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Depression - Symptom, Treatment And Causes

The Different Forms of Depression

Depression manifests itself in one of its several forms. These are:

  • Major Depression- In the case of major depression the symptoms are severe enough to interfere with a person’s ability to sleep, work, study, eat and enjoy his life. Major depression episodes may occur a single time or more commonly even multiple times in a person’s life.
  • Dysthymia or Dysthymic disorder- In this variant of depression the symptoms are less severe but persist over prolonged periods that stretch to two years or more.
  • Minor Depression- In the case of minor depression the symptoms are not all that severe and persist for only a small amount of time.

What are the causes of depression?

Depression may be caused by a single or a combination of factors like:

  • Genetic Propensity- People whose families have previous histories of depression are more susceptible to having the illness than people with no family history of depression.
  • Brain Chemistry- The chemistry of the people suffering from depression is different from those who do not have the disease.
  • Stress- Sometimes events that evoke strong emotions like a dear person’s death, a difficult relationship or other situations that are acutely stressful may be enough to trigger bouts of depression.

Treatment of Depression

The first step in treating a patient with depression is to consult a mental health professional or doctor. This visit may be followed by examinations and laboratory tests to rule out other similar conditions. Medications taken by a patient too fall under scrutiny. The doctor takes into account detailed family and medical history of the disease and then proceeds to prescribe antidepressants accordingly. However, the medicines are slow to take effect. But medical antidepressants often have severe side effects that may not be acceptable in all cases. Psychotherapy is another option that may help in the treatment of depression. It works by teaching new behaviour and ways of thinking that may help to alleviate some of the symptoms. It gives a person an insight into why the depression is occurring and what makes the situation worse.

Can't be cured, but treatment helps Usually self diagnosable
Loosing interest in daily activities Insomnia or oversleeping Anger Irritability Loss of energy Self loathing Concentration issues

Popular Health Tips

The Harmful Effects Of A Dysfunctional Family On A Child!

MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, MD - Psychiatry
Psychiatrist, Bangalore
The Harmful Effects Of A Dysfunctional Family On A Child!

A dysfunctional family comprises of destructive and harmful parenting along with a persistent lack of concern for the child. The harmful effects that a dysfunctional family wreaks on a child often go unnoticed and unacknowledged. In most cases, no action is taken to rectify the situation or to minimize the negative effects on the child.

When the distress caused to the child is severe and long-drawn, it may lead to the development of psychological conditions such as anxiety, depression, or post-traumatic stress disorder. If these conditions are not treated, they may affect the child for the rest of their life. Below are different types of a dysfunctional family and its impacts on the child:

  1. There are families where either one or both the parents are drug or alcohol addicts or possess some other kind of addiction. These addictions may cause the parent to pass out or go missing for extended spans of time, behave unexpectedly, or cause acute financial hardship for the family. Children belonging to such families grow up to be distrustful adults who believe others to be unreliable and untrustworthy.
  2. Children hailing from families where the parents are getting divorced are often used as pawns. The parents who are divorcing often try to turn the child against the other one, say negative things about the other parent, inhibit the child from communicating with the other parent, or coercing the child to reject the other parent altogether. Such children develop various types of mental problems when they grow up. These problems could cause irrational self-blame, self-loathing, and even drug dependence.
  3. There are families in which volatility and violence are predominant. Children coming from such families are also at the risk of manifesting similar behaviour patterns. When the child grows up, he or she may become rebellious and manifest anti-social behaviours such as picking up fights with peers, vandalizing property, bullying others, truancy and dropping out of an educational institution.
  4. Some children are forcibly detached from their parents’ care owing to various reasons such as being taken into care by someone else or sentenced to juvenile detention. Such children also tend to be unsocial when they grow up and show unexpected and undesired behaviour patterns.
  5. Children belonging to families where parents have a mental illness, slowly turn into the abyss of depression which, in turn, affects their own psychological development.
  6. On the other hand, families where the parents exercise absolute control over the child and the parents make unprecedented control of their power tend to bring up children who are mentally retarded and sick.

