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Last Updated: Jan 30, 2020
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Pid - Symptom, Treatment And Causes

About Symptoms Causes Side effects Complications Treatment Cure Advice Home remedies

What is PID?

PID or Pelvic inflammatory disease is an infection that affects the upper part of the female reproductive system which includes the uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes and inside of the pelvis. Often, there may be no symptoms of this illness.

What are the early symptoms of PID?

PID does not cause any obvious symptoms. However, if you observe any of these mild symptoms, it’s better to get examined.

  • Pain around the pelvis or lower tummy
  • Dyspareunia
  • Pain while urinating
  • Bleeding between periods and after sex
  • Heavy periods
  • Painful periods
  • Unusual vaginal discharge especially when yellow or green

Some other serious symptoms include:

  • Severe pain in the stomach
  • High fever
  • Feeling sick
  • Signs of shock

Some of these signs and symptoms are also observed in other conditions like appendicitis and ectopic pregnancy. Thus, medical help should be taken to diagnose the disorder.

What are the causes of PID?

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is caused by the upper female genital tract infection. The infection gets spread from the vagina & cervix up to the uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries.

  • SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS(STIs): 1 in 4 cases of PID are caused by STIs like Mycoplasma Genitalium, Chlamydia trachomatis or gonorrhea are mostly present in 75-90 % of cases of PID. These usually infect only the cervix and can be treated by single-dose antibiotics. If left untreated, the infection may extend upwards to the upper genital tract and can result in PID.
  • OTHER CAUSES: In some cases, the bacteria present in the vagina spread upwards and cause infection in the reproductive organs. Although these bacteria are harmless in the vagina, they may cause bacterial infection in other parts of the body. This is more common if you have had a history of PID, cervical mishandling, miscarriage or IUD insertion.

People who are more likely to develop PID are :

  • Those with multiple sexual partners
  • Have a new sexual partner
  • History of STIs
  • History of PID in the past
  • Are less than 25 years of age
  • Are sexually active at a younger age

What are the side effects of PID?

Untreated PID causes scar tissue and abscess collections in fallopian tubes damaging the reproductive organs. It may also cause:

  • Ectopic pregnancy: Scar tissue caused from PID can prevent the implantation of the embryo in the uterus, rather implanting it in the tube itself causing tubal pregnancy. This can result in life-threatening bleeding and is a medical emergency.
  • Infertility: PID infects the reproductive organs and affects the process of fertilization. The more number of times one had PID, the more risk of infertility. Also, delayed treatment of PID can result in infertility.
  • Chronic pelvic pain: Scarring of other pelvic organs, especially fallopian tubes causes severe pain during intercourse or ovulation.
  • Tubo-ovarian abscess: PID forms an abscess in the tubes and ovaries. If untreated, this could result in a life-threatening situation.

What are the serious complications of PID?

Pelvic inflammatory disease if left untreated can lead to serious complications. Some of the complications are as follows:

  • A patient may feel severe pelvic pain which can last for few months to years.
  • It can lead to scar which can cause pain during the process of ovulation or sexual intercourse.
  • Another major complication is the development of ectopic pregnancy. The scar tissue caused due to the PID acts as a hindrance to the fertilized eggs to pass through the fallopian tube so as to cause implantation in the uterus. Such ectopic pregnancy can cause severe bleeding and may thus require emergency treatment.
  • PID when left untreated can cause failure of the organs and lead to infertility.
  • It can also lead to abscess which is a collection of pus in the uterine tubes or ovaries.

How is pelvic inflammatory disease treated?

PID is usually a result of infection from multiple bacteria. Hence, a combination of antibiotics may be prescribed to combat the infection. The initial dose may be an injection followed by a 14 day-long course of antibiotics. The course of antibiotics must be completed even if you are better, to ensure that all the infection is cleared off. In severe cases of PID, hospitalization may be necessary to give IV antibiotics. If you have lower pelvic pain, painkillers may also be given along with antibiotics.

