Cosmetic Surgery is a surgical procedure that is used to enhance a person’s external looks and appearance. It can be performed on any part of the body. Some of the most common procedures are rhinoplasty, which changes the size or shape of the nose, and rhytidectomy, also known as the facelift. Other popular treatments are for Breast augmentation, Breast reduction, Tummy tuck, Liposuction, and Skin rejuvenation. Since the trend is becoming hugely popular, the days of cosmetic surgery being looked poorly upon are quickly coming to an end. With any surgery, there can be complications, and that is enough to scare anyone away. Whenever someone agrees to tamper with their body, there are always risks and these days people don't mind taking that risk for a better form of themselves. According to a report from the Huffington Post, out of all the cosmetic surgery patients, 91% are women, and 9% are men. However, the number of male patients has increased by over 45% since the year 2000. While most women are interested in breast implants and rhinoplasty, men are more inclined towards liposuction, eyelid surgery, treatment for male breasts, and even treatment for protruding ears.
There are various types of cosmetics surgeries though the principle objective of enhancing the appearance remains the same. The candidate and the cosmetic surgeon will agree quite ahead of time on exactly which area(s) will be operated, and both will discuss what outcomes to expect. A consent form is signed by the candidate on the day of surgery and an antibiotic is given about an hour before the surgery. The targeted areas are marked and highlighted on the body while the candidate is in a standing position. Sometimes photos are also taken of the area to be operated so that the patient will have before and after pictures. In the operating room, a sterilising antiseptic solution, such as Betadine, is applied to the relevant areas. Local, intravenous anaesthetic is injected, and the patient may also be given a sedative, either orally or through an IV injection. The incisions are small, about a quarter to a third of an inch. The patient is given an Intravenous Fluid line since he or she will be losing a lot of fluid with the fat and the fluid balance has to be kept intact. Monitoring devices are attached to the body to keep track of the blood pressure, heart rate, and blood oxygen level. The patient will feel a little scraping or rasping sensation from the cannula movement. Usually, the patient can walk around, and even go home the same day if he or she did not receive general anaesthesia, though they would need someone else to drive them home.
Most patients who undergo cosmetic surgery are between the ages of 25 and 35 years old. However, people older than 40 can benefit from the surgery as well. A qualified cosmetic surgeon can further evaluate each patient's skin texture and condition to make individual judgments and recommendations are made. According to the American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS), people above the age of 35 are turning to cosmetic surgery to improve their physical appearance. Senior people are lining up for facelifts, laser skin resurfacing and blepharoplasty (eyelid surgery). The doctor takes into account the patient’s particular circumstances, including age, before approving for a cosmetic surgery. Older people who undergo cosmetic surgery may not look 20 years younger but most certainly they will look youthful.
All can go under a cosmetic surgeon’s knife, though a complete assessment of the candidate’s health is done before the surgery. However, persons with Skin inelasticity, Weak Bone structures, Unrealistic expectations, and a Bad overall health are not the ones for this procedure.
As with any operation, there are certain risks, beyond the temporary and minor effects. Side effects are more pronounced when the treated areas are very large or numerous, and a large amount of fat has to be removed. Some common side effects of cosmetic surgery are Allergic reaction to materials used during surgery, Infection due to surgery, Damage to the skin, Skin necrosis (a rare complication, in which the operated skin falls off in the necrotic area), Puncture of an internal organ during surgery, Contour irregularities, Burns, and Fluid imbalance.
During the recovery, candidates should allow for adequate healing time and expect some swelling, numbness, and even skin discoloration for about two weeks. All the incisions and dressings should be kept dry until the surgeon indicates that showering is okay. For the first few weeks, the head should remain elevated and immobile to minimize swelling. Most stitches are removed in about five days, and the initial cosmetic surgery results will be apparent soon afterwards. Strenuous exercise and housework and sexual activity should be strictly avoided for at least a period of two weeks after surgery. Alcohol, saunas and steam rooms should also be avoided for several months. During the cosmetic recovery period, extra rest is essential to promote proper healing.
Depending on the area of the surgery, patients can return to work between two days and two weeks. Any pain if arises is controlled by a prescription or over-the-counter medication, which may last as long as two weeks. The bruising fades after a few days or may take as long as two weeks. Swelling subsides in from two weeks to two months, while the numbness may last for several weeks. Normal activity can be resumed between several days to several weeks afterwards, depending on the procedure. The results are visible from one to six months after surgery, however, noticeable difference can be seen within weeks as the swelling subsides.
