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Pregnancy Problems Tips

Gestational Trophoblastic Disease - How To Diagnose It?

Gestational Trophoblastic Disease - How To Diagnose It?

Gestational trophoblastic disease is a rare condition. It only happens when trophoblast cells abnormally grow inside the uterus. Also, this only happens after conception. These cells surround the egg which has been fertilized in the uterus. It is also worth note that the trophoblast cells usually connect the fertilized eggs to the uterus' walls and also form a part of the placenta. It is only when there is a tumor that this disease is diagnosed. There are many forms of gestational trophoblastic disease.

Here they are:

Types

1. Complete hydatidiform moles

2. Partial hydatidiform moles

3. Invasive moles

4. Choriocarcinomas

5. Placental-site trophoblastic tumors (PSTT)

6. Epithelioid trophoblastic tumors (ETT)

It is worth note that most of these diseases have different stages. The stage of how far cancer has developed can be found out using the following techniques.

Testing for GTDs -

1. Beta-HCG (βHCG)

HCG is normally found only in the blood or urine of pregnant women, finding HCG in urine is the basis of most pregnancy tests. Abnormal trophoblast releases more HCG than a normal placenta, so finding higher than expected HCG levels in the blood can be a sign that trophoblastic disease is present.

2.Chest X-ray

This is simply an X-ray of the chest.

3.MRI

An MRI is an abbreviation of magnetic resonance imaging. It makes use of a form of magnet which transfers radio waves to a computer to find out what is going on within your body.

4. CT scan

This is similar to an X-ray except that more detailed and larger pictures inside the body can be taken and the scan has a slightly different procedure. There are several ways to treat it depending on how far cancer has spread into the body. Here they are:

Treatment

1. Surgery

Surgery is usually done while the mole is still non-cancerous. The chances of the mole becoming cancerous are increased by pregnancy. Therefore, it is crucial that you do not become pregnant until the surgery is complete.

2. Chemotherapy

GTDs are effectively treated with chemotherapy and can be cured of disease. Follow up of patients with GTDs is done with levels of Beta HCG and clinical findings Contraception is must for all patients for at least 6 mth to 2 yrs depending upon type of GTDs.

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Hypertension - How To Handle It In Pregnancy?

Hypertension - How To Handle It In Pregnancy?

Hypertension during pregnancy can be a problem for both the baby and the mother. Thus it is of utmost importance that during pregnancy good health should be maintained along with controlled blood pressure and cholesterol levels. With an increase in multiple births and women of older age, the risk of hypertension during pregnancy has increased. But if proper care is taken it can be avoided.

Types of Pregnancy Hypertension:

There are three prominent forms of hypertension that can be seen during pregnancy. Pregnant ladies should be aware of the same. These are:

- Preeclampsia - This is the most common and serious hypertension during pregnancy. This hypertension can only be controlled by delivering the fetus which usually involves complications like the death of the mother or child. This occurs 20 weeks after pregnancy.

- Gestational Hypertension - This form is only prevalent during pregnancy and is not a problem for the mother or baby after delivery. This usually occurs in the last leg of the pregnancy

- Chronic Hypertension - This form forms either prior to the pregnancy or before 20 weeks of the pregnancy.

Management of Pregnancy Hypertension:

Hypertension during pregnancy can be handled by the following:

-   In case of severe hypertension, blood pressure medication should be continued during pregnancy

-   If you are on ACE inhibitor-type medication, then the medication is changed to one that is even safe for the baby

-   Your doctor might like to monitor you daily and can advise hospitalization for a few days

-   If medication is missed, it might lead to uncontrolled life-threatening hypertension. Thus the medication should not be missed at any time

-   In the case of mild hypertension and absence of other diseases like diabetes and kidney disorders, the doctor might stop the medication or reduce the dose. Also, being off medicine does not cause any problem in mild hypertension.

-   Irrespective of the hypertension is mild or severe, the prenatal appointments should not be missed so that the doctor can monitor you and the baby. If any problems, like rising blood pressure, poor fetal growth, and signs of preeclampsia can be spotted and steps can be taken for the same.

-   In case there is some form of hypertension present the prenatal visits and lab tests will be more

-   Apart from the usual second-trimester ultrasound, there will be periodic ultrasounds in the third trimester to monitor the baby's growth and the amniotic fluid.

-   Also, regular fetal tests and Doppler ultrasounds will be done to track the baby's growth.

-   Lifestyle changes should be made. Salt intake should be limited, fresh food instead of processed food should be consumed.

-   If blood pressure is high then the doctor might ask you to avoid exercise especially if you never did before pregnancy.

