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Depression - Symptom, Treatment And Causes

The Different Forms of Depression

Depression manifests itself in one of its several forms. These are:

  • Major Depression- In the case of major depression the symptoms are severe enough to interfere with a person’s ability to sleep, work, study, eat and enjoy his life. Major depression episodes may occur a single time or more commonly even multiple times in a person’s life.
  • Dysthymia or Dysthymic disorder- In this variant of depression the symptoms are less severe but persist over prolonged periods that stretch to two years or more.
  • Minor Depression- In the case of minor depression the symptoms are not all that severe and persist for only a small amount of time.

What are the causes of depression?

Depression may be caused by a single or a combination of factors like:

  • Genetic Propensity- People whose families have previous histories of depression are more susceptible to having the illness than people with no family history of depression.
  • Brain Chemistry- The chemistry of the people suffering from depression is different from those who do not have the disease.
  • Stress- Sometimes events that evoke strong emotions like a dear person’s death, a difficult relationship or other situations that are acutely stressful may be enough to trigger bouts of depression.

Treatment of Depression

The first step in treating a patient with depression is to consult a mental health professional or doctor. This visit may be followed by examinations and laboratory tests to rule out other similar conditions. Medications taken by a patient too fall under scrutiny. The doctor takes into account detailed family and medical history of the disease and then proceeds to prescribe antidepressants accordingly. However, the medicines are slow to take effect. But medical antidepressants often have severe side effects that may not be acceptable in all cases. Psychotherapy is another option that may help in the treatment of depression. It works by teaching new behaviour and ways of thinking that may help to alleviate some of the symptoms. It gives a person an insight into why the depression is occurring and what makes the situation worse.

Can't be cured, but treatment helps Usually self diagnosable
Loosing interest in daily activities Insomnia or oversleeping Anger Irritability Loss of energy Self loathing Concentration issues

Popular Health Tips

Eating Disorders And Suicidal Thoughts - Are They Related?

M.Phil - Clinical Psychology, M.Sc - Neuropsychology
Psychologist, Zirakpur
Eating Disorders And Suicidal Thoughts - Are They Related?

Eating disorders can harm your physical and mental health. Anorexia, bulimia and binge eating are some of the most common eating disorders. They are typically caused by dissatisfaction with physical appearances. Feeling bad about how you look can often lead to depression. In many cases, this can also lead to suicidal thoughts. Here are a few reasons for this.

  1. Feeling of hopelessness: Eating disorders typically start out as ways to lose weight and look better. Most patients think that this will make them more popular amongst friends and colleagues. However, when they do not see themselves winning more friends because of their new figure, it can lead to feelings of despair and hopelessness. This can make them feel unworthy of living and give rise to suicidal thoughts.
  2. Malnourishment: By not eating enough food, the body is deprived of essential nutrients. This can give rise to a number of health issues. Malnourishment also influences how the neurons in the brain function. It can hamper the person’s ability to think clearly and contribute to a distorted sense of reality. As a result, the person may be more easily influenced by negativity.
  3. Feeling of being a burden: The combination of helplessness, negativity and nutrient deficiency can make the person feel as though they were a burden on everyone else. The attention given to them by friends and family can further intensify such thoughts. In many cases, the person may end up having suicidal thoughts that if he were to give up his life, his friends and family would be better off without him.
  4. Unrealistic ideals: People with eating disorders typically have unrealistic ideals of the lifestyle and figure they would like to have. When they do not see these goals being achieved in the manner that they dreamt of, it can cause frustration. This can make the person feel worse about himself or herself.

Like any other disease or disorder, it is essential for people with eating disorders to get professional help overcoming their habits. Parents, friends and other members of the family should be supportive and be on the lookout for signs of suicidal thoughts. This includes talking about death, researching means of suicide, not being able to sleep or sleeping too much, isolating oneself from people around, losing interest in activities and hobbies etc. If the person does seem to be having suicidal thoughts, they should not be ignored but brought to the notice of a counsellor immediately.

1 person found this helpful

Kidney Stones - Sign & Symptoms To Watch Out For!

MBBS, MS - Urology, DNB
Urologist, Guwahati
Kidney Stones - Sign & Symptoms To Watch Out For!

Kidney stones are one of the most common urinary tract disorders. These stones are the result of an abnormal concentration of urine. The stones might get unnoticed, till it moves around the kidney or passes into the ureter. The stones are basically small deposits of calcium that can cause excruciating pain.

