Doctors in Dr Bhargavi Reddy Women & Children's Hospital
Treatment of Pregnancy and related Disorder
Treatment of Irregular Periods
Management of Pregnancy
Treatment of Ovarian Cysts
Management of Pregnancy Query
Management of Abortion
Treatment of Painful Periods
Laser Hair Removal
Avoiding Pregnancy Procedures
Treatment Of Erectile Dysfunction
Treatment of Painful Sexual Intercourse
Treatment Of Male Sexual Problems
Treatment of Heavy Periods
Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
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Nicotine addiction or tobacco addiction refers to an acute dependence upon tobacco products primarily due to the presence of the nicotine drug. In other words, nicotine addiction refers to an inability to stop using tobacco products despite the knowledge and awareness that it is harmful to you. While nicotine only induces addiction, it is the presence of other substances in tobacco which makes it damaging and injurious to health.
Nicotine has the tendency to produce effects in the brain, both physical as well as mind-altering, that give temporary satisfaction. This is precisely why people get hooked into the habit of tobacco consumption which eventually leads to addiction.
Unfortunately, stopping tobacco use immediately can also lead to several withdrawal symptoms, like agitation and restlessness.
The main reason why tobacco is so addictive is due to the fact that nicotine releases neurotransmitters such as dopamine in the reward centre; of the brain, which in turn improves your mood and gives you temporary pleasure.
Causes of nicotine addiction can either be physical or behavioral, for instance situations or feelings which make you crave for tobacco. These include:
1. Specific times during the day, say after every meal or during breaks at work
2. While defecating
3. While drinking alcohol
4. Stressful or depressive situations
5. At the sight or smell of a burning cigarette
6. Peer pressure
7. While driving
Symptoms of nicotine addiction include:
1. You are unable to quit smoking despite frequent attempts.
2. You experience withdrawal symptoms after attempting to quit.
3. You continue to smoke despite the awareness that it is injurious to your health.
4. You forego social as well as recreational activities because of your need to smoke.
Hair loss is a prime concern for many men and women these days, whether it is genetic, due to stress, bad haircare or any medical condition. But with advances in the field and adequate research, various new techniques have cropped up in the market which can combat the condition with ease. Platelet-Rich Plasma or PRP, is showing impressive results in reversing hair loss.
PRP is a non-surgical therapeutic hair restoration option. It is suitable for both men and women. It is a state-of-the-art, totally natural, alternative medical procedure used for the treatment of hair loss or hair thinning. It is an injectable treatment which uses the patient’s own blood.
PRP has been in use in the medical field for two decades, and offers some promising potential for stimulating hair growth. However, no definitive studies yet exist that confirms its efficacy.
Advantages of PRP Therapy
PRP can be helpful in:
- Slowing the rate of hair loss
- Regrowing thinning hair to be thicker and full
- Boosting the health and condition of the scalp
- Stimulating collagen levels
- Preparing the scalp for hair transplantation & post hair transplantation
PRP can also assist in the treatment of skin and scalp conditions such as:
- Dry, itchy and inflamed scalp
- Genetic hair loss
- Alopecia areata
- Telogen effluvium (commonly caused by stress)
How PRP Works?
The scalp is cleansed and numbing cream applied. While the scalp is prepared, a small amount of blood is drawn from the patient. This blood is then centrifuged to produce the Platelet Rich Plasma. The PRP component is taken from the blood and injected or infused into the scalp or areas of hair loss. Patients are able to resume normal activities after this procedure.
PRP harnesses the growth factors carried in the blood supply and then delivers a concentrated dose back to the affected scalp and hair follicles. The growth factors in the platelets stimulate the follicles to grow hair. The hair follicles in the resting phase (telogen) may be pushed into growth, and this will appear as new hair growth.
Who is a candidate for PRP?
Men or women who have early stages male or female pattern baldness are suitable candidates for PRP. It is also suitable for men or women who are currently using hair loss medications; or those who are experiencing or expect to experience post-partum hair loss. It is also suitable for those who have had or plan to have hair transplant surgery.