Cosmetic surgery has its downsides. The most unappealing aspect of cosmetic surgery is the cost of the procedure. Liposuctions can cost about Rs. 5000 or more. Rhinoplasty can cost Rs 15,000 or more. Facelifts, which seem like the quickest procedure but are one of the most expensive, can cost Rs 40000 or more.
The results of cosmetic surgery are permanent except in the case of liposuction where if the patient does not maintain a proper diet and exercise regimen, the remaining fat cell neighbours could still enlarge.
Cosmetic surgery being an expensive may not be affordable to everyone. However, there is good news. For those who are not very happy with their looks and would like to go for an enhancement to their outward appearance, there are quite a few alternatives to cosmetic surgery. Anti-ageing cosmetic creams and powders and electrical skin stimulation as alternatives for enhancement of skin, Quantum treatment as an alternative for breast enlargement, Pulsed ultrasound-assisted liposuction technique as an alternative to liposuction are a few. Apart from these you can resort to natural remedies as well.
Hello. I’m Dr Rajiva Gupta. I’m a senior consultant in internal medicine at Ashok Vihar and Fortis Hospital, Shalimar Park. My special areas of interest are diabetes and care of the elderly.
Now talking about care for the elderly, the branch of medicine that deals with the care of the elders is called Geriatrics anthology. The elderly patients present peculiar problems. They present not just discreet conditions, but with discreet syndromes. A syndrome is a constellation of symptoms and signs. In common, they are called the geriatric syndromes. The common geriatric syndromes are false, impaired cognition, deficiencies in a hearing, difficulty in vision, delirium. These syndromes are important because we have to investigate several different causes. For example, if the patient falls, it is not necessary that he may be having weakness in his legs. It is highly possible that the patient will be suffering from an acute infection or from some electrolyte imbalance or from CVA or cardiovascular problem. The patient is having disorientation, he is not oriented, he may have necessarily, he may be having, that he is having infection of the brain, he could as well be having electrolyte imbalance or any infection or a cardio-vascular problem. It means that the syndromes present, similar syndromes present with different types of illness in the elderly. The reason is that the physiological reserves of the elderly are just on the borderline and any acute insult that results in these syndromes. The approach to geriatric patients is slightly different from the way we approach people of other age.
So there are two components, one is the Curative component and another is comfort, or the palliative. That depends much on the functional ability of the patient. So if you have got an elderly person, above 80 years, he does regular exercise, enjoys his life, goes out for walks, the treatment of any condition in such a patient would be on the lines the management is done for a younger or a middle aged patient. Whereas, on the other end, if the patient is 70 years or 75 years, and he suffers from a problem, he is immobile, confined to bed, he is not able to take care of his own daily needs. For such patient, the aim would be to have a comfort care. So, the treatment of the elderly has to be individualized and surprisingly, there are not many guidelines which are available for treatment of elderly in different, for different medical conditions. SO the treatment for each individual has to be individualized, considering his individual circumstances. For example, if we take a very common problem like sugar, and we call that, there is a parameter called the Glycosylated hemoglobin, so we say that glycosylated hemoglobin for a normal should be less than 7% or less than 6.5 %. Bit for the elderly, because they may be having other illnesses, they may be having kidney disease or may be living alone in the house, they may not be able to take care, so in such patients, we will not go in for a very strict control, we’ll go in for a modest control, where the range may be say, around 8 or 8.5.
As physicians, we need to be aware that the number of elderly people is increasing, we need to be aware about their special needs, we have to give time once they come to our clinic and we have to define their problems and treat them accordingly.
I will be most willing and happy to answer to any questions, which can be approached through the lybrate website or they can seek consultation by telephone or physical consultation.
Nowadays mostly all women are working. Pregnancy and motherhood become a huge responsibility for them. With the host of changes taking place in a working woman right from conception to child birth a woman needs both mental and physical care throughout the entire 9-month span. It is a real challenge to squeeze in the right diet, exercise and care both to the mother and the child and focus should be on regular antenatal visits to the doctor. A few things which pregnant women should focus on are;
For any query regarding pregnancy or antenatal consultation, you can contact me through Lybrate.