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Last Updated: Jan 10, 2023

Gastric Bypass - Be It Bariatric Or Metabolic Surgery, Get Amazing Results!

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Dr. Tulip ChamanyBariatrician • 31 Years Exp.MBBS, Fellowship In Minimally Invasive Bariatric Surgery, Fellowship In Minimally invasive(Keyhole) Surgery
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The “Roux en Y Gastric Bypass” surgery was first performed by Professor Mason in 1966. Being done in the conventional way (i.e by open surgery) earlier and later laparoscopically, the Gastric Bypass has stood the test of time over the last 52 years.

Over 50 years the Gastric bypass surgery is being performed across the globe. It has given excellent results in terms of significant and long-standing weight loss in the morbidly obese, as well as remission of Type 2 diabetes in properly selected patients. Selection of the patient to undergo this procedure is paramount. 50 years of successful results are enough to term this procedure as the GOLD Standard.

Obesity and Diabetes have been a menace over the last 2 decades world over. In India obesity is growing in such a rampant way that we can equate it to an epidemic.

As we all know, India is considered to be the Diabetic Capital of the world. Type 2 diabetes contributes to the major chunk of diabetes affected population. We Indians get affected by diabetes at very early ages and hence complications are seen at very early ages among us. Strikingly important to notice is that Diabetes is seen not only in the obese category of people but also in the normal weight people.

Diabetes is feared of only because of the complications it is capable of causing affecting the vital organs like the brain, heart, eyes, kidneys.

Intermittent or elevated surges in the blood sugars levels during the course of the day are responsible for causing microangiopathies ( damage to the small vessels supplying blood to the vital organs).

We have seen that diabetes is accompanied by high blood pressure and dyslipidemia in most of the cases. So, when a person has diabetes, high blood pressure and dyslipidemia, we label them as having the metabolic syndrome.

Oral hypoglycemic agents (OHA) and insulin form the mainstay of treatment in getting sugars under control. But these are not able to avoid these surges in high sugar levels. This does not mean that OHA’s and Insulin are not the right way to treat diabetes- they indeed are.

We are going a step higher, in an attempt to get control of diabetes without OHA and insulin. Not only this, we are trying to tackle not just diabetes, but the metabolic syndrome on the whole i.e one procedure that will take care of diabetes, dyslipidemia and hypertension. This procedure is popularly known and referred to as the “Gastric Bypass” or the “Roux en Y Gastric Bypass”. Thus, In short, the gastric bypass surgery offers ICE BURG treatment.

Now, the first question is that “Is this possible”. The answer is YES. The second question is that is this procedure applicable for all diabetics. The answer is NO. Only Type 2 diabetics are the beneficiaries of this procedure where insulin resistance has a major role to play. (This procedure does not benefit Type 1 diabetics) Reasons for this will be explained later. The third and important question is that, “Is the Gastric bypass going to give remission of diabetes in all type 2 diabetics?” The answer is NO.

There is strict selection criterion or eligibility criteria to select a patient for The Roux en Y Gastric Bypass surgery. Best results of the Gastric Bypass surgery are seen when it is confirmed that the person is suffering from Type 2 diabetes, duration of diabetes is less than 5 years, the pancreatic reserve is good and showing good levels of C -peptide in the blood, the person has a family history of diabetes, Insulin was not required to control sugar levels within the first 5 years of onset of diabetes and person should not be underweight( BMI > 27.5 preferred).

Losing weight is not easy and even if we lose weight, weight regain is very common. Most of us would have already experienced it. When we are tackling just the weight issue, we are talking into consideration only the morbidly obese people who have a BMI > 37.5. In the morbidly obese, at first, it is very difficult to lose significant weight by the normal method of diet and exercise. Even if weight loss does occur, weight regains or bouncing back is sure.

Here we bring in the trump card – The “Roux en Y Gastric Bypass” that helps the :

  1. “Morbidly Obese” (BMI >37.5) to lose significant weight and reach their ideal weight.
  2. “Obese” (BMI >32.5) who also have comorbidities (like diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, sleep apnea, obesity-induced infertility) not only to lose significant weight and reach their ideal weight but also to get control of the associated comorbidities.
  3. “Type 2 Diabetics” (BMI > 27.5) to get Remission from type 2 Diabetes.
  4. “Metabolic Syndrome” (BMI > 27.5) to get remission from type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and Most cases hypertension.

Type 2 diabetics can be offered this procedure even if they are not morbidly obese, is what I would like to bring it to notice.

Exposure to Type 2 diabetes for long years can lead to potential complications like coronary heart disease, chronic kidney failure, brain stroke, gangrene of the lower limbs.

In some, in spite of talking OHA’s, Insulin, sugars are not under control. In these cases, the gastric bypass can be offered to those who fulfil the eligibility criteria.

Remission of diabetes after the gastric bypass procedure is very quick, ranging from a week to a month in most of the cases. However, in some, The sugar levels come to normal the very next day after the surgery in some without the OHA and /or insulin.

Gastric bypass is done through laparoscopy i.e through tiny holes over the tummy, requiring 3 days hospital stay. Supplements need to be taken following the procedure on a daily basis. Following the procedure, intake is reduced to a great extent which increases over few months as the gastric pouch stretches.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!


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