stress boosts levels of stress hormones, such as adrenaline, catecholamines, and cortisol, which can inhibit the release of the body’s main hormone, gonadotropin releasing hormone, which is responsible for the release of sex hormones. Subsequently, this may suppress ovulation in women, reduce sperm count in men and lower libido in both women and men.read more
Doctor in New Life Clinic
Treatment of Pregnancy and related Disorder
Treatment of Irregular Periods
Treatment of No Periods
Management of Pregnancy
Treatment of Ovarian Cysts
Management of Pregnancy Query
Management of Abortion
Treatment of Painful Periods
Avoiding Pregnancy Procedures
Birth Control Treatment
Treatment of Painful Sexual Intercourse
Treatment of Pregnancy Symptoms
Treatment of Heavy Periods
Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Treatment of Breast Pain
Treatment of Vaginal Discharge
Treatment of Miscarriage
Treatment of Vaginal Itching
Treatment of Cervicitis
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Excessive bleeding during menstruation is the bane of countless women’s lives worldwide. Your doctor will classify your periods as heavy if you bleed enough to soak a pad every hour for several consecutive hours.
Passing large clots during menstruation and a period that lasts over seven days also are counted as excessive menstrual bleeding. Apart from messing up with daily activities, heavy bleeding or menorrhagia can also lead to anaemia which in turn causes shortness of breath and fatigue.
Hormonal imbalance is a big cause. If you are a teenager, you can easily have an imbalance in oestrogen and progesterone leading to heavy periods. This imbalance also easily presents in menopausal women.
- Hormonal imbalance can also be seen if there is a problem in ovarian function.
- Fibroids are another cause of heavy bleeding. Non-cancerous tumours of the uterus are another cause. Fibroids mostly occur during childbearing years.
- Miscarriages or ectopic pregnancies that occur in fallopian tubes are another cause of heavy bleeding.
- Use of medicines that thin blood in people with heart problems
- Intrauterine devices or IUDs used for birth control can also cause heavy bleeding.
- Pelvic inflammatory disease, PID, which is an infection of the uterus, fallopian tubes, and other organs of the reproductive system, can cause heavy bleeding.
- Cervical, uterine and ovarian cancers can also cause this symptom.
- Low platelet counts that can prevent normal blood clotting due to liver, kidney, or thyroid disease.
The doctor will examine you and determine the cause of the heavy bleeding. And depending on the cause, treatment will be carried out. There are a few medicines that are prescribed for menorrhagia like:
- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs like Ibuprofen to cut down on blood loss and minimise the pain
- Hormone therapy can be done for stabilising hormones as well as the lining of the uterus and regulate the menstrual cycle
- Inserted IUD can also be removed in case the bleeding is too excessive
Surgery can also be considered depending on your case history. One of the following surgical procedures is usually recommended
- Dilation and curettage - D&C involves dilating the cervix or the entrance of the uterus and cleaning the lining of the uterus.
- Hysteroscopy - A long, thin scope is inserted into the uterus through the vagina and the doctor is able to see and simultaneously remove uterine masses that may be causing heavy bleeding.
- Hysterectomy - If all else fails, the uterus is removed. This puts a stop to a woman’s chances of having a baby ever.
Heavy bleeding should not be ignored as it puts you at risk of iron-deficiency anaemia which can affect your whole body.
Diabetes is a health condition that occurs due to the lack of insulin and when the body fails to regulate the blood sugar levels. It has been observed that it is a medical complication for many women during their pregnancy. It is best to follow some course of action in order to have a healthy pregnancy and avoid any complications. Diabetes is an autoimmune disease and it can be classed in to 2 categories or types. The type 1 diabetes requires use of insulin on daily basis and its symptoms include weight loss, blurred vision and increased urination. The symptoms of type 2 diabetes include kidney or bladder infection and it is the most common form of diabetes.
Do the babies also develop diabetes?