A child hailing from a dysfunctional family often struggles in adulthood due to lack of emotional maturity. Therefore, in the best interest of the child, measures should be taken such that the child grows up to be a healthy, stable, and responsible citizen.

1 person found this helpful

Is Social Media Making You Depressed?

M.Phil - Clinical Psychology, M.Sc - Neuropsychology
Psychologist, Zirakpur
Is Social Media Making You Depressed?

Most people today begin and end their days by looking into their phones. Whether its Facebook, Twitter, Instagram or any other social media platform, chances are that you devote a lot of time to browsing through other people’s lives and comparing them to yours. Social media platforms are a great way to keep in touch with people but they can have a negative effect on you as well. Social media is slowly becoming a common reason for depression. Here’s how.

  1. Glamour vs reality: A friend may put up a picture of the view out of an office room and caption it “view from my office”. When you see this while sitting in a room filled with cubicles, it can be depressing. What you may not know is that the picture may not really be of your friend’s office but be simply a temporary room they are working out of for the day.
  2. Overstimulation: We are constantly flooded with information. At times, this can get too much too handle. For people with existing anxiety issues, this could aggravate the problem and make the day more stressful than it already is.
  3. Distraction: The constant stream of notifications on your phone and laptop can distract you from the work you actually need to do. As a result, your productivity may decrease. In turn, this can make you frustrated at the end of the day and make you spend more time than you need to on simple tasks.
  4. Negativity: A majority of the social media posts on your timeline are negative rants against various people and institutions, news about sad events and agenda driven monologues. This negativity spreads easily and can easily influence your life and make you see things in a negative way.
  5. Unwanted attention: Just as social media makes it easy for you to get in touch with old friends; it also makes it easy for stalkers to get in touch with you. Lewd messages and unwanted attention can make a person feel harassed and bullied. In extreme cases, it can also make a person suicidal.
  6. Health issues: Our mental and physical health is interlinked. Thus, if you are physically unwell, you will feel mentally low as well. Peering into a phone and laptop screen constantly can give rise to a number of health issues such as deteriorating eyesight, neck pain and stress headaches. In turn, this can make you feel frustrated and low.
2943 people found this helpful

Depression - Signs To Look For In A Person!

M.D Psychiatry , MBBS
Psychiatrist, Faridabad
Depression - Signs To Look For In A Person!

Happiness and sadness are part and parcel of life. Some things make us smile while others make us cry. While life is full of mixed emotions, being persistently sad could be a sign of depression. It is a clinical condition that needs treatment just like a fever or any other sickness.

Depression is a common mental ailment that can affect children and adults of both sexes. This is characterized by a feeling of sadness, worthless and helplessness that lasts for more than 2 weeks. Other symptoms of depression include:

  1. Loss of interest in events and activities
  2. Social withdrawal
  3. Outbursts of irritation and frustration over small matters
  4. Sleep disturbances
  5. Tiredness
  6. Loss of appetite
  7. Unexplained weight gain or weight loss
  8. Shorter attention span
  9. Unexplained headaches or backaches

Though the exact cause of depression is still unknown, there are many factors that could trigger depression:

  1. Fluctuating hormones: This is a very common cause of depression. This may occur during pregnancy or after delivery.
  2. Thyroid problems and menopause: People with thyroid issues and women going through menopause often face the problem of depression. In some cases, a change in how neurotransmitters behave inside the brain could cause depression.
  3. Genetics: It has been observed that 40% of depression cases have a genetic link. People with close relatives who suffer from depression may also suffer from the same condition.
  4. Traumatic events: People who have a traumatic past such as a history of physical or sexual abuse, the death of a loved one or a difficult relationship could also trigger depression.
  5. Alcohol and substance abuse: Excessive drinking and other substance abuse have been closely linked to depression.
  6. Other factors: Depression can begin at any age and men are at a higher risk of suffering from this condition as compared to women. This may be because women often seek help in the early stages of depression.