However, you are not a candidate for PRP if you:
- Have medical conditions such as chronic liver disease, skin diseases or cancer, metabolic and systemic disorders
- Have undergone anti-coagulation therapy
- If you have any type of platelet dysfunction syndromes
The inability to conceive after indulging in unprotected sex is known as infertility. It can also be referred to the biological incapability of a male to cause the conception or a woman being unable to carry the pregnancy for full-term. Research has shown that female problems contribute to over half of all the infertility cases while a majority of the other causes include sperm disorders.
Treatment of infertility depends on:
- Cause of Infertility
- Duration of Infertility
- Age of both partners
- Personal preferences
Causes of infertility in women include:
1. Ovulation disorders: This is regarded as the most common cause of infertility in women. The disorders can be caused due to the following
- Premature ovarian failure
- PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome)
- Poor egg quality
- Overactive or Underactive thyroid gland
- Chronic conditions like cancer or AIDS.
2. Problems in fallopian tubes or uterus: Abnormalities in the uterus or fallopian tubes render the woman incapable of conceiving naturally. This might be due to:
3. Medications: There is a possibility that treatment will cure infertility. Examples include NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy. Treatment of infertility might involve a significant amount of psychological, physical, temporal and financial commitments. In men, treatment is done to treat lack of healthy sperm or general sexual problems. The treatments include:
- Change in lifestyle
- Sperm retrieval
Even though it is possible to restore fertility in women using only one or two therapies, a number of treatments might be required before conception is possible. Some of these treatments include:
- Intrauterine insemination (IUI)
- Stimulation of ovulation with fertility drugs
- Surgery to restore fertility
In situations where pregnancy does not happen spontaneously, Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) can be used by couples to achieve pregnancy. It is a form of fertility treatment which involves the handling of sperm and egg. The entire ART team consists of psychologists, physicians, embryologists, nurses and lab technicians.
One common ART technique is In vitro fertilization (IVF). It is a process where an egg and sperms are manually combined in a laboratory dish, followed by transfer of embryo to the uterus. Some aspects involved in an IVF cycle are:
- Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)
- Assisted hatching
- Donor eggs or sperm
- Gestational carrier
Some complications that may occur during the treatment of infertility are:
- Multiple pregnancy
- Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS)
Hypertension or high blood pressure is common in pregnant women, even in those who have no previous history of high blood pressure. This leads to complications in about 6% to 10% of all pregnancies around the world. High blood pressure may develop before or after conception and as such needs special medical attention.
Hypertension prevents sufficient flow of blood to the placenta and this inhibits the normal growth of the fetus. This could result in low birth weight of the child. However, if diagnosed in time and treated properly, hypertension does not affect the child's health too much.
1. Gestational hypertension
This type of hypertension is developed about 20 weeks after conception. There is no abnormality in urine or any signs of other organ damage (as is common with hypertension during pregnancy) but the condition can worsen and complicate very quickly. Pregnant women below the age of 20 and above the age of 40 are often diagnosed with high levels of blood pressure. Women who have heart or kidney conditions before pregnancy and women carrying more than one child are also likely to develop gestational hypertension.
2. Chronic hypertension
Chronic hypertension is high blood pressure which develops around 20 weeks before conception and does not normalize within 12 weeks after childbirth. The patient may also have been suffering from high blood pressure for a long time but the complications appear only during pregnancy because high blood pressure rarely exhibits symptoms without an associated condition.
3. Chronic hypertension superimposed with Preeclampsia
Women who have hypertension before pregnancy may develop even higher blood pressure levels during pregnancy. This leads to several health disorders like frequent headaches, fatigue and depression. Sometimes, protein is found in the urine.
Preeclampsia is often a serious complication of gestational pregnancy and affects about 5% to 7% of all pregnancies globally. Gestational pregnancy does not always develop into preeclampsia but it needs to be diagnosed and treated in time to avoid the complication. Women who have conceived for the first time or have a history of hypertension in the family are at a greater risk of preeclampsia. The symptoms of the condition are throbbing headaches, blurred vision, nausea and vomiting, pain in the upper abdominal region and shortness of breath.
Infertility has emerged as a common problem as a result of the modern day lifestyle. Extremely hectic schedules, stress, burnout, depression and unhealthy diets can contribute to fertility issues. As per a study published by Pharmion, around 30 million Indian couples were estimated to suffering from lifetime infertility, in 2015. Also, the Total Fertility Rate (TFR) fell to 2.3% in 2013 against 3.9% in 1990.
