). Got similar result on Laboratory test. Please suggest a medicine (preferably generic to save money). Is it possible to control the blood sugar level naturally?

MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, Certificate Course In Evidence Based Diabetes Management, Certificate Course In Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetologist, Sri Ganganagar
Hi sir, Take 6-7 more readings of the blood sugar. Test for HbA1c level. Any medicine could be given to you after talking to you in detail. Some life style measure s and a good medicine is to be started soon.

Is there any medicine that completely cure high Blood sugar? Recent report says Fasting: 150 mg/dL PP: 165 mg/dL (Age: 58 years)

MBBS, CCEBDM, Diploma in Diabetology, Diploma in Clinical Nutrition & Dietetics, Cetificate Course In Thyroid Disorders Management (CCMTD)
Endocrinologist, Dharwad
Mr. Lybrate-User, Thanks for the query. There is no complete cure for conditions like high Blood Pressure, diabates and certain other chronic diseases. Most of these can be effectively controlled. Particularly with adapting a modified lifestyle, avoiding becoming over weight, exercising regularly for over 1 hour a day, taking a healthy diet, refraining from alcohol and smoking and avoiding junk foods. The glucose levels mentioned are high. Fasting 150 mg is suggestive of diabetes (126 mg and above is considered diagnostic for diabetes), but PP 165 mg is in a prediabetic state. Therefore, it is necessary to get HbA1c% checked. If that is higher than 6.5%, then diabetes is confirmed. If you have any questions please do come back. Thanks.
2 people found this helpful

My sugar level jumps high after food. Other wise ok. Today it was 170 after 2 hours of meal. I ate 5 which chapati and spicy. My diet is good.

MBBS, CCEBDM, Diploma in Diabetology, Diploma in Clinical Nutrition & Dietetics, Cetificate Course In Thyroid Disorders Management (CCMTD)
Endocrinologist, Dharwad
Hello, Thanks for the query. PP Blood glucose level of 170 mg, signifies that you are in pre-diabetes state. (141 to 199 mg/ 100 ml). This means if proper care is not taken you may develop diabetes in next few months to may be a year or so. First and fore most is to take a restricted healthy diet. Secondly maintain a normal body weight and then exercise regularly for over 1 hour a day. Refrain from alcohol and smoking. That is adapting a modified life style you will be able to either postpone or prevent diabetes. Thanks.

My RBS is 142 Now I am taking medicine are as follows: 1) Gluconorm G2 Forte 2) Primodil 5 with Breakfast 3) Tenlimac M 500 4) metolar XR 50 before Dinner 5) Tonact 5 mg 6) Lonapum 0.25 mg at Bedtime~~ BP 130/80 plus 85-92.

MBBS, CCEBDM, Diploma in Diabetology, Diploma in Clinical Nutrition & Dietetics, Cetificate Course In Thyroid Disorders Management (CCMTD)
Endocrinologist, Dharwad
Hello, Thanks for the query. You have mentioned only random glucose. There is no mention of fasting, Pp glucose levels and no HbA1c%, so difficult to comment on the diabetes control. But looking at your height and weight it is clear that with a BMI of 33.43 kgs (normal < 23 kgs/Sq meter) you already in grade 1 obesity, going towards grade 2. This shows an excess of over 26 kgs. This can be a major hindrance in achieving required glucose control. Thanks.

My HbA1c is almost 10.2 and sugar level is almost high approx 265 randomly, for this I am having Glyciphage SR 1 gm BD and also glimepiride 4 mg BD. Kindly suggest.

MBBS, CCEBDM, Diploma in Diabetology, Diploma in Clinical Nutrition & Dietetics, Cetificate Course In Thyroid Disorders Management (CCMTD)
Endocrinologist, Dharwad
Mr. lybrate-user, Thanks for the query. HbA1c% 10.2 is suggestive of totally uncontrolled diabetes. This is dangerous, can lead to early development of long term complications associated with diabetes, affecting eyes (retina), kidneys, peripheral blood vessels, heart and lower limbs. It is clear that present treatment is not helping in control. So please consult your treating physician and upgrade the treatment or if you seek online help, please come back with following details { Fasting, PP glucose levels, diet pattern, extent of daily exercise because with a BMI of 31 plus you are already in grade 1 obesity. That needs to be looked at. Your ideal body weight should be about 56 kgs, as against 82. I await your response. Thanks.
1 person found this helpful