People with low self-esteem and a pessimistic outlook on life have a high risk of being depressed. Treatment for cancer, heart disease and other such chronic illnesses as well as certain types of medication could also contribute to depression. 

Symptoms of depression vary from one patient to another. Hence, they can be difficult to diagnose in the early stages. Treatment typically includes medication, counselling, group therapy and a change in lifestyle habits. For example, it is imperative for depression patients to step outside their comfort zone and interact with others. For this, they may consider joining a hobby class. Regular exercise is also important as it increases production of serotonin and gives the person an opportunity to get out of the house. When it comes to depression, remember, it is very important for the patient to be supported by family and friends.

4267 people found this helpful

How Diabetes Can Lead To Depression?

Diploma In Diabetology, MD - Diabetology
Endocrinologist, Delhi
How Diabetes Can Lead To Depression?

The risk of developing depression is found by the means of various researches to be two to three times higher in individuals suffering from a chronic disease than in normal individuals. Type 1 and type 2 Diabetes are chronic diseases that can prove to be very challenging to manage due to various setbacks and complications that can come in the way. Regular monitoring of the blood sugar levels is essential in managing the blood sugar. Navigation of the health care facilities, side effects caused by medications, and other related health conditions or even diabetic complications can cause an increased risk of developing depression. If left undiagnosed and untreated, depression can give way to a poor lifestyle choice that can further deteriorate the physical health of a person.

Various risk factors that are associated with diabetes and depression are as follows-

  • lack of physical activity
  • poor social environment
  • poverty
  • stress during pregnancy

Depression in diabetes can occur simultaneously due to a variety of factors. These include the psychological and psychosocial impact of the disease on an individual, a potential common genetic susceptibility and certain common pathophysiological abnormalities that involve neuro-immunological and neuro-endocrinal pathways, as well as microvascular brain lesions due to diabetes mellitus. However, issues concerning pathogenesis and causality of this high co-occurrence are not fully determined yet. Still, the presence of depression in patients with diabetes mellitus is of vast importance, as it is usually associated with poor disease control, adverse health outcomes and quality of life impairment.

When an individual is suffering from diabetes, the awareness of risks of developing depression is essential. It has been widely researched and found that these two conditions can occur simultaneously, where depression is usually undiagnosed. Diabetes, specifically type 2, and depression affect each other in a bi-directional manner, which means that each of the disease can prove as a risk factor for the other. In a state of depression, it is common for a person to consume high calorie foods and also to lead a sedentary lifestyle. This tendency can prove to be a risk factor for developing type 2 diabetes.

If an individual already has type 2 diabetes, the stress experienced during the management of disease can cause depression. Type 1 diabetes develops as result of the defect of pancreas in production of insulin.

People with type 1 diabetes can also develop depressive symptoms due to difficulties in the management of the disease. If the symptoms of depression develop in the patient already suffering from diabetes, management of diabetes also becomes difficult. This can lead to cause various diabetes related complications and also decrease the life expectancy.

Various signs that can be observed in a state of depression are as follows:

  1. Complete lack of interest in doing any activity
  2. Irritation or mood swings
  3. Depressed mood
  4. Disturbed sleep pattern
  5. Changes in the appetite
  6. Constant feeling of despair
  7. Guilt Fatigue, weakness
  8. Difficulty in concentration, transient memory loss
  9. Suicidal tendency

There is a certain risk observed between the consumption of antidepressant medicines and development of diabetes. It has been researched and concluded that consuming antidepressants should always be on physician recommendation, with a prior advice on the risks of developing diabetes. It has also been found that the people with type 2 diabetes, who are using insulin regularly, are at higher risk for developing depression as compared to the people on non-insulin medications or following only diet or lifestyle modification habits. An additional stress experienced in managing diabetes and accessing the health care services can cause such complication in insulin users.