Here is a list of signs that can indicate that a person might be suffering from kidney stone disorder:

  1. Painful Urination: The most common sign of kidney stones is a sudden urge to urinate. The urination occurs even though an individual has maintained the normal rate of fluid intake. When an individual does try to urinate, the amount of urine expelled is less than normal. In case of a normal volume of urine, an individual might experience extreme pain. The pain is the result of kidney stones travelling from the bladder to the urethra.
  2. Back Pain: People suffering from kidney stones often suffer from localized back pain in the early stages. The pain initiates at the side and back, just near the kidney area. As the condition worsens, the pain might spread to the groin, lower abdomen and lower back area. The waves of pain might last from a few minutes to few hours, depending on the number and size of the stones. For men, the pain might also be felt in the testicles and scrotum area.
  3. Blood In Urine: Apart from pain and discoloration, visible signs of blood in the urine are seen in patients who have kidney stones. The color of urine might vary from brown, pink to slightly red with stains of blood. With kidney stones increasing in size, it blocks the urethra, thereby ticking blood along with urine. This condition is referred to as hematuria.
  4. Vomiting and Nausea: People suffering from kidney stones often complain of nausea. It can become so severe that can lead to vomiting. Some other complications related to this condition include dehydration, nutritional deficiency etc. Another theory suggests that, throwing up is the result of body’s endeavor of clearing the toxic material from the body.
  5. Pungent Smell: It is quite common among patients suffering from kidney stones to have a pungent smelling urine. The smell is foul and sticks for a long time. The smell is the result of creatinine waste being accumulated and slowly passing through the urine from time to time.
  6. Difficulty in Sitting: Once the kidney stones gain in size, it becomes increasingly difficult for a patient to sit or lie down for a longer duration. Sitting or lying down puts pressure in the kidney area thereby causing intense pain. People try to combat this condition, by frequently standing up or by having a small walk.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2914 people found this helpful

3 Most Common Mental Disorders You Must Know About!

MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, MD - Psychiatry, Master of Public Health (MPH) Sweden
Psychiatrist, Delhi
3 Most Common Mental Disorders You Must Know About!

Here is a list of few most commonly observed mental disorders in the society. It is a hard to accept truth that even though people are aware of the existence of mental disorder, yet they not make an effort in identifying them. Therefore, read carefully and help people with any of these illnesses around you.

1. Anxiety

Anxiety is one of the most common types of mental disorders which is readily observed in 2 out of 5 people. A lot of patients are also observed with physical symptoms such as- shaky hands. Despite being so common amongst people, many choose to ignore it and others do not acknowledge the seriousness of this disease. In anxiety, a person will suffer extreme fear and in the moment of an anxiety attack he will have changed behavor, as well.

2. Depression

Another commonly observed mental disorder is depression which is also one of the most fatal diseases in the world. Herein, the patient does not die because of physical shhortcomings but the depressed state of mind could cause the peoson to drive himself to suicide or substance abuse conditions. Depression is an extremely important and very harmful mental disorder, which, if left unnoticed could drive the person towards his own end and destruction.

Signs and symptoms of depression:

It is extremely hard to identify a person with depression based on his looks because a despressed person will look the same on the outside but there will be going on a turmoil of emotions on the inside.The patient will give positive test to a psychomotor retardation

The person will not respond in a usual mannerHe will be restless

3. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

This is another one of the most commonly observed mental disorder in mankind. In this illness, a person will be obsessed with one person, thing or a place. This obsessive attachment to any said thing could turn dangerous as the person might cross any limits in order to attain it. A person could be subject to one or more of the following OCD’s:

  1. Cleanliness
  2. Being worried all the time about ones safety
  3. Keeping the things in order
  4. Repeating actions
  5. Reassurance
  6. Autism

Autism is also known as Autism Spectrum Disorder which targets the mind of young childen and permanently cause a change in their behaviour which is hard to undo. This illness falls under the child psychiatry branch of Psychiatry. Autism is a great threat to the mankind because the children are future of our world and there has been an increase in Autism, lately.

Signs and Symptoms:

  1. Repressed or late response to environmental stimuli
  2. Unable to communicate in same language as others
  3. Unable to communicate socially
  4. Repetitive actions
  5. Deviations in thoughts
  6. Absence of smile
  7. Always looking at the ground
  8. Such children easily cries
  9. Aggressive
9 people found this helpful

Does Your Brain Works Differently In Different Seasons?

DM - Neurology, MD - Medicine, MBBS
Neurologist, Gurgaon
Does Your Brain Works Differently In Different Seasons?