It is not necessary that babies who are born to diabetic mothers are also diabetic, but if diabetes is not controlled during pregnancy, there are chances that the baby will produce a large quantity of insulin while they are still in the womb. It is quite possible that the sugar levels would be low immediately after birth and a close watch of the newborn is a must till the body adjusts to the amount of insulin it makes.
It has been observed that large babies develop diabetes later in life, mostly type 2 diabetes, and are likely to become obese. It is very important that children are encouraged to develop regular exercise habits and healthy eating habits to reduce the chances of obesity.
Effect of Diabetes on Pregnant Women
There are chances that if a pregnant woman has diabetes, there are fluctuations in her blood sugar levels, this is because of the hormones that are associated with the pregnancy. It is very important that sugar levels are controlled at the time of conception as there is a greater risk of miscarriage or certain birth defects occuring. The pregnant woman is also at a higher risk of blood pressure which can result in premature birth and complications to the mother. The cause for concern for expectant mothers with diabetes is that the baby grows too large, especially if the diabetes is uncontrolled.
Normal Blood Sugar For Pregnant Women
The healthy blood sugar levels in a pregnant woman for fasting sugar should be less than 95mg/dL and the blood sugar level after one hour of eating should be 140mg/dL. The blood sugar level after 2 hours of eating should be 120mg/dL.
Gestational diabetes that begins during pregnancy has become very common and can lead to defects in the infant. If the blood sugar level is high, then it can lead to complications during labor due to excessive growth of the fetus. It is therefore best to maintain blood sugar levels to avoid risks for the child such as respiratory distress, low glucose levels and jaundice.
Consult your physician today for more information.
A cervical smear test is often known as a Pap test and is done to establish the changes that might have occurred in cells of the cervix. A small sample of cells is taken from the surface of the cervix and is tested for any abnormalities. The sample is spread on a slide or in some cases mixed with a liquid fixative and studied under a microscope. It is one of the most popular methods to test the abnormalities in your cells and can pinpoint point cervical cancers.
About the test
A typical cervical smear or Pap test is done to identify the changes that have happened to the cells of the cervix. Diagnosing them early can be beneficial in many ways and can lower your chance of cervical cancer. PAP smear or a cervical smear is a screening test for cervical cancer. For other cases, once the results of the cell growth are identified it is safe to seek other tests and medical options for diagnosis.
The procedure of typical Pap smear
The test is mostly recommended when you do not have the periods as the blood can interfere with the results. Also, before taking the test discuss with your doctor about the medications you are taking and in case you are under any birth control pills. No other special preparations are needed for the Pap test. Feel free to discuss with your doctor about the impact the test will have on you or on the pain levels, etc.The test is done by inserting a speculum into the vagina, which spreads it further. Later, a cotton swab is inserted to get the samples of cells from your cervix. The cells from the vagina are also collected in some cases and tested accordingly.
The risks involved
There no chances of risks when you go for such tests. You might feel a bit of pressure in your vaginal region and may experience a small bleeding after the testing. However, this is extremely normal. Also, there is no pain involved. If you experience heavy period and blood loss, you might experience minor discomfort when the test is being done.
The final result
Once the test is done, the results would be available usually within a week. The results can be categorized into normal and abnormal. If your cells are normal and no abnormality is found then the condition is termed as a normal result. In the case of abnormality in the cell structure, then it requires further evaluation and diagnosis to rule out cancer.
Pregnancy places some restrictions on the expectant mother, and one of them is limiting travel so much so that most women do only the required and essential commutes and skip any other travel, including vacations and business travel, completely until delivery. However, with the lifestyle changing for the woman so radically, this is being revisited. The doctor’s current advice is that unless there are potential complications expected or significant concerns, it is completely safe to travel.
The first trimester especially is a little tricky for travel, with the morning sickness. The second trimester is considered more ideal for travel, as the morning sickness and the feeling of being pregnant is sunk in, so the mother is comfortable. The third trimester is fine too, but the chances of fatigue are higher, and so travel is better avoided.