Placental Abruption - Know Reasons Behind It!

Placental Abruption - Know Reasons Behind It!

Are you in the last trimester of pregnancy and experiencing symptoms such as abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding, uterine tenderness and back pain? This might be an indication of a condition called placental abruption. This is a serious, but rare pregnancy complication in women. The placenta is the structure, which develops in the uterus for nourishing the growing baby. When the placenta peels away from the inner uterine wall before delivery, placental abruption occurs. The condition can deprive the growing baby of oxygen.

Risk factors
There are several factors, which increase the risk of placental abruption. They are as follows:

  1. High blood pressureHigh blood pressure, be it chronic or because of pregnancy, increases the risk of placental abruption.
  2. Abdominal trauma: Certain trauma caused to the abdomen such as a fall or a blow to the abdomen increases your risk of having the condition.
  3. Substance abuse: Women who smoke and use drugs such as cocaine during pregnancy are more likely to have placental abruption.
  4. Premature rupture of the membranes: The growing baby is supported and surrounded by a fluid-filled membrane or the amniotic sac. When the sac leaks or breaks before labor, there are high chances of placental abruption.
  5. Blood clotting disorders: Any health condition which impairs blood clotting may increase the chance of placental abruption.
  6. Multiple pregnancy: For women who are carrying more than one baby, the delivery of the first baby may lead to changes in the uterus. This may cause placental abruption before the next baby is delivered.
  7. Maternal age: Placental abruption is more common or likely to occur among women who are above the age of 40.

Treatment
It is not possible to reattach a placenta, which gets separated from the wall of the uterus. The treatment options for placental abruption depend on several circumstances. They are as follows:

  1. The baby is not close to full term: If the abruption is mild, your baby has a normal heart rate, and it is too early for him to be born, you might need to be hospitalized for monitoring. If the bleeding ends and the baby is in a stable condition, you might be able to go home and rest. In some cases, medicines are given to the baby for making his lungs mature.
  2. The baby is close to full term: If your baby is near full term, and the placental abruption is less, a closely monitored vaginal delivery is undertaken. In case of a progressive abruption, an immediate delivery might be required via C section.

It is recommended for you to consult a doctor on experiencing any symptom of placental abruption. This will help you in protecting your baby from any harm.

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Know Pregnancy Risks To Be Cautious About!

Know Pregnancy Risks To Be Cautious About!

Pregnancy is considered to be one of the most challenging and important phases in the life of a woman.

Pregnancy Complications are health problems that occur during pregnancy. They can involve the mother’s health, the baby’s health, or both. Some women have health problems before they become pregnant that could lead to complications. Other problems arise during the pregnancy. Keep in mind that whether a complication is common or rare, there are ways to manage problems that come up during pregnancy.

Some complications that might occur during pregnancy are discussed below:

  1. Severe Nausea and Vomiting: It is common for nausea and vomiting to occur during a pregnancy. In order to avoid this condition, one should consume several small meals throughout the day and completely avoid spicy and fatty foods.
  2. A persistent abdominal pain, severe headache, swelling and visual disturbances during the third trimester: This can be a fatal condition and often is a sign of high blood preeclampsia (pregnancy complication involving high blood pressure as well as damage to another organ system). It can be diagnosed early using good prenatal care which essentially comprises of frequent check-ups with the doctor and all the necessary treatment during pregnancy.
  3. Flu Symptoms: It is recommended that flu vaccine should be administered to pregnant women as they usually tend to develop the disease during their pregnancy.
  4. Gestational Diabetes: Gestational diabetes can increase the chance of a larger baby at birth and create delivery complications, increase your risk for high blood pressure and cause the baby to have blood sugar problems after birth. If you are diagnosed, it’s important to consult your gynecologist to control your blood sugar level, which can often be done through diet and exercise.
  5. Baby’s activity level significantly declines: Sometimes, the activity of a previously active baby might decline. This can be felt by reducing the number of the kicks by the baby. The doctor has specific equipment that aids in identifying and resolving the problem.
  6. Bleeding: Heavy bleeding accompanied by abdominal pain and menstrual-type cramps during the first trimester might indicate an ectopic pregnancy (embryo is implanted outside one’s uterus) or a miscarriage while occurrence in the third semester indicates placental abruption (characterized by the placenta separating from the womb’s walls). Any form of bleeding warrants the immediate attention of the doctor. Steps to avoid bleeding include bed rest, avoiding heavy work, and keeping yourself hydrated.

A Healthy Pregnancy-

The best way to ensure a healthy pregnancy is to focus on the things you can control and don’t obsess about what could happen. Take good care of yourself and your developing baby and talk with your healthcare provider when you have concerns.