Couples often seek help with methods such as artificial insemination and in vitro fertilization (IVF), but the problem can be solved in natural ways too. Sometimes, the root cause of infertility is simply irregular functioning or blockages in the body systems. The basic principle of Ayurveda is to get the body functioning to its optimum capacity and this is often all that is needed to treat diseases.
Here are a few ways in which Ayurvedic medicine can help treat infertility:
- Phal Ghrit: The medicine is made by combining a number of herbs and it is taken with warm milk. It has been developed especially to treat infertility by controlling the level of hormones secreted in the body. It cannot remedy structural problems, but it can effectively treat functional disorders in the reproductive system.
- Shatavari (Asparagus): This plant is used to treat female infertility by regulating the cycles of menstruation and ovulation.
- Triphala Churna: A combination of three different fruits - baheda, amla and haritaki, this medicine helps to cleanse the body of toxins, strengthens the immune system and clears blockages in the fallopian tubes.
- Ashwagandha Churna (Indian ginseng): The medicine is used to treat male infertility by naturally increasing the production of sperm in the system.
There are also a few Ayurvedic therapies which can help to cure infertility:
- Vamanam: In this treatment procedure, medicated oil is swallowed to induce vomiting, which expels all the contaminating elements in the body. This process can be done regularly depending upon the overall health of the patient and also helps to combat digestive and psychological conditions.
- Swedanam: This therapy is usually done before other Ayurvedic therapies to prepare the body systems. For patients of infertility, the patient is made to sweat excessively. This also flushes most nitrous compounds out of the body.
- Dhatu Nirman Karma: The cells of the body are made to metabolize, absorb and assimilate nutrients leading to the formation of healthy cells and destruction of the unhealthy ones. This is turn rejuvenates the organs. Usually, this is helpful for female infertility.
When the appendix (present at the junction of the small intestine and the large intestine) becomes swollen, it is called appendicitis. It can be acute or chronic and is a common cause of abdominal pain. It can happen at any age but it usually occurs between the ages of 10 and 30.
The appendix is an organ whose function is not yet known. It is believed that the appendix helps in recovering from diarrhoea and infections of the small or large intestine. However, the body can function normally without the appendix.
Symptoms of appendicitis
When the appendix inflames, bacteria start to multiply and this leads to the formation of pus inside the appendix. The build-up bacteria are accompanied by the following symptoms-
Appendicitis requires immediate medical intervention. If it bursts, it expels poisonous pus into the abdominal cavity and it can be life-threatening.
In most cases, surgery is the only permanent cure for appendicitis. Appendicitis often causes an abscess. Your doctor will recommend a course of antibiotics and then drain the abscess through your skin. After the treatment for infection, the doctor will prepare you for surgery.
Appendicectomy can be a laparoscopic surgery or an open surgery. If you are already taking some over-the-counter medicines, or are pregnant or if you are allergic to some medicines, you must inform your doctor before the surgery. On the day of the surgery, the doctor will ask you to not drink any water for seven or eight hours prior to the operation.
• If the surgery is laparoscopic, the surgeon makes three minute incisions in the abdomen. Then a camera (which displays images of the inside of the abdomen) and surgical instruments are inserted through the three holes into the abdomen. With the help of these, the surgeon extracts the appendix. A laparoscopic surgery is more advantageous than an open surgery because laparoscopic surgery reduces the risk of infection, causes less pain after surgery.
• When an appendix bursts, you will need immediate surgery. And for this, a surgeon will opt for an open surgery. In case of an open surgery, an incision is made in the lower right side of the abdomen. Then the appendix is removed and the wound is closed with stitches. Since it is an open surgery, the surgeon gets the opportunity to clear up your abdominal cavity if the appendix had burst. An open surgery is the most preferred type of surgery when it comes to a ruptured appendix.
The benefit of the surgery lies in the fact that you will never again get appendicitis. Moreover, a surgery can prevent the complications that arise from appendicitis.
Recovery after an appendicectomy-
• If the surgery is laparoscopic, you will be discharged from the hospital within a day.