Table of Content

What is the treatment?
How is the treatment done?
Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)
Who is not eligible for the treatment?
Are there any side effects?
What are the post-treatment guidelines?
How long does it take to recover?
What is the price of the treatment in India?
Are the results of the treatment permanent?
What are the alternatives to the treatment?
Play video
Diabetes: Types And Causes
Hi, this is Dr. Suresh Ade. I am practicing as efficient Diabetologist and Neurologist in Navi Mumbai. My clinic has the highest diabetes and and neurologic clinic in Nerul. I am attached to various corporate hospital like Fortis Hiranandani Hospital Vashi, Reliance Hospital Kopar Khairane and Apollo Hospital Belapur. I ve done speciality in diabetes like life-threatening diploma in a diabetes and endocrinology from the Royal College of Physician, UK. I have done fellowship in neurology and stroke for 2 years and since 4-5 years I am practicing mainly diabetes and neurology. Today I am going to talk about diabetes. Diabetes is increasing like anything. In 2020 it is expected to be more than 80 millions of patients in India suffering from diabetes. Diabetes is increasing at a very faster rate and India is now a capital of diabetes all over the world and expected to be double in a few years. There are many types of diabetes, type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, secondary diabetes and pregnancy induced diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is because of the Autoimmune destruction of pancreas and usually presented in childhood. The childrens are presented in the hospital with emergency like pneumonia and urine tract infection where the diabetes is detected and they have to be on an insulin all through the life. Type 2 diabetes is mostly inherited comes from the parents but many patients they get it after the sedentary lifestyle, stress, working all through the night and having a bad lifestyle. Then secondary diabetes is usually seen in patients suffering from the endocrinopathies like thyroid disorders, pituitary disorders, patient being on a steroid for a long time, sometime infection is a reason and there are many other reasons of secondary diabetes. Pregnancy induced diabetes is usually seen in a pregnancy where all the patient when they consume they should undergo sugar test and confirm the diabetes and also sugar has to be monitored in the pregnancy. Type 2 diabetes is being very common, We have to focus more on a type 2 diabetes is usually seen and after the age of 30. Patients of a diabetes type 2 they usually present with increased thirst, increase appetite, loss of weight, general weakness and in many time they have a non specific reasons like I am not feeling good, I am not feeling well and many times they land up in a emergency with some other complication like chest pain, pneumonia and then there diabetes is detected. Once the diabetes is detected patient has to be very focus on the treatment because the diabetes has got very very bad complication and the common, the commonest complication are Microvascular, microvascular means small vessel affections, small vessel affections in the eyes lead to the retinopathy and can lead to the blindness. Small vessels affection in the Kidneys lead to nephropathy and patient may land up with kidney diseases, kidney failures and ultimately on a dialysis and death. Patients lands up with affection of the nerves in the peripheries and that is called peripheral neuropathy and that leads to various complication like injury to the limbs, ulcers and deformities of the foot and sometime they require amputation. Macrovascular complications like affection of the bigger vessels, bigger vessels are the vessels from the cartrods and beyond in the brain, going in the brain leads to the strokes. Vessels in arteries called coronary arteries leading to the heart attack and cardiovascular complications and vessels in the limbs that is called Peripheral vascular disease and leading to the amputations and various other complications. And apart from this patient may land up with the acute complications like Diabetic Ketoacidosis which is again the life threatening complication and patient may die off. There are other complications also that may be fatal to the life. So once the diabetes is detected patient has to be very careful, he has to approach a diabetologist take a proper diet advise, advice regarding the exercise and if required medication. If patient controls his diabetes by any means like diet, exercise or medication and keeps his sugar under control then he will leada normal life. So control your diabetes and be happy.
Play video
Diabetes Complications And Long-Term Risks
I am Dr R Melitha, practicing in general physician, practicing in Rohini and Gandhi Vihar.

