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Last Updated: Jan 10, 2023

Haematuria In Males And Females - Know How It Should be Diagnosed!

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Dr. Shalabh AgrawalUrologist • 23 Years Exp.DNB (Urology), MS, MBBS
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Haematuria is a condition wherein there is blood in the urine because of excessive red blood cells in it. Up to 12,500 red blood cells/mh can be occasioned in a healthy individual, but more than this may cause blood in the urine.

Types of haematuria:

  • Gross haematuria: Also known as macroscopic haematuria, it is a condition in which the colour of the urine changes to pink, bright red or reddish brown.
  • Microscopic haematuria: In this case, the colour of the urine remains normal because of low RBC count (15000-20000 cells/mh), which can be found only through a microscope.

Causes of macroscopic haematuria:
The red or brown discolouration of the urine is the cause of gross haematuria

Painful gross haematuria is usually caused by one of the following:

Causes of microscopic haematuria:
Glomerular (arising from the filtering systems) bleeding is frequently accompanied with proteinuria. The symptoms may include:

In glomerulonephritis, haematuria with oedema, hypertension and oliguria may be present. Other benign causes include:

  • Basement membrane disease
  • Vascular malformations
  • Non-glomerular bleeding (outside the kidneys i.e. ureters, urinary bladder, prostate, and urethra) has three most common causes:
  • Urinary tract infection (UTI)
  • Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH)
  • Tract stones

Your physician will examine the sample of your urine. He will ask about your family’s medical history related to kidney disease, prostate, bleeding disorders or bladder problems. Your doctor would want to know about any strenuous exercise you may have been doing, or any medication you have been on. The urine sample given for urinalysis will reveal whether you have a problem of kidneys or bladder or glomerulonephritis. Depending on this, tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, cystoscopy, blood tests etc. may be suggested.

Avoid smoking as it causes urine-related tumours.
Stay hydrated to improve the flow of blood in your body.


  • Urinary tract stones can be removed by lithotripsy, which enables the stones to break.
  • Treatment for traumas depends upon the severity of the trauma. In worst case scenarios, surgeries may be done.
  • Surgeries, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, or radiation therapy may be opted for if tumour is found either in the kidneys or the bladder.
  • Antibiotics may be prescribed to improve and increase the urination so that toxins flush out of the body.

Haematuria caused by exercise, medication, small kidney stones, UTI or prostate problems can be cured with complete recovery. In case of tumours in the bladder and kidneys, if detected on an early stage, it can be successfully cured.


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