• If the surgery followed a burst appendix, you may be required to stay in the hospital for around a week. The doctor will recommend bed rest for at least three weeks and you will be able to get back to work in a month.
If you have appendicitis, you will continuously have to endure pain in your abdomen. The situation becomes grave when your inflamed appendix bursts. Doctors advise people with appendicitis to undergo surgery so that the eventuality of a burst appendix does not arise.
Postpartum is the period after one's labour and delivery. Pregnancy and postpartum are a time when a woman's body changes to a great extent in order to first accommodate the baby and then go through labour and delivery. A vaginal delivery can have many implications when it comes to the postpartum. The same goes for a Caesarean Section or C Section as well. Let us find out what your postpartum care routine should include.
- Vaginal Soreness: Deal with vaginal soreness with the help of stool softeners and pain relievers, as prescribed by your gynaecologist. You should also make hygiene a priority at this time. Use a wash cloth and warm water to clean the area every time you urinate. Also, you can use an ice pack if the wound is particularly painful.
- Discharge: Vaginal discharge in the postpartum period is called lochia, and it usually carries on for a few weeks after the baby is born. You must use a sanitary napkin during this period and clean up regularly. If your bleeding or discharge is accompanied by fever, then you should contact your gynaecologist immediately.
- C Section Wound: In case there is redness and swelling in the wound, accompanied by symptoms like pain and foul smelling discharge from the vagina, you will need to get in touch with your doctor immediately so that he or she can check for possibility of infections.
- Movement: After a C Section, you will need to take as much rest as possible so that the wound heals properly. This includes avoiding making too many trips up and down the stairs as well. It would be a good idea to have a family member or partner around who can help as well. Gentle walks after a week or two are usually recommended for the body to come back to normal gradually.
- Kegels: Do kegels or contracting exercises for the strength of the pelvic floor to return, especially after a vaginal delivery. This will help in alleviating pain and burning sensation during urination at this time.
- Nutrition: Take special care to eat nutritious and home cooked food, especially if you are breast feeding. This will also help in the healing of the vaginal or C Section wound. Also, a high fibre diet will help in better bowel movements which will lessen the pain while visiting the bathroom.
Taking care of your body in postpartum is a matter of bringing it back to normal gradually even as you deal with the side effects of delivery. Ensure that you are in touch with your doctor.
Wounds and bruises are both injuries. However, they differ widely in terms of the causing factors, the nature of the injury, the pain they cause and the kind of treatment they require.
The following are a few of the myriad ways in which the two injuries differ from each other:
1. A wound causes quick damage - the skin tissue is cut or punctured while a bruise (also called a closed wound) is where the skin is not torn.
2. A wound is usually caused by a sharp object but bruises are the results of blunt force or trauma.
3. A wound almost certainly bleeds due to ruptured tissue and blood vessels. Blunt injury also damages the blood capillaries of the skin and causes blood to accumulate under the skin tissue, creating a dark patch of skin. Blood vessels can also break due to lifting of heavy objects or overexertion of muscles.
4. A wound carries the risk of infection because the skin is open but a bruise does not get infected.
5. A wound has a burning or stinging sensation but a bruise is characterized by swelling and a blunt throbbing pain.
6. A wound can be healed by antiseptic and antibiotic medication. Large wounds need to be closed by stitching them up to avoid severe infection. On the other hand, a bruise usually heals by itself. A cold compress and pain killers may be used to ease discomfort. Heat can be applied to the injured spot to normalize the blood flow and dissolve the blood clot.
7. A wound can lead to complications like bacterial infections or the healing might be delayed by chronic diseases like diabetes. In case of a bruise, it usually does not cause complications but if there's a blunt injury to sensitive areas like the head, the tailbone or the eyes, medical attention is advised.
8. Wounds and bruises can also be differentiated on the basis of their subtypes.
a. Incision (sharp objects cutting the dermis layer of skin)
b. Abrasion (the epithelial tissue is scraped off)
c. Avulsion (a body structure is torn off)
d. Penetration (a sharp object causes an entry and an exit wound)
e. Puncture (only an entry wound caused by a sharp object)
The different types of bruises are:
a. Hematoma (blood pools under the skin)
b. Purpura(tiny spots of blood on the inside of the mouth)
c. Contusion (similar to hematoma and caused by external trauma)
d. Crush injury (caused due to a large amount of force on the body part for a long time)
Most couples look forward towards completing their family with a child. However, getting pregnant isn’t easy for everyone. The inability to conceive a child despite having unprotected sexual intercourse for a year is termed as infertility. Infertility can be caused due to issues related to both man and woman's health.