Obesity & Pregnancy - How To Handle It Well?

Obesity & Pregnancy - How To Handle It Well?

Pregnancy is that situation in a woman’s life when she is expecting her newborn, and her body is preparing itself to support the baby in the womb. Gaining weight is a common problem and that may lead to complications during pregnancy.

Thus, when you are pregnant, it is necessary that you keep a check on your weight and see that obesity does not affect you or your baby’s health.

To control weight during pregnancy it is necessary that you

  1. Keep a check on diet and,

  2. Exercise regularly

Keep a check on the diet:

During pregnancy, you will get lots of suggestions from everybody about what to eat and what not to. Even you too will feel like eating this and that. What you should follow is what your doctor suggests. You need to be very careful about the food that you eat. There should be a proper diet. The following tips will be useful.

  1. Do not eat junk food as they contain oil and sugar that increase your weight. Thus, avoid junk food.

  2. Do not keep your stomach empty, keep eating after some time and eat in small portions. Instead of having three main meals it is better to have five to six meals in small portions. These light meals will help you get the required amount of nutrients and energy but will not be heavy on the sugar level.

  3. Go for a healthy breakfast. There is a common belief that skipping meals will help you reduce weight, but the fact is that you do not lose weight, instead when you skip meals you feel hungry and in the meal that you take later, you tend to eat more. Thus, choose and eat a healthy breakfast that is good for your baby. It will also help you cope with morning sickness.

  4. Drink enough water. It is necessary that you keep your body hydrated during pregnancy. Lack of water is not good for the baby. Moreover, if you drink enough water, you will feel refreshed and even kill extra appetite.

Exercise Regularly:

There is a misconception that during pregnancy, you should not exercise. You need a full rest. The truth is that exercising will increase the blood flow within your body that is good for the baby. Yes, for morning sickness you may not be able to do exercises but try to do some under proper supervision.

Still, if you find that you are gaining excess weight, then consult your physician.

430 people found this helpful

Gestational Trophoblastic Disease - How To Treat It?

Gestational Trophoblastic Disease - How To Treat It?

Gestational trophoblastic disease is a rare condition. It only happens when trophoblast cells abnormally grow inside the uterus. Also, this only happens after conception. These cells surround the egg which has been fertilized in the uterus. It is also worth note that the trophoblast cells usually connect the fertilized eggs to the uterus' walls and also form a part of the placenta. It is only when there is a tumor that this disease is diagnosed. There are many forms of gestational trophoblastic disease. Here they are:

Types

1. Complete hydatidiform moles
2.  Partial hydatidiform moles
3.  Invasive moles
4.  Choriocarcinomas
5.   Placental-site trophoblastic tumors (PSTT)
6.   Epithelioid trophoblastic tumors (ETT)

It is worth note that most of these diseases have different stages. The stage of how far cancer has developed can be found out using the following techniques.

Testing for cancer

1. Chest X-ray
This is simply an X-ray of the chest.

2. MRI 
An MRI is an abbreviation of magnetic resonance imaging. It makes use of a form of the magnet which transfers radio waves to a computer to find out what is going on within your body.

3. CT scan
This is similar to an X-ray except that more detailed and larger pictures inside the body can be taken and the scan has a slightly different procedure.
There are several ways to treat it depending on how far cancer has spread into the body. Here they are:

Treatment

1. Surgery
Surgery is usually done while the mole is still non-cancerous. The chances of the mole becoming cancerous are increased by pregnancy. Therefore, it is crucial that you do not become pregnant until the surgery is complete.

2. Chemotherapy
This is a less-ideal option but has to be taken if the mole has become cancerous. 
 

2498 people found this helpful

Laparoscopy & Gynaecology - How Can Former Help Latter?

Laparoscopy & Gynaecology - How Can Former Help Latter?

Laparoscopy, also known as minimally invasive surgery, is a type of surgery that is used to operate the organs inside the abdomen without making big incisions. The surgery is done with the help of a laparoscope, which is a long and thin tube carrying a high-resolution camera at the front and high-intensity light. A laparoscope is connected to a video monitor and then inserted inside the abdomen through the small incision (0.5 cm to 1.5 cm). As the instrument moves inside the abdomen, it sends images to the video monitor, which the surgeons uses as a reference to operate the affected parts.

Laparoscopy is also used as a diagnostic technique to examine the organs of the abdomen or pelvis and this makes it very useful for gynecologists. This surgical and diagnostic technique plays a significant role in gynecology as it can help diagnose and treat multiple gynecological problems with minimum pain and discomfort to the patient. In fact, there is a special instrument called fertiloscope, a type of laparoscope that is modified and made fit for the trans-vaginal application.