The brain is said to weigh only 2% of the weight of a person but at the same time, it accounts for 20% of the energy consumed by him or her. There are so many great things by the brain, quite a lot of which are quirky.

The brain is constantly developing and changing. As a matter of fact, one thing which is said to change is the way the brain functions i.e. it is said that the brain could alter the way it functions in accordance with the seasons!

Researchers from Belgium found that when people performed some actions; while the manner in which these actions were performed did not change, what was observed to change was the amount of brain intensity which was warranted in order to complete these tasks.

Seasons on your mind?
Some of the weird things that were found by them include the fact that if a person wished to sustain his or her attention, the effort in neural terms was the least in the month of December. What this means is that if a person wishes to focus on doing something which is of quite some importance, then he or she is best off doing it in December as the stamina for doing so would be the greatest. On the other hand, the month of June was seen to demand the greatest effort for a person to concentrate.

In many situations, things seem to have been just out of mental grasp. It becomes difficult to recollect certain memories of a particular time. This problem is usually faced by people during the months of autumn. This is because the autumn time demands the most of the working memory of a person. On the contrary, if a person seems to have the ability to remember something off the top of his or her head, it is most likely to occur over the period of time around the spring equinox.

Now, a lot of people are likely to wonder why this is the case and whether this phenomenon can be seen in each and every person. The answer to that is that people who have SAD or Seasonal Affective Disorder may be more likely to have the working of their minds affected due to changes in seasons. This has not been proven yet.

So, if a person is not a winter person, it may be all in the mind! In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!


3070 people found this helpful

Seasonal Affective Disorder - How Light Therapy Can Help?

Psychiatrist, Mumbai
Seasonal Affective Disorder - How Light Therapy Can Help?

One of the unique forms of depression is the Seasonal affective disorder which is characterized by the onset of depression with the start of the winter months and a full remission during the spring time. A seasonal affective disorder is more coomon in women than in men. They make up between 60% and 90% of those who suffer from the winter blues or summer anxiety. Women aged 18-55 are most likely to experience seasonal affective disorder. This is due to serotonin levels which are affected by things like menopause and PMS. One of the common therapies used to treat this disorder is light therapy.

What is light therapy?

Light therapy is the controlled exposure to specific amounts of bright light on a daily basis as a medicinal tool to correct depression and other mental disorders. It has been noticed that the lack of exposure to lights may trigger certain mental disorders within patients and controlled exposure to bright light over a stipulated period of time every day may be able to correct this effectively.

How it works?

Brightness within the daily world is usually measured with the unit of lux. For all types of artificial lights, the measure of luminosity is estimated via this unit. Human beings have an automatic trigger where low light levels for continued periods may cause depression. A clear sunny day outdoors will have a measurement of 10,000 lux and this is the recommended dosage for exposure for people suffering from depression.



It has been seen in studies that people with severe forms of Seasonal Affective disorder responded well to this therapy. They were treated 30 minutes daily with light exposure and over time the study showed that it significantly improved the moods of the people.

Some of the reasons why light therapy proves to be an effective treatment option for SAD include:



  • It resets the circadian rhythm - Controlled exposure to light will trigger the hormones that control the circadian rhythms or the daily rhythms of sleeping and walking cycles and thus will help reduce depression.
  • It triggers neurotransmitter function - Light exposure triggers certain neurotransmitter functions which work like an antidepressant and thus relieves stress or other internal functions that may cause depression.
  • Results in an increase in serotonin levels - This hormone is very important for mood elevation and is known to rise with increased light levels and decrease with low light levels. Controlled exposure can definitely help improve serotonin levels for lessening depression symptoms.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

5522 people found this helpful

Popular Questions & Answers

I am 40 years, I have depression problem from last 17 days, I feel hopeless, I can not concentrate or don't feel happy, I lost interest in TV and songs, I fear about losing my near ones and worried about my future, I feel I am not capable and mentally weak compared to others, I do play sports for 1-1.30 hours daily, I am healthy, I feel good sometimes but most of the times sad and hopeless, I sleep for just 6 hours daily from last few days and gets up after every 1-2 hours and feel hopeless and again sleep after making lots of efforts, please help me with this problem and do yoga or meditation helps to cure this problem.

PhD - Clinical Psychology, Diploma in Clinical and Community Psychology, MA - Clinical Psychology, BA - Psychology
Psychologist, Delhi
Hello Lybrate user I can understand what you might be going through and how these symptoms are affecting your daily life. The above mentioned symptoms are indicative of depressive mood disorder along with anxiety and low confidence. Try consulting a clinical psychologist for proper diagnosis and treatment. You can also reach out to me through the Lybrate app. Try regular exercises and deep breathing exercises. Also share your thoughts and feelings with someone close. Engage in activities you like.