Reasons behind infertility in women
- Ovulation disorders: Many women suffer from hormonal disorders such as PCOD which prevents the formation of egg by the ovaries as per the monthly cycle. If the ovaries do not release eggs at the right time, sperm cells will have nothing to fertilize. Hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism are two other common hormonal disorders that can affect ovulation. In addition to this, your ovulation cycle can get adversely affected by eating disorders, exercising too much or an injury.
- Fallopian tube damage or blockage: The ovaries are connected to the uterus through fallopian tubes. Once an egg is released by the ovaries it must pass through these tubes to reach the uterus where it can be fertilized. In some cases, a woman may have a damaged fallopian tube as a result of pelvic inflammatory disease, endometriosis or any other problem. In such cases, the inflammation and scarring can restrict the egg’s movement and keep it from being fertilized.
- Poor egg quality: It is important that the health of the egg must also be considered as a poor quality egg can cause complications at a later stage during the pregnancy. There are a number of factors that can affect the quality of an egg being released. Some of the most important factors are age of the woman, stress level and overall physical health.
- Poor sperm quality: To penetrate the egg and fertilize it sperm cells must be the right shape and be agile. Thus sperm health includes the shape of sperm cells, sperm motility and tail whip. The quantity of sperm cells produced also plays a large role in determining a couple’s fertility. Low sperm count and poor quality sperm could be the result of prolonged exposure to electromagnetic frequencies, smoking, poor diet and alcohol consumption.
- Blocked Vas Deferens: The Vas Deferens is the tube through which sperm travel from the testicles to the penis. A blockage in this tube will restrict the amount of sperm being ejaculated and can cause infertility. This blockage may be caused by scarring as a result of an STD or varicocele.
Uterine fibroids, also referred to as uterine myomas) are non-cancerous tumors that grow within the muscle tissue of the uterus. As many as 20% to 50% women between the age group of 18 to 40 suffer from the condition, but not all cases warrant treatment.
It may be as tiny as a coin or it may grow to the size of a watermelon, making people think the lady is 6/7 months pregnant! There may be one big fibroid or several small ones.
Though the exact causes are not known, family history and hormonal imbalances are said to be the main causes for the same.
Types of Uterine Fibroids
The four types are:
- Subserosal Uterine Fibroids: Develops outside the uterus and continues to grow.
- Intramural Uterine Fibroids: The most common type that lead to pregnancy like tummy. They develop within the uterus wall and continue to expand.
- Submucosal Uterine Fibroids: Because these develop within the uterus lining, they are most likely to be the cause of heavy flow during periods.
- Pedunculated Uterine Fibroids: These grow on the inner or outer side of a small stalk connecting to the uterus.
- An enlarged uterus is the most common symptom. It is often mistaken for general weight gain or pregnancy.
- Prolonged and painful menstrual cycle, that is many times irregular.
- Urinary incontinence and constant urge to urinate.
- Pelvic pressure.
- Pressure on the bowels leading to constipation.
- Pain during intercourse.
If you find out that you have fibroids during an examination or if you visit a doctor with any of these symptoms, they will most likely ask for an ultrasound or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) which will confirm the type of fibroid and the extent of your problem. Treatment includes non-invasive-focused ultrasound surgery.
Treatment with Homeopathy:
One of the best advantages of choosing Homeopathy is that it works without side effects. It addresses the issue rather than the symptom. A surgical procedure mentioned in general treatment does remove the fibroids but there is no guarantee that they won't grow back as the underlying issue of hormonal imbalance remains.
During a clinical study of the effects of Homeopathy on fibroids, 85% patients showed improvement and 48% people had complete fibroid removal.
Treatment: There are medicines in Homeopathy that can treat uterine fibroids, cervical fibroids and help maintain normal hormonal balance in females.