Uses of laparoscopy

  • It helps in diagnosing and curing a host of female infertility problems.
  • It has proven to be helpful in treating a number of disorders related to the female reproductive organs.
  • It is a reliable, precise, and cost-effective instrument or technique used by a number of gynecologists at the first stage of infertility treatment.
  • It is a sound technique to treat female infertility as it helps to determine whether a patient needs conventional treatment, IVF (in vitro fertilization), or a corrective surgery.

Use of laparoscopy in gynecological problems

  • Treatment of fibroids of uterus
  • Treatment of ectopic pregnancy (pregnancy in which the fertilized egg attaches itself outside the uterus)
  • Treatment of endometriosis (a painful condition in which the tissue lining the inside of the uterus called endometrium begins to grow outside)
  • Removal of adhesions
  • Removal of the womb or ovaries
  • Removal of the lymph nodes during cancer treatment
  • Removal of ovarian cysts
  • Diagnosis of cancer of the reproductive organs
  • Female sterilization (surgery of fallopian tubes to prevent pregnancy)
  • Detection of tumors or abnormal mass of tissues
  • Assessment of the effectiveness of the infertility treatment that has been carried out

Advantages of laparoscopy:
Laparoscopy offers many advantages over conventional surgery and diagnosis, including the following:

  • It is more precise and accurate
  • It is painless (during surgery as well as diagnosis)
  • It minimizes hemorrhage
  • It allows for shorter recovery time
  • It ensures reduced risk of infection to the organs
  • It is cost-effective
  • It is more helpful for the gynecologists as they can see the inside of the organs in real-time

Therefore, it is evident that laparoscopy is no less than a boon in gynecology. Its multiple advantages and high success rate in treating infertility problems in women and other problems related to their reproductive organs make it a great surgical and diagnostic technique. Nevertheless, it is necessary to take advice of the doctor before undergoing laparoscopic surgery or diagnosis.

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How Diabetes Affects Your Pregnancy?

How Diabetes Affects Your Pregnancy?

The transition from being a woman to motherhood is a beautiful journey that remains memorable for a lifetime, for the mother as well as those around her who care for her and love her. There may be times when the health conditions and the pregnancy related discomfort may leave a bad taste, but it is also taken with a pinch of salt and forgotten as soon as the baby arrives. Whatever, may happen to the mother, but she would always try to make sure that the baby is safe and healthy when he arrives in this world. She always wishes that her child grows into a healthy toddler and a well developed adult.

While we may practice all sorts of care and caution in the course of a pregnancy, there are times when the body systems fail to function regularly, which is when the real problems arise. One of the most common, yet risky problems that usually appears or aggravates during pregnancy is the problem of glucose. A lot of women experience the problem of diabetes during pregnancy because their blood sugar goes extremely high with the changes in the lifestyle, dietary and hormonal conditions. In cases of women who may be patients of diabetes before pregnancy, they may experience increased blood sugar levels and may need to go on extra medication to keep their condition under control.

The types and effects of diabetes:
There are majorly two types of diabetes which is pre-existing and gestation induced. In the case of the pre-existing condition, the woman may already be suffering from diabetes before she conceived and in the gestational diabetes, the woman may have developed the condition after getting pregnant and may be able to go back to normal after the pregnancy is over. While it may be common in pregnant woman to develop high blood sugar, there are a number of things that could go wrong:

  1. Pregnant women with diabetes may find it difficult to go in for a natural labour and may have to opt for induced labour or even a caesarean delivery.
  2. It is also possible that women who already suffer from diabetes before pregnancy are more likely to carry a baby that is larger than regular babies.
  3. Developing diabetes may open up the doors for a lot of other disorders and diseases in the women such as problem with vision or disorders of the body organs such as kidneys.
  4. The foetus that develops in the womb may also be exposed to health issues and lack of development in the organs.
  5. If the baby is born fairly healthy, it may end up developing diseases after birth or even in adult life, which may be due to the diabetes in the mother at the time of the pregnancy.
  6. In extreme cases, the woman may undergo a miscarriage or the baby may be a still born.

In order to, be able to ensure a healthy and safe pregnancy, it may be essential to make sure that the best gynaecologist is chosen for regular checks and the meeting schedules with the doctor are followed religiously to rule out the possibility of unhealthy consequences.

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Multiple Pregnancies - Know Risk Factors Of Them!

Multiple Pregnancies - Know Risk Factors Of Them!