Today my topic of discussion is regarding diabetes mellitus. Diabetes is one of the most talk about disease across the world, especially in India. WHO estimated that 80% of diabetes occurs in lower and middle income guys. India has more great result 50 million in term Type-2 diabetics which is called diabetes mellitus. And this is increasing in all mainly incidence in India. Now let me know what is diabetes, diabetes is a disease creates by hypoglycemia and glycosuria that means increase in blood sugar level and appearance of sugar in urine. It occurs due to deficient production or deficient absorption of insulin which comes in the pancreas. Now what are the types of diabetes, there are 4 types of diabetes, one is Type 1 Diabetes which is naturally called insulin-dependent diabetes, it occurs insulin childhood, it is insulin dependent, it usually asymptomatic, it is due to pancreas not able to produce sufficient insulin. Second is type 2 diabetes mellitus, it is a most common, it occurs in adulthood, it occurs due to deficient absorption of insulin, secondly, it also occurs due to change in lifestyle, not adequate exercise and diet patterns. Third is gestational diabetes, gestational diabetes is the diabetes increase in blood sugar level during pregnancy and such cases are likely to go into type 2 diabetes mellitus in the letustis, if they are not already suffering from diabetes before these. Last is pre-diabetes, Pre-diabetes is a condition in which blood sugar level is not that much high enough to be classified in Type 1 and Type 2. What are the symptoms of diabetes? Diabetes symptoms are usually classified as a track Polyuria, Polydipsia, Polyphagia which means increasing urination, increase in thirst and increase in appetite. Secondly, patient complaint of blurring of vision, they complaint of high blood sugar level, wound is not healing despite taking treatment. They may come with the nausea, vomiting, loss of weight, fatigue and where is may come with Sexual problems, may come with infections and they may come with skin problems. Secondly Dash investigate a case of diabetes there are three tests, four tests, mainly fasting blood sugar and postprandial blood sugar, fasting blood sugar is taken under is everybody knows, postprandial Dash 2 hours after breakfast heavy breakfast or after taking glucose Dash, which is normally 120 to 160 milligrams. Next is Oral GTT which is positive grade control the milligrams and continuous to this further and the last is HbA1C test which is the most important test then insulin which is like it Hemoglobin level, this gives the level of blood sugar level for the past 2 to 3 months that is 8 weeks to 12 weeks. How the diabetes is transmitted? Diabetes transmitted by genetic, due to recently due to change in Lifestyle, fat, diet, and poor exercise and family history, due to hypertension patient with hypertension, cardiovascular diseases also likely to develop diabetes. Now next is how will you prevent or control the diabetes, prevention starts with changing Lifestyle, diet pattern, exercise and taking care of body, taking care of skin and all other things and what are the complications of diabetes, complications it can affect major target organs like eye, kidney, liver, skin, nervous system and also causes hypertension and cardiovascular diseases and strokes. Is diabetes is curable everybody ask, unfortunately there is not any cure for diabetes but maintaining good exercise, healthy lifestyle, diet and taking medication on regular time you may lead a normal healthy life in diabetes. It is such a big topic, difficult to cover everything in short time.

If you have got any problem you can come to my clinic.
Play video
Complications of Diabetes
Hello!

I m Dr. Shefali Karkhanis so I m practicing diabetes specialist at Thane, Mumbai.

Today I m going to give you an overview complications of diabetes. We all know the diabetes is basically a high blood sugar cause because of imbalance between the supply of insulin from the body and the demand the body has about the insulin. I m going to talk about complications of diabetes because diabetes is going to affect each and every cell of your body, right from your hair from top of your head to the nail in the bottom of your feet. So problem with diabetes is that all of these complications are generally silent. So you do not feel that there is a problem.

Let the complications will develop with time and it depends upon the duration of diabetes as well as the severity of the diabetes that means the longer that you have diabetes the more is a risk of you developing complications. Similarly, the higher the control of sugar the better is your risk of not developing complications that means if a person is having diabetes for about 10-15 years there is a definitely a risk that he has some of the other forms of complications with him.

But if he is been well controlled for all these ten years the risk reduces exponentially. On the other hand, if the patient is only diagnosed for the last 3-4 years but he has very high sugar or a very high fluctuating sugar he is more likely to develop complications very soon. Complications can be divided into 2 parts.one is acute and one is chronic. Acute complications include 1: very high blood sugar which will lead to acidosis, coma-like conditions and the person has to get hospitalized be on insulin etc. second is low sugar i.e. very low sugar wherein the patients feel he feels dizzy he feels kiddy he has shivers he was sweating he might even land into an unconscious state.

The treatment of these two is very simple. If the sugars are very high take him to a doctor, treat him insulin, and bring down the sugars, correct the acidosis and everything will be fine. If the patient is having low sugar before going to the doctor you can treat it. Just put in some powdered sugar or a paste of powdered sugar inside the mouth and the patient s blood sugar will slowly start increasing and you can he can be transferred to the hospital. The causes of hypoglycemia are one if the patient is taking erratically erratic medications.

If the patient is fasting at times. If the patient the dose is not adequate or he is taking multiple doses at a time or if the patient is just skipped a meal all together in spite of taking the medications. So any of these conditions you can get low sugar and the easiest thing to do is put sugar in the mouth. Do not give water to unconscious patient because it might cause other complications. Come into the long-term complications. Diabetes will affect major organs which get affected are your eyes, your heart your kidney your nerves as well as your blood vessels. In your eyes there is something called as retina. Retina is like the brain of the eye and you will there be small bleeding spots in the retina but the vision is 100% normal so you do not realize there is a spots inside. These aneurysms can be, this microhemorrhages can be diagnosed at an early stage by with an eye doctor and If it is diagnosed it can be treated and brought to normal immediately.

In the second stage these microhemorrhages become larger in size and there is a bleeding inside your eye and that is when you have vision disturbances but by then only oral medications is not going to help you so depending upon the damage you might require injections, lasers other procedures etc. The same thing happens with your heart. Your heart, the blood vessels to your heart gets affected because of diabetes and this will reduce the amount of blood supply to your heart making you more prone to develop heart attacks. In diabetic the heart attacks are many times silent so there might not be a lot of chest pain but there might be wake symptoms like small pain in the back or discomfort or heaviness or you just might feel breathless especially on walking especially on lying down. So all of these things will need to be addressed and you have to undergo a treadmill test regularly to ensure that your heart is fine. The second thing that happens in the heart is pumping capacity comes down so your heart does not pump as well as it used to.