Common treatment protocol for depression includes psychotherapy or the cognitive behavioral therapy. It helps people to correct destructive thought patterns and behaviors that tend to increase the depressive symptoms. Other interventions like a structured problem solving approach, motivational interviewing, and interpersonal approach towards the patient is also effective in management. Certain medications can also help in mood-lifting and the management of symptoms of depression.

In diabetics, the treatment options that are available in addition to the standard medical healthcare provision includes self-management training sessions that help the people to increase healthy habits and improve control on their blood sugar levels. Diabetes as well as depression can improve with complete focus on lifestyle changes, like proper diet management and exercising regularly.

3275 people found this helpful

5 Interesting Facts About Post Traumatic Stress Disorder!

MBBS, MD - Psychiatry
Psychiatrist, Delhi
5 Interesting Facts About Post Traumatic Stress Disorder!

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder which develops due to a terrifying traumatic incident. Traumatic events like violent personal assaults, man-made disasters, accidents, military combat etc. can trigger PTSD.

What are the symptoms of PTSD?
People with PTSD mostly re-experience the whole incident repeatedly in the form of flashback episodes and nightmares. This happens more when they are exposed to the events or objects which are reminiscent of the trauma. The other symptoms are emotional numbness, sleep disturbances, depression, anxiety and irritability leading to outbursts of anger on others. People with PTSD feel intense guilt mostly. Anniversaries of such an event can also trigger symptoms of PTSD. When these symptoms last for more than a month, the person is diagnosed with PTSD.

Who will most likely develop PTSD?
You do not need to be in the military to suffer from PTSD. People who have suffered child abuse during school, who have had traumatic experiences are more likely to develop the condition. Other factors that may cause PTSD are still under research.

When does PTSD occur?
PTSD can occur at any age, given the intensity and frequency of symptoms. The symptoms typically are seen within 3 months post a traumatic event, although it may not begin until next year. Once the PTSD symptoms appear, the severity and duration of the illness may vary.

What are the treatments available for PTSD?
Cognitive-behavioral therapy, group therapy, and exposure therapy have been very effective in treating PTSD where the patient gradually and repeatedly relives the frightening experience under controlled surroundings which helps him/her work through the trauma. Medicines also help ease associated symptoms such as depression and anxiety.

Do other illnesses accompany PTSD?
PTSD can present with many associated conditions like depression, alcohol or substance abuse, anxiety disorder etc. Certain symptoms like headaches, gastrointestinal ailments, immune system issues, dizziness, chest pain or discomfort in other parts of the body are common. To treat PTSD entirely, it is necessary to take these symptoms into consideration as well.

PTSD is a difficult condition to deal with. If you or someone you know happens to suffer from PTSD, the first thing is to seek help. Having PTSD does not make you weak. All you need is a little help and support from your family and friends, to make you feel better. Happy Mind, Healthy You! In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

4298 people found this helpful

Popular Questions & Answers

In 12th, I was able to read 15 hours a day without any stress and anxiety, tension. But now I'm graduated in Engineering and. Now when I try to read 15 hours a day there's stress, tension,depression. And even if I do exercises, yoga, there is hidden stress in my mind. So what can I do?

Reparenting Technique, BA, BEd
Psychologist, Bangalore
In the 12th you were probably 6 years younger. That is a lot of time that has passed by and your mind and body is not the same. Even if it was the same, it is not advisable to study so much everyday. You need at least 8 hours of sleep anyway. You may also have some problems related to delayed adolescence to boot. First of all, the intensity of stress is in the perception. Change your perception, there is no stress: it’s like looking at a glass half full or half empty. Apart from that, all your emotions need to be dealt with by expression i.e. You need to talk about the feelings. Then you need to exercise regularly, eat fiber foods (whole grains, fruits and vegetables), sleep at least 8 hours every day, learn Yoga and meditation, learn stress management, and do a personality development course. Because you are into studies, follow a tight schedule, with good breaks and study habits. If group study helps you, do it with the right people. If tutoring is required, arrange for the same. These should see you through successfully without the stress.
13 people found this helpful

I am depressed .i always gets suicidal thoughts .i want my life to end. I need no one in my life. I am addicted to drugs.