Read on to know some significant things to remember whether you are on a plane, train, or road during your pregnancy.
- Always buckle yourself up as soon as you enter the car. Use both the seat belt and the lap belt.
- Keep the air bags turned on.
- Try to avoid travel time of four hours at a stretch.
- When stopping for breaks, try to walk around a bit and stretch so that you do not feel the strain of sitting for long hours.
- Most airlines allow women to travel during the first eight months of pregnancy.
- Some airlines do allow for travel during the ninth month, if the doctor approves it, or if there is an attendant with the expectant woman.
- It is okay to walk through airport screening during pregnancy. There are some women who are apprehensive about this aspect.
- Similarly the cabin pressure in the commercial planes reduces, but does not bear any significant impact for a pregnant woman.
- Select an aisle seat, as it allows for easy seating and getting up.
- Walking to the restroom and back should be carefully managed. The aisle is quite narrow and care must be taken to avoid hurting yourself.
- Use the seats for providing support when walking through the aisle.
- Especially, in turbulent stretches, try remaining seated, bearing in mind the safety aspects for yourself and the baby.
- Traveling by bus is safe, but trips to the restroom would be difficult.
- Trains are generally considered safer, as there is a lot of room for movement. Restrooms are available anytime, which is another major advantage.
- Sea travel is also considered safe, but sea sickness could add to the nausea.
- For long-term sailing, check with the cruise provider or the boat facility about availability of a healthcare provider on the ship.
Almost every woman suffers from a gynecological problem at some point or the other. In most cases these disorders are mild and easily treatable, but some gynecological problems can have serious implications and affect their fertility and quality of life.
Here are the five most common gynecological problems faced by women.
- Dysmenorrhea: Abdominal cramps and back aches are common side effects of menstruation but some women can suffer from excruciating pain during their menstrual cycles. This is known as dysmenorrheal. This is caused by a decreased supply of oxygen to the uterus due to strong contractions in the uterus. These cramps become less painful as a woman ages and in most cases is resolved by childbirth. Symptoms of this disorder include excruciating abdominal pain, pain in the lower back, inner thighs and hips, nausea and loose stools.
- Ovarian Cysts: Ovarian cysts can be big or small and many women live with cysts without being aware of it. These cysts can be described as fluid filled sac like structures that develop around and on the ovary which vary in terms of size and type. Ovarian cysts may or may not be tumors. Cysts can be a result of the growth of a follicle or the breaking down of tissue within the ovaries. In most cases, these cysts dissolve on their own but they should be monitored carefully.
- Endometriosis: This is a condition where the uterine tissue grows outside the walls of the uterus. This occurs commonly on the ovaries and fallopian tubes but can also develop on the cervix, bladder, bowel or rectum. The exact cause of endometriosis is unknown. Some theories suggest that it is triggered by retrograde menstruation or the backward flow of menstrual blood into the fallopian tubes. The symptoms of this condition include abdominal cramps, pain during intercourse and bowel movements, bleeding between periods and digestive problems.
- Poly Cyst Ovarian Disease (PCOD): PCOD is a condition where the ovaries produce follicles that develop into cysts instead of eggs. This leads to a lack of viable eggs and thus affects a woman’s fertility. This can also cause mood swings and depression. PCOD is triggered by hormone changes and exhibits symptoms such as irregular periods, acne, hair loss and breathing problems while sleeping.
- Urinary Tract Infection (UTI): UTIs are usually caused by bacterial infections and can be triggered by pregnancy, frequent intercourse, diabetes and as a side effect of certain types of medication. The symptoms of this condition include stinging and burning sensations while urinating, abdominal cramps, painful intercourse and an increased urge to urinate frequently.
A urinary tract infection or UTI can be quite painful and uncomfortable. This infection can be described as an infection that affects the ureter, urethra, bladder or kidneys. Women have a shorter urethra than men which makes this more vulnerable to this kind of infection.