I am 23 year old suffering from depression. I have been prescribed fludac 20 mg once a day. How long should the treatment continue? Only psychiatrist reply.

MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, MD - Psychiatry
Psychiatrist, Hyderabad
Medication like Fludac take atlas 4 to 8 weeks to exert their action, if patient responds to medication it should be given for a period of 6-9 months, that is what a course of Depression will be provided it is a major Depressive disorder.
2 people found this helpful

I am suffering from depression. And I feel continuously sound in my brain. I feel unconscious. And the thought S are running continuously. And feel weakness in body and mind. I feel brain muscle movements.

M.A.(H)Psychology, PG Diploma in Child Guidance and Family Therapy
Psychologist, Delhi
Hello Lybrate User I’ll share with you the steps that I pushed myself through during my darkest hours (in no particular order) in order to reconnect with myself. Reaffirm Reality and Reconnect to the World- What I mean by this is to slow down. Take a minute. Try to relax as much as you can. Focus on one physical thing in your immediate vision that won’t spark thoughts of the circumstances that led to your current mental state. Choose something neutral and common, like a piece of fruit, a blank television, a calculator, a shoe, its up to you. Stare at it. Take in all it’s details. Don’t think about anything but this object in front of you. Think about all of the time, effort, manpower, and creativity it took to create that object. You could say it took a community to create that object. That object was cultivated and created with the help of many other people. A long chain of events, circumstances, and chance brought this particular object into your reality. There is a good chance that there are many other objects like it in the world, but this particular object right in front of you, is the only one like it that is yours. Just like the object in front of you, this reality you are in, physically and mentally, was cultivated by a community. A community, no matter what size, that cares about you. A long chain of events, circumstances, and chance brought you into the reality that you are in this very moment. Though there are definitely unsavory and unpleasant events/circumstances mixed into your chain, they will ultimately make you stronger, one way or another in the long run. Just like that object, there are people living realities in the world very similar to yours, but your reality is the only one like it. The exact combination of everything you have been through, enjoyed, missed, loved, laughed at, gotten angry at, shed tears for and so on is completely and indefinitely unique to you. Your reality belongs to you, you, and only you. Nobody can ever take it from you. One of a kind objects are considered to be priceless. But your reality and your entire life experience is more valuable, unique, and precious than any priceless object to have ever existed on the face of planet earth. Though certain aspects of your physical/mental existence or external factors may feel completely out of your control, your reality will never truly be completely out of your control. Your reality is yours, and you ultimately decide what you want to do with it, and what direction you want to push it towards. Even though your reality will never be a physical, quantifiable object, it will always be yours and yours alone to control. (I apologize for such a lengthy step, but I find this thought process to be very comforting and grounding when I feel like my life and existence is out of control. I am genuinely curious if this method helps you at all, as I have never shared it with anybody else) Reach Out to People That You Know Care About You - You already successfully reached out to a population who can empathize what you are going through, now its time to reach out to a population of people you hold dear to your heart to be able to care for you. Talk to somebody you trust dearly about what you are going through and everything that led up and caused your current state of being. Tell them about what you feel, emotionally and physically. I understand that opening up and externalizing your current vulnerabilities can be extremely difficult and upsetting, but externalizing your feelings and emotions with a trustworthy person who is going to support you is a very positive activity to engage in, even though it may feel as if it makes you more upset at first. Cities cannot be built by one person alone, and achieving a more content state of mind can feel as complicated as building a city. Lean on a loved one for support. They will do everything they can to help pick you back up. And if you truly feel that there is nobody around that will be willing to help you, seek professional counsel. If you can’t afford professional counsel, call the National Suicide Prevention Hotline. They are there for more than just immediately suicidal people. But whatever you do, DO NOT GIVE UP. I promise that there is at the very absolute minimum, one person in the world who will support you and help you through your time of adversity. Focus On the Present- I know it’s easier said than done, especially since the present is likely a very dark place for you right now. Try your absolute best to not dwell on the past or worry about the pressures of the impending future. The past is in the past now, and it always will be. I understand that all of life’s memories live in the past and that some things in the past are better held onto, but your primary concern right now is turning the present into a brighter place. Matter of fact you always are and always will be in the present. The present is the only place where your mentality will begin improve. Hopefully you begin to lift out of your depressive state in the near future, but the most effective way to achieve a brighter future is to try to do everything you can do in order to lift yourself up in the present. One of my favorite sayings for working through a dark time comes from Doctor Emmett Brown “your future hasn't been written yet, no one's has. Your future is whatever you make it, so make it a good one”. Analyze Your Feelings Scientifically- In its most basic and stripped back form, Depression is merely levels of certain compounds in your brain being out of whack. Understanding that you are currently out of sorts indicates that with determination and a little elbow grease, the imbalance of compounds working in your brain will ever so subtly begin to return to normal. Everything you see, touch, smell, hear, and feel is the product of different compounds working in unison in your brain. The most hopeful part of going through depression is accepting the fact that what you are experiencing right now may be unpleasant, but it is temporary. You will return to normal soon enough, I promise you will. Understand that time will eventually heal - Time appears to move very slowly when you are miserable. Things that you enjoy when you aren’t feeling low feel like they may drag on. A thought process that helps me a lot is reassuring myself that no matter how crazy, hectic, or out of control I may feel, time is the one thing that will always and forever remain a constant in my life. With time, you will start to slowly grow back into yourself. With time, your mind will naturally start to wander to other things, you will not always feel like the space in your mind is constantly overflowing with thoughts of the events that made you feel as if you are broken. With time, you will soon start to feel whole again, even though you may still feel the sting of what you experienced every now and then, it will become much more bearable. With time, your dark thoughts will continue to receded to the back of your mind and out of your focus. With time, you will be able to think about the things that are hurting you right now, and though you may still not be fully ok with those things, they will no longer feel as if they control you. With time, you will become you again, and most importantly you will be able to learn something from your experience. What is now a gaping wound will eventually become merely a scar with time. And though you may carry this scar with you for the rest of your life, you will become stronger from it, one way or another. See a doctor - If you feel that your depression is chronic or it continues to worsen despite trying your absolute hardest, go consult a doctor. There is absolutely no shame in getting medication that is designed to help you through a dark place. I hope some or even just one of these suggestions works for you. And I hope you get to feeling like yourself again soon. And always remember, you are not alone. You are valued. You are loved. Take care.