Psychiatrist, Bangalore
Dear lybrate-user, Drug addiction can occur with some serious mental disorders like major depressive disorder. Both can be treated with drugs and therapy. Please consult a psychiatrist and take help to come out of addiction and suicidal thoughts. All the best.

I am 37 years old female & divorced, I am on depran 5 mg since 5 years and now cannot stop it, if I decide to stop it makes me reluctant. Please help.

Diploma In Psychology Counselling Skills, Diploma in ayurveda, B.S IT
Psychologist, Bangalore
Hello Friend, Good that you are seeking a help here. Be aware that medicine are just only one part of any psychic treatment like depression. It's help is suppressing the emotions to give you temporary relief and sometimes causes side effects like weight and many other. However the root cause for the problem, i.e anxious thought or worry can't be addressed by medicine. That's why, if you stop medicine, you get the withdrawal syndrome. So solution, is to adopt few non medicine treatment plan like psychotherapies, mindset changes techniques, few lifestyle changes, dietary changes along with medicine to overcome this problem permanently. Be positive. You will be alright soon. Feel free to reach out to me online for further evaluation and recommendation.
5 people found this helpful

I am 27 year old female since I have got married I'm always in depression and stress due to my in laws and my husband? What should I do? I have lost all my happiness coz of Dem.

MD - Psychiatry
Psychiatrist, Chennai
take your hubby to a marital counsellor and think about nuclear family, if the reason is ascertained to be true. All the best

Table of Content

The Different Forms of Depression
What are the causes of depression?
Treatment of Depression
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Tips To Address Breakup
Handling a break-up is one of the toughest things anyone faces in life, but if you take proper steps to manage it, you can get over it well. Some of the most important measures you can take care to try and avoid loneliness and sad songs. You should ignore overthinking about anything and try to be as positive as you can. In case, you still can t get over the depressing situation, you should immediately visit a psychiatrist to get the best help.
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Sometimes physical problems can cause depression. But other times, symptoms of depression are part of a more complex psychiatric problem. An individual with major depression, or major depressive disorder, feels a profound and constant sense of hopelessness and despair.
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Know More About Depression
Hello Everyone!

My name is Kaartik Gupta. I am a clinical psychologist. Aaj hum depression ke bare me bat krenge. Depression jaisa ki aap sab log jante hain bhut hi common problem hai, psychological problem hai. Agar hum sirf India ki bat kren, usme lag bhag har 4 me se 1 insan ko depression ki problem hai. Depression bhut commonly use hone vala word hai. I think sabse pehle jruri hai ki hum smjh len ki depression hota kya hai. Hum sabhi ko kbhi na kbhi low feel hota hai, sad feel hota hai lekin kuch time baad hmara mood thik ho jata hai. Jab hum clinical depression ki bat krte hain to isme main 3 features hote hain, 3 symptoms hote hain jiska symptoms hota hai ki low mood hota hai, loss of pleasure hota hai. Jo pehle apko chizen achi lgti thi, aap enjoy krte the or easy fatigue feel hota hai. Mtlb bina jyada kam kre hue bhi insan ko thakan mehsus hoti hai. Yye sare lakshan kam se kam 2 hafte k lia persist krte hain. Or vo across time rehte hain. Inke alwa concentration me affect aane lgta hai. Uski jo sexual energy hai ya fir loss of libido hai, usme kami mehsus hone lgti hai. Confidence kam hone lgta hai.