It is said that most women suffer from at least one bout of this infection in a lifetime. Urinary tract infections are caused by bacteria and may often recur after treatment. However, in most cases, this can easily be prevented. Here are a few tips to help prevent recurrent urinary tract infections.
- Drink plenty of fluids: Ideally, we should drink 8-10 glasses of water a day at regular intervals. This keeps the body hydrated and flushes toxins and bacteria from the body. Water also prevents the formation of kidney stones that could increase your risk of suffering from a urinary tract infection.
- Urinate frequently: If you drink the required amount of water, you will typically need to urinate frequently. Do not try to control your bladder. Holding your urine in your bladder allows bacteria to multiply inside the bladder. This is an easy way for a UTI to begin.
- Follow healthy bathroom habits: Cleanliness is the first step to preventing any infection. When using public restrooms, flush the toilet before and after urinating. In the case of women, it becomes important to ensure that the seat of the toilet is clean as well. After urinating wipe the residual urine with toilet paper in a motion that goes from front to back. Since the urethra is situated very close to the rectum, this step is very important. For uncircumcised men, it is important to wash the foreskin after urination.
- Wear loose clothes: Tight fitting clothes trap moisture and aid in the multiplication of bacteria. Hence, always wear loose fitting clothes that keep the area around the urethra dry. Also, avoid synthetic underwear and only wear cotton underwear.
- Urinate after intercourse: The relative closeness of the vagina to the urethra makes it easy for bacteria to enter the urethra during intercourse. Hence, make it a habit of washing your pubic region after intercourse and urinating. This helps flush out any possible bacteria that may have entered your body.
- Choose the correct method of birth control: Certain types of birth control such as diaphragms and spermicidal agents can promote a urinary tract infection. Hence, it is best to avoid these types of birth control and pick alternatives.
What is Prenatal care?
It is crucial for a woman who is on her way to becoming a mother to pay special attention to her health. Health care offered to a pregnant woman is also known as prenatal care or antenatal care. It is a very important phase in a woman's life, so go for regular prenatal checkups as they go a long way in reducing risks of complications during pregnancy and child birth. This, in turn, increases the chances of giving birth to a healthy baby.
Contrary to popular belief, prenatal care does not begin when a woman is told that she is pregnant. Prenatal care should ideally be started at least three months before you try to conceive a child. This prepares your body and mind for the changes that pregnancy will bring. Some healthy habits to follow during this period include:
- Quit Drinking alcohol and smoking
- Consult a gynecologist about any existing medical conditions, medication you may be on and what supplements you should start taking
- Avoid contact with chemicals and toxic substances
Once your pregnancy is confirmed, you will need to visit the doctor regularly for checkups.
Prenatal checkups are meant to keep an eye on your health and the health of your baby. In most cases, you will be asked to come in every month for the first two trimesters and every two weeks during the seventh and eighth month of your pregnancy. During the ninth month, your doctor may want to see you once a week until the delivery. In cases where a pregnancy is considered high risk because of existing medical conditions, the age of the mother or any other factors, the doctor may ask a for more frequent checkups.
A prenatal checkup involves a physical examination, tests, screenings and dietary consultations. Some of the common tests include blood tests to check for HIV, the mother’s blood type and anemia. Your blood pressure will also be monitored. When it comes to the baby’s health, determining the rate at which the baby is growing and heart rate are most important. In the later stages of your pregnancy, the position of the baby will also be noted. It is important to not skip these checkups even if you are feeling fine.
Keep your doctor informed about any changes you may notice in your health. Do not take any medication without consulting your doctor even if it is for something as simple as a cold. Do not feel shy about talking to your doctor and ask him or her anything you would like to about your pregnancy and childbirth.
Menstrual disorders are caused by a variety of factors and affect every woman in a different manner. In most cases, it manifests itself in the form of fluctuations in menstrual flow and irregularity in the monthly cycle. Certain disorders are not too severe and can be easily alleviated. Others are more complicated and require the immediate attention of a gynecologist.