Again this can be diagnosed with a simple noninvasive technique like an echo which can be done by any cardiologist and this will give you better idea about the condition of your heart. The third thing that gets affected is your kidneys. Now kidneys are like filters. So the holes are very very small because of diabetes these pores will start increasing in size and the protein in your body will start leaking into your urine. But there will be no signs no symptoms no problems what so ever. It is very simple again to diagnose it with a simple urine test called microalbumin and if this is positive that means your kidney damages is started and it can be reverted back to normal just with medications. A good control of diabetes as well as the good control of blood pressure will help your kidney a long way to run properly. Bu the time creatinine goes up it means there is extensive damage in both of your kidneys and then it is difficult to bring it back to normal. However it can still be controlled but at the end of the story probably you will end up in dialysis. So you have to start taking care of your kidneys right at the very beginning. The last is the nerves and the blood vessels.

fNow the nerves of your feet are most commonly affected so some people might have feelings like tingling, numbness, loss of sensation. There might be episodes where the chappal slips out and you don t realize it, there might be episodes there is a small little ulcer or a small bite but you know it doesn t pain. Then there can be loss of hair from your lower limb. All of this is a sign of nerves getting damages.

Secondly the blood supply starts getting hampered. So this is more common in patients who smoke or who have tobacco usage. This will lead to development of small ulcers and there is a higher risk of amputations in these patients. Every diabetes must check their sugars monthly, both fasting as well as the postprandial just to ensures that the sugars are well under control and hba1cthat is the average of the last two to three months this test must be performed at least once in six months if not 3 months.

Annually every diabetic patients must undergo a routine test to rule out any complications including their eyes including their heart including their kidneys as well as the blood supply to their feet and the blood supply and the nerve supply to their feet. So all of these tests are essential for every diabetic patients and I cannot stress this enough because diagnosed in the early stages everything can be reversible to a large extent. However the moment you wait for your symptoms to appear it is already too late. Remember diabetes is your life partner, it will not go away and there is no divorcing it so you have to control your sugars well and if you control them then you can lead not only a long life but a very healthy life also.

So please start taking care of your diabetes from today. if you have any other queries you can contact me via Lybrate. Thank you!
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Watch What Happens When You Drink Water Along With Your Food. It'll Leave You Thinking!
Sit at the dinner table, and you'd find yourself invariably extending your hand to the glass of water on the side of your plate. While you may think it's absolutely necessary to have a glass of water during your meals, the truth is this habit of yours might be damaging your health. Read on to find out how.

1. It dilutes your gastric juices -
When the digestive acids (acids responsible for the digestion and breakdown of food as well as for killing infectious agents ingested with food) present in your stomach are diluted with water, they bring about a slowdown in the functioning of your entire digestive system. This slowdown results in food remaining lodged in your stomach for a longer period than normal, thereby causing indigestion.

Additionally, the reaction caused by the dilution of water and stomach acids can give rise to cramps in your tummy.

2. It reduces the saliva in your mouth -
The same thing that happens to the acids in your stomach, happens to your saliva as well. Water dilutes the saliva, which stops the breakdown of food in your mouth. Also, your saliva is responsible for stimulating your stomach to release digestive enzymes and prepare itself for the process of digestion. By drinking water with your meals, such signals sent by your saliva to your stomach become much weaker. All these together can make digestion very difficult.

3. It causes acidity -
Studies show that drinking water with your meals not only leads to the dilution of digestive enzymes, but also brings about a reduction in the secretion of digestive enzymes. This causes the undigested food in your stomach to leak into the lower part of your oesophagus (food pipe), causing acidity and heart burn.

4. It increases insulin production -
Sipping on water in the middle of lunch (or any other meal for that matter) causes a spike in your insulin levels just as glycaemic foods (foods with high starch or sugar content such as honey, potatoes, white bread, rice to name a few) would. When your body is unable to digest food properly, it usually tends to convert the glucose filled part of that food into fat and stores it, reason why your blood sugar levels see an upsurge.

5. It adds to your weight -
Since drinking water causes an increase in insulin levels in your body (as the food you eat is converted to fat), it can result in the piling of extra weight on your body. This is because a weak digestive system is one of the major causes behind obesity.

Try having your meals with less salt and drink water 30 minutes before each meal to control your thirst when you're eating. This can help you in controlling the negative effects that drinking water with your meals can have on your health.

Make a wise choice and stay healthy. Feel free to ask me more questions you might have.
Having issues? Consult a doctor for medical advice