Or kayi cases me depression severe hone lga hai. Suicidal behavior bhi dekhne ko milta hai. To ye basically clinical depression ki picture hoti hai. Hum jis tarike se commonly use krte hain ki me depress hun, vo actually clinical depression nhi hota hai. To I think ye sabse jruri hai hum sabko smjhne k lia. Agar hum iske karano ki bat kren ki what causes depression like any other psychological problem, biological, psychological or social factors hote hain jiski vjha se clinical depression ho skta hai. Biological factors me agar hum dekhen to genetic factors ho skte hain. Agar parivar me kisi ko bhi psychological problem ya depression ki history rhi hai to us vaykti ko hone ki tendency badh jati hai. Jaise ki kisi bhi or bimari me hota hai chahe vo thyroid ho ya diabetes ho ya hypertension ho. Isi trha ye bhi hereditary ho skti hai. Dusra hmare dimag me neuro chemicals hote hain jo hmare brain ki functioning ko control krte hain. Unhi me se ek chemical hota hai jisko hum serotonin bolte hain. Isko happy hormone bhi bola jata hai. Studies ne dikhaya hai ki jin logon ko depression hota hai, un logon me jo serotonin ki matra hai jo vo kam ho jati hai.

Vo thoda sa imbalance ho jata hai. Psychological factors ki bat kren to hmara jo prospective hai ya chizon ko dekhne ka nazariya hai, agar vo kafi negative hai, or hmari personality is tarike ki hai agar koi vayakti jo negative prospective rkhta hai, har chiz me problem dekhta hai, un logon ko depression hone ki tendency bhi badh jati hai compared to someone who has a optimum view to life. Social factors me agar kisi tarike ka tanav mehsus hota hai ya koi stressful situation hoti hai jaise kisi ki job chut jati hai ya koi relationship break-up hota hai ya koi or tarike ka stress ata hai to us vjha se bhi clinical depression ka episode initiate ho skta hai. Treatment ki agar hum bat kren to medications me psychiatrist and allopathic medicines hoti hai. Homepathic medicines bhi hain kafi effective hain.

Psychological aspect ki bat kren to psycho therapy hai jisko counsling se bhi jana jata hai. Through CBT which is the form of therapy for treating depression. Yhan pe unke emotions ko handle krne k lia kam kia jata hai. Kaise unke sochne ke tarike ko effective bnaya ja skta hai. Jis s unki functioning better ho ske. Iske alwa jo studies me btaya hai ki combination of medications and psychotherapy is the best form of treatment. Depression ek treatable condition hai. Aaj kal hum kafi celebrities ko dekh rhen hai jo iske bare me open up ho rhen hain and kafi iske bare me bat kr rhen hain. Jiska impact ye hua hai ki logon me iske bare me awareness badh gyi hai. And now they are open to come and see any professional clinical psychologist or any other mental health professional. Agr apko ya apke privaar me ye sare lakshan apko nazar aate hai ya apnea ap mehsus hote hain to aap humse consultation le skte hain. Delhi me hmare 3 centers hai. Ek Pitampura, ek Rajouri Garden or ek Satya Niketan, Moti Bagh me. To aap hmare pas aake homeopathy plus psychological treatment k lia consult kar skte hain.

Thank You!
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How To Get Rid Of Excessive Thoughts?

Mai Dr. Shashi Bhushan Kumar, ek mano-chikitsak hun. Aaj aapse ek jo badi common samasya hai OCD, iske baare mei mai baat karna chahta hun. OCD hamare samaj mei kam se kam 3-4% logon ko hota hai. Jo common symptoms hai OCD ke usmei ek toh zada saaf safai ka dhyan rakhna, baar baar haath dhona, hamesha man mein ek darr rehna ki mujhe kuch na kuch bimari lag jayegi. To iss wajah se vaisi kuch jagao pe jane se bachna. Yeh sab common lakshan hain. Iske alawa kuch aur lakshan hote hain jaise- vichar aata hai ki agar main aisa nahi karunga to hamare ghar mein parivaar ko kuch anhoni ho jayega. To vo 1 particular cheez kuch zaroor Karte hain aur baar baar karte hain.