As mentioned, there are different specific causes of different kinds of disorders resulting from a range of factors such as hormone levels, functioning of the central nervous system, health of the uterus, etc.
Some of the most common causes of menstrual disorders are as follows:
- Hormonal imbalance
Fluctuating hormone levels in the body have a direct impact on the menstrual cycle. These fluctuations can be caused by dysfunction in the pituitary gland, thyroid gland or adrenal gland. It can also be a result of malfunction in either or both ovaries and the secretion of hormones originating there.
- Anatomic problems
One fourth menstrual disorders are caused by problems of the anatomy. These include various gynecological issues like the presence of uterine fibroids and polyps, reduced uterine contractile strength, adenomyosis (intrusion of uterine tissue into the muscular wall of the uterus), a uterus with an excessively large surface area, and endometrial cancer.
- Clotting irregularities
Abnormality in clotting is a cause of heavy menstrual bleeding in women. It leads to exceeding blood loss from minor cuts and gashes and makes one easily prone to bruising. This may also include medical conditions such as thrombocytopenia (platelet dysfunction) and Von Willebrand disease.
- Medications and supplements
There is a wide range of medications and nutritional or hormonal supplements which often cause menstrual disorders in women and lead to fluctuations in the menstrual cycle. These include medicines such as aspirin, ibuprofen, estrogen pills, Vitamin E supplements etc.
- Miscellaneous factors
These are comparatively rare and require a greater degree of medical attention. It includes conditions such as cervical cancer, ovarian tumors, liver and kidney diseases, uterine infections, extreme psychological stress, obesity, etc. Incidents such as miscarriages and unsuspected pregnancies are also known to cause abnormal menstrual bleeding.
On a pain scale of 1 to 10, delivery pain is rated as 11. It is one of the most severe forms of pain, and for women, it is almost like a second birth after coming out from delivery. With more and more advancements, attempts are being made to ensure this discomfort is managed better and the woman has a more relaxed experience through the delivery.
It is important to identify a couple of factors when going into delivery say for example who will be there with you, where the delivery will happen, how to manage the mind and body, and if there is anything else required for a smooth delivery. Having open discussions with the doctor, close family and friends will help you prepare for it.
Read on to know some pointers.
- People around you: Be careful about who is around you during the crucial hours. On one hand, ensure you have your midwives, doctors and nurses around you, who are knowledgeable and know how to handle the situation, if there is a crisis. On the other hand, have only close relatives and family members who are loving and supportive.
- Read up on labor: With so much information available both online and offline, read up from reliable sources and know what to expect during labor. While there may be an information overload, the overall info should be good to go and keep you updated.
- Talk about it: Whether it is the anesthesia, the needles, the instruments, blood, or injections, talk about your fears. Whether it is the doctor or your close family member, talk out your fears and see them disappear.
- Be positive: Surround yourself with positive images, positive people and positive thoughts. Soothing music is another must-have in your surroundings.
- Be active and occupied: For many women, keeping themselves occupied does not give time to worry about the pain. Constantly being on the move and not being confined to the home also reduces chances of pain.
- Try yoga: With rhythmic breathing and mild yoga, there are higher chances that you will be better able to manage the labor pains. Talk to your doctor as to what you can safely do. The swaying, squatting, and bending required by yoga does a lot of good to your overall body. Women who do some form of exercise and yoga in particular have a higher chance of vaginal delivery and are able to manage pain better.
- Warm bathing/showers: A warm bath soothes the lower back and the abdomen and can help in speeding up labor, as it helps in contractions.
- Involve your partner: The gentle touches and stroking will reassure you and ensure you are better able to sail through delivery.
stress boosts levels of stress hormones, such as adrenaline, catecholamines, and cortisol, which can inhibit the release of the body’s main hormone, gonadotropin releasing hormone, which is responsible for the release of sex hormones. Subsequently, this may suppress ovulation in women, reduce sperm count in men and lower libido in both women and men.