Table of Content

The Different Forms of Depression
What are the causes of depression?
Treatment of Depression
Play video
Know More About Depression
Depression is a mood disorder characterized by persistently low mood and a feeling of sadness and loss of interest. Symptoms include lack of joy and reduced interest in things that used to bring a person happiness.Depression is a treatable mental illness.
Play video
How To Deal With Mental Health?
Hello friends,

My name is Dr. Prabhjit Singh and I am a psychologist. As soon as say the word psychologist a lot of you must be thinking that I am a doctor who deals with mental patients. But I am not a doctor who deals with mental patients but I deal with mental health. And I know as Indian scenario as soon as we talk about mental health the first word that comes to our mind is mental and we don't deal with mental things. See it is ok if you are suffering from some mental issues like for example if you are suffering from stomach ache for 2 days we visit a physician and we take the medicine then why not if you are suffering from mental health issue why do hesitate to visit a psychologist?

There is an upcoming term which we use very often which is called depression. Nowadays we all use this word from two days I am into depression, from 3 days i am into depression. You might be and you might not be but how many of you have actually visited a psychologist to get your self-assessed properly, none i guess. Same is the case with child mental health. We are ready to spend 500 rupees on our children when we go to a movie theatre, we buy a movie ticket, we buy them popcorn, we buy them cold drinks but how many of us are ready to spend 500 or 1000 rupees for if our child is facing mental health issue and we think we should take him to the psychologist.

I think none because I don't know why we hesitate in such situation maybe it's the society that we think that our children are having some psychiatric issues or mental or in Hindi pagal. I don't think if you are having a mental health issue then we should termed as mental. It is just like we are having some issue and mean to get it rectified so I urge everybody who is listening to this video if you think you have some mental health related issue you should not hesitate to visit a psychologist please do come forward, we are also doctors we are not psychiatric or as you say those people who deal with proper mental kind of a thing. We are there to help you. Please come forward, don't hesitate.

Thank you!
Play video
How To Get Rid Of Excessive Thoughts?
Excessive thoughts cause distress in people, it is important to deal with this situation well.
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Depression And Its Symptoms
Depression has become one of the common diseases of the present era and it is important to deal with it in the right way.
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Postpartum Depression Or Postnatal Depression
PPD depicts a type of mood disorder which is associated with childbirth and can affect both males and females. It usually onsets between one week / month following birth of child. Treatment for PPD may include counseling or medications.
Having issues? Consult a doctor for medical advice