Jab tak vo nahi karte tab tak unka man nahi maanta. Unhe pata hota hai ki hum yeh galat hain aur jo main kar raha hoon woh sahi nahi hai lekin woh ispe control nahi rakh paate hain. Jab control nahi rakh paate hain tabhi isko hum bimari ka roop maante hain. Iske alawa kuch symptom hota hai jisko symmetrical symptoms bolte hain. Symmetry ka symptom hota hai. Doubts hota hai, jaise ki aapne kadpe pehne hai to aapko lagega ki maine thik se nhi pehna hai. Ya baal aapne kangi kiya hoga toh aapko lagega ki kangi thik se nahi hua hai. Joote pehane hue hai to joote ki lace thik se nahi bandhe hue hain. Is tarah ke symptom hote hain, ki kuch chiz jo aap baar baar rakhte hain to lagega ki thik se rakha hua nhi hai, usko proper way mei hona chahiye.

Aap ko lagega ki nahi just right nahi hai usko dobara se usko rakhte hain. Iss tarah ke symptom hota hai jisse ki tab aapko lagta hai ki ye sab OCD ke symptom hain. Jab doubt hota hai kapdo ke baare mein, jooton ke baare mein to aap puchte hain ghar walo se, dosto se ki kya main thik lag raha hoon? Mere kapde thik hai ki nahi hai? Ya joote thik bandhe hue hai ya nahi? Agar aapko doubt hota hai toh bahut log baar baar unhein bandhte hain kholte hain. Bahut baat cheezo Ko dekhte hain. To is tarah se yeh cheezein lagataar unko pareshan karti rehti hai. Aur ye irresistible hota hai. Unko pata hota hai ki jo main kar raha hoon woh bakwas hai, iska koi meaning nahi hai. Lekin inn sab ke bawajood bhi vo usko band nahi kar paate hain. Aur chah kar bhi woh apne vicharo ko rok nahi paate hain aur vicharo ke badle Mei jo prakriyaein karte hain jaise ki baar baar haath dhona.

Ye vichar hota hai ki hamare hath gande hain uski vajah se vo baar baar haath dhote hain. Kuch chizein woh baar baar saaf karte hain, kapde saaf baar baar karenge, nahane mei bhi baar baar zada samay lagta hain unko. Unko pata hota hai ki jo main ye kar raha hoon woh theek nahi hai, uske bawajood bhi woh usko baar baar karte hain. Tabhi hum isko OCD mante hain, jab ye koi bhi vichar ya koi bhi symptom aap ko aap ki personal life mein, professional life mein ya routine life mein pareshani paida karne lage tab vo disease ka roop ho jata hai. Isko ham log bolte hain Socio-Occupational Dysfunction. Jab symptoms se Socio-Occupational Dysfunction hone lage tab aapko kisi bhi mano-chikitsak se milna chahiye.

Aur OCD chunki ek aisi bimari hai jo treat hoone mein bhi samay zada leta hai. Dawai jab tak 2-3 mahina nahi chalta hai tab tak isme koi sudhar nahi aata hai. Jabki depression mei, psychosis mei, ya dusre panic disorders ya dusre psychiatric disorders mei iss tarah ki samasya nahi hai. OCD mei response rate bohot poor hota hai aur zada der tak dawai khane ke baad faeda hota hai. Aur thik hone ke baad aapko iski dawai ko band karne ka koshish nhi karna chahiye. Kyunki agar ek baar relapse hota hai to phir dobara se thik hone mein bhi zada samay leta hai. Toh OCD ek bohot hi common samasya hai aur jab iss tarah ke common symptoms jo hamne ginaye hain uske baare mei agar aapko aisa lagta hai ki aap usse peedit hai, aapko aisa ho raha hai to aap zarur mile. Psychiatrist se mile. Aur kisi bhi psychiatrist se aap mil sakte hain Apne aas paas ke area se ya jahan se aapko pasand hota hai.

Thank you!
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Postpartum Depression Or Postnatal Depression
Hello Everyone!

