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Diabetes: Types And Causes

Written and reviewed by
Dr. Suresh Ade 92% (25 ratings)
MD - General Medicine, CCEDM, Fellowship In Neurology & Stroke, Post Graduate Diploma in Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
Diabetologist, Navi Mumbai  •  17 years experience
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Hi, this is Dr. Suresh Ade. I am practicing as efficient Diabetologist and Neurologist in Navi Mumbai. My clinic has the highest diabetes and and neurologic clinic in Nerul. I am attached to various corporate hospital like Fortis Hiranandani Hospital Vashi, Reliance Hospital Kopar Khairane and Apollo Hospital Belapur. I’ve done speciality in diabetes like post graduate diploma in a diabetes and endocrinology from the Royal College of Physician, UK. I have done fellowship in neurology and stroke for 2 years and since 4-5 years I am practicing mainly diabetes and neurology.

Today I am going to talk about diabetes. Diabetes is increasing like anything. In 2020 it is expected to be more than 80 millions of patients in India suffering from diabetes. Diabetes is increasing at a very faster rate and India is now a capital of diabetes all over the world and expected to be double in a few years. There are many types of diabetes, type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, secondary diabetes and pregnancy induced diabetes.

Type 1 diabetes is because of the Autoimmune destruction of pancreas and usually presented in childhood. The children are presented in the hospital with emergency like pneumonia and urine tract infection where the diabetes is detected and they have to be on an insulin all through the life. Type 2 diabetes is mostly inherited comes from the parents but many patients they get it after the sedentary lifestyle, stress, working all through the night and having a bad lifestyle.

Then secondary diabetes is usually seen in patients suffering from the endocrinopathies like thyroid disorders, pituitary disorders, patient being on a steroid for a long time, sometime infection is a reason and there are many other reasons of secondary diabetes. Pregnancy induced diabetes is usually seen in a pregnancy where all the patient when they consume they should undergo sugar test and confirm the diabetes and also sugar has to be monitored in the pregnancy. Type 2 diabetes is being very common, We have to focus more on Type 2 diabetes is usually seen and after the age of 30. Patients of diabetes type 2 they usually present with increased thirst, increase appetite, loss of weight, general weakness and in many time they have a non specific reasons like I am not feeling good, I am not feeling well and many times they land up in a emergency with some other complication like chest pain, pneumonia and then there diabetes is detected.

Once the diabetes is detected, patient has to be very focused on the treatment because the diabetes has got very very bad complications and the commonest complications are Microvascular , which means small vessel infections, small vessel infections in the eyes lead to retinopathy and can lead to blindness. Small vessels affection in the kidneys lead to nephropathy and patient may land up with kidney diseases, kidney failures and ultimately on a dialysis and death. Patients lands up with infection of the nerves in the peripheries and that is called peripheral neuropathy and that leads to various complications like injury to the limbs, ulcers and deformities of the foot and sometime they require amputation.

Macrovascular complications like infection of the bigger vessels - these are the vessels from the cartrods and beyond in the brain, going in the brain leads to the strokes. Vessels in arteries are called coronary arteries , leading to the heart attack and cardiovascular complications and vessels in the limbs that is called Peripheral vascular disease , and leading to the amputations and various other complications.

Apart from this, the patient may land up with acute complications like Diabetic Ketoacidosis which is again the life-threatening complication and patient may die off. There are other complications also that may be fatal to the life. So once the diabetes is detected , patient has to be very careful, he has to approach a diabetologist take a proper diet advice, advice regarding the exercise and if required medication. If patient controls his diabetes by any means like diet, exercise or medication and keeps his sugar under control then he will lead a normal life. So control your diabetes and be happy.

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