There are many couples these days who are opting for IVF treatment to get pregnant. During the process of IVF, many couples end up with a twin pregnancy or sometimes multiple pregnancy as well. In a normal pregnancy, the chance of concieving twins is less. It is somewhere around 6%, but when it comes to the IVF process, there is a 25% chance for twins and more than 3% chance of 3 or more babies.

Most of the times, couples do not find it a problem when they are pregnant with twins. For those couples who find it difficult to get pregnant in a natural way, twin pregnancy or multiple pregnancy can be a boon. As the process of IVF is expensive and the chances of success are also not guaranteed, having two babies at a time is considered lucky. You need not have to spend twice, no delivery pains twice. But did you know that there are also many risks involved in multiple pregnancy?

Yes, multiple pregnancy comes with a lot of risks. Here are some of them:

  • Premature delivery: One of the most common problems with multiple pregnancy in IVF is premature delivery. More than 60 % of the deliveries are done within 35 weeks of pregnancy. This will affect the health of the baby.
  • Low birth weight: The weight of the babies is going to be too low in IVF pregnancy. If the baby is born before 32 weeks of pregnancy, then that weight is too low. It is going to be less than three and a half pounds. The newborn baby will have to face a lot of risks.
  • Cesarean babies: Most of the mothers with multiple IVF pregnancy will have to undergo a cesarean section for delivery. They will not be able to go through normal labor and delivery. This will take a lot of time for the mothers to recover and they will also not be able to spend time with their babies.
  • Gestational DiabetesWhen a woman is pregnant with multiple babies, then they may have gestational diabetes. This kind of diabetes will increase the weight of both mother and baby. In case the mother is going for vaginal delivery, then it can be a great risk if the baby grows really large inside.
  • Unhealthy babies: Most of the times, twin babies will not be born healthy. Maybe not at the time of delivery, but these kids will have health issues in the future as well.
  • Hard to carry: When the mother is weak, then it can be hard for the mother to carry multiple babies at a time. That can create some major health issues for both mother and baby.

Single pregnancy is always safe in the IVF process and you need to discuss all issues with your doctor when you are opting for the IVF process as a way of getting pregnant.

2707 people found this helpful

Hypertension - How To Handle It During Pregnancy?

Hypertension - How To Handle It During Pregnancy?

Hypertension during pregnancy can be a problem for both baby and the mother. Thus it is of utmost importance that during pregnancy a good health should be maintained along with controlled blood pressure and cholesterol levels. With an increase in multiple births and women of older age the risk of hypertension during pregnancy has increased. But if proper care is taken it can be avoided.

Types of Pregnancy Hypertension:

There are three prominent forms of hypertension that can be seen during pregnancy. The pregnant ladies should be aware of the same. These are:

- Preeclampsia - This is the most common and serious hypertension during pregnancy. This hypertension can only be controlled by delivering the fetus which usually involves complications like death of the mother or child. This occurs 20 weeks after pregnancy.

- Gestational Hypertension - This form is only prevalent during pregnancy and is not a problem for the mother or baby after delivery. This usually occurs in the last leg of the pregnancy

- Chronic Hypertension - This form forms either prior to the pregnancy or before 20 weeks of the pregnancy.

Management of Pregnancy Hypertension:

Hypertension during pregnancy can be handled by the following:

- In case of severe hypertension, blood pressure medication should be continued during pregnancy

- If you are on ACE inhibitor-type medication, then the medication is changed to one that is even safe for the baby

-  Your doctor might like to monitor you daily and can advise hospitalization for a few days

- If medication is missed, it might lead to uncontrolled life-threatening hypertension. Thus the medication should not be missed at any time

- In case of mild hypertension and absence of other diseases like diabetes and kidney disorders, the doctor might stop the medication or reduce the dose. Also, being off medicine does not cause any problem in mild hypertension.

- Irrespective of the hypertension being mild or severe, the prenatal appointments should not be missed, so that the doctor can monitor you and the baby. If any problems, like rise in blood pressure, poor fetal growth, and signs of preeclampsia can be spotted and steps can be taken for the same.

- In case there is some form of hypertension present the prenatal visits and lab tests will be more

- Apart from the usual second trimester ultrasound, there will be periodic ultrasounds in the third trimester to monitor the baby's growth and the amniotic fluid.

- Also regular fetal tests and Doppler ultrasounds will be done to track the baby's growth.

- Lifestyle changes should be made. Salt intake should be limited, fresh food instead of processed food should be consumed.

- If blood pressure is high then doctor might ask you to avoid exercise especially if you never did before pregnancy.

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