My name is Dr. Aparna Deshmukh. I am a consultant psychiatrist sexologist. Today I will be talking on postpartum depression or postnatal depression. Postpartum depression is a mood disorder which is characterised by depressive symptoms in the period that follows childbirth in either of the parents. More commonly in mothers. It is important to know about postpartum depression because no.1 is common. About 15% of women suffer from postpartum depression in the postnatal period. Secondly, not only it is important from the point of view mother s mental health but mother who suffers postpartum depression is unable to care for her infant effectively.

And it leads to profound effect, mental health and well-being of the child in the future too. And thirdly, in postpartum depression in its severe form which is postpartum psychosis, the mothers may have thoughts of harming their infants. And they may actually act upon this thought leading to actual harm to an infant and in some cases even death. So how do patients with postpartum depression presents. The postpartum depression onset is usually 2 weeks to 1 month after delivery or sometimes even miscarriage. Some professional even diagnose it after 1 year of child birth. Here the patient typically presents with behaviour and cognitive symptoms. The emotional symptoms include the patient saying that they are sad, sometimes they feel empty inside.

Some patients are irritable, and they get angry on trivial issues. On the other hands. Some patients become lethargic and complaint of low energy or loss of pleasure, loss of interest, loss of enthusiasm. And some patients become withdrawn, non-communicative. In different towards their infant. And in general, they have this fear and worry that they would not be able to care for their infant which leads to a feeling of inadequacy. And sometimes inappropriate guilt and sheen. Many patient s complaints about a loss of concentration, poor memory that they are not able to take their decisions. The decision-making capacity has been reduced. Or they are unable to think clearly. Some have thoughts of hopelessness or helplessness. And even worklessness. And some patients in their severe illnesses may also have thoughts of humming themselves or even others.

The relatives might notice that the patient has either become withdrawn or non-communicative or they may feel that the patient is overwhelmed and anxious. They may notice that the patient is very lethargic. Or some patients, they sleep a lot. Mostly the whole day. And some patients do not sleep at all. So, sleep patterns may vary depending on the patient. Even the appetite changes are noticed in some patient. The severe form of postpartum depression that I was saying formally postpartum psychosis. Now in postpartum psychosis other than these symptoms, there is also presence of psychotic symptoms. These includes suspiciousness towards family member that they will harm them which leads to an agitative and aggressive behaviour of the patients. Sometimes the patient hallucinates i.e. the hear of voices that are inaudible to others. And the relatives may notice that the patient muttering to self, talking to self. Sometimes patient may also have excessive physical activities. Or they may talk excessively or there is the running of thoughts in their mind. So, these symptoms may also be the part of postpartum psychosis.

Another entity, that needs to be differentiated postpartum depression is postpartum blues or baby blues. Now this entity is more common. But fortunately, it is a milder form. And the depressive symptoms are milder. Patient may complaint of depressed mood, fluctuating moods, irritability, change in sleep and appetite pattern. But the good thing is that it is self-limiting. However, in some cases postpartum blues may progress to postpartum depression. So, how common is postpartum depression? Like I said 15% of women in their postnatal period suffer from postnatal depression. However, postpartum psychosis is rarer. Postpartum blues on the other hand much more common. Affecting 50-70% of the women in the postnatal period. What causes postnatal depression?

There are multiple factors: biological, psychological, social factors. Usually it is an interplay between these factors. Sometimes the combination of these factors that leads to postpartum depression. So, the hormonal changes that occur during and after pregnancy, the sleep deprivation, the emotional and physical stress of childbirth, the added responsibility of the child and poor social and family support can lead to postpartum depression. So, how do we treat postpartum depression? In mild cases, like psychotherapy like counseling helps but modern to severe cases the anti-depressants are the main stay of treatment. In postpartum psychosis. Antipsychotic medication is also prescribed. In severe cases, electroconvulsive therapy is also recommended.

Psychotherapy can be combining with the biological therapy. Mainly cognitive behavioral therapy and interpersonal therapy helps. Counseling and peer support group are also recommended. So, these were the some of the basic questions that I tried to answer about postpartum depression.

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