Follow up - After 3 days of taking antibiotics, it is necessary to get checked if they are working well for you. If the medicines are efficient, another follow up appointment is made at the end of the course to ensure if the infection has been cleared off.

Treating sexual partners - It is necessary to prevent the infection from spreading or recurring, even if no specific cause is identified. Sexual contacts must be avoided during the course of treatment.

Is PID curable?

Early detection is a key factor behind the cure of this disease. A late diagnosis of this condition often can lead to damage to the patient’s reproductive system.

Formation of scar tissues due to recurrent episodes of PID can increase the risk of infertility as multiple recurrences of this illness often results in tubal blockage of the fallopian tubes. This can also lead to the development of an ectopic pregnancy.

Experts Advice:

Experts recommend ultrasound scanning of the reproductive organs for diagnosing this disease. Antibiotics are generally prescribed for the treatment of this infection. PID is more recurrent in women who have a previous history of this disease. Use of IUD (intrauterine device) is another other reason for getting infected with this disease.

What are the home remedies for pelvic inflammatory disease?

Home Remedies of PID:

  • Bed-rest may be required for several days in case of serious infections.
  • Drinking plenty of water and eating healthy foods to fight the infection is essential.
  • Avoid using douche or tampons.
  • If a person is in extreme pain, he/she can use aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen or acetaminophen. Heating pads can also be helpful in a few cases.
  • Avoid sexual relations while or before completing the course of treatment. If you are going to have one, it is recommended to use protection so as to avoid spreading the infection.
  • Follow-up appointments are mandatory to ensure that the infection is cured, even if the symptoms are gone.

Popular Questions & Answers

I had problem of bulky uterus and pid, doctor have suggested me to take doxycycline and lactic bacillus, pan40,metrogyl400, zocon as kit how much this will be effective.

MBBS, M.D., pelvic surgey,
Gynaecologist, Kottayam
It is an effective treatment for pelvic inflammatory disease. But duration of this combination treatment must be for a minimum period of 14 days.

Is cynomycin 50 mg helpful for treating pelvis inflammatory disease? As doctor has prescribed me for 5 days. One more thing if I took 1 yasmin tab in mid cycle then can I discontinue it till get periods.

MS - Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Gynaecologist, Delhi
Cunomycin is an antibiotic and is useful in treating PID. Tab Yasmin has to be taken from 1st day of cycle ,it's not started from midcycle
5 people found this helpful

Is occasional abdominal pain after intercourse and fever with chill, after 1 month of marriage .is a symptom of pelvic infection. There may be other reasons associated with this.

MS - Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Gynaecologist, Delhi
Commonest cause of fever with chills and rigors after marriage is urinary infection. Get your urine routine and culture-senstivity done. According to report treatment will have to be started Till then drink plenty of water.
4 people found this helpful

I am 22 year old and I am suffering from PID my sonography report indicate that there is minimal fluid in the cul de sac suggestive of pelvic inflammatory disease my doctor has given me some tablets but the problem is that I have not got my periods yet it has been passed 3 days of my date. So I want to know whether there are chances of getting pregnant due to the fluid in my sac plzzz reply as soon as possible.

MS - Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Gynaecologist, Agra
Helo lybrate-user minimal fluid in culdesac can be seen in normal cases also. Even if you have pid even then you can concieve. Its better you get a urinary pregnancy done to see if pregnancy is there. Regards
4 people found this helpful

My wife ultrasound report said that she is suffering from Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is this disease curable if yes how much time and what is the medication and precaution and can she conceive during this.

MBBS, MD - Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Advanced Infertility
Gynaecologist, Mumbai
there are different grades of pelvic inflammatory disease.She will have to get physically examined by a gynaec who will prescribe medicines .The duration depends upon the severity of the infection and the type of infection.After the infection is c...
2 people found this helpful

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Content Details
Written By
MBBS,MS - Obstetrics and Gynaecology
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Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
Hi I am Dr. Rushda Riaz, Gynaecologist, Motherhood Maternity Center, Delhi. Today I will talk about the pelvic inflammatory disease. It is a very general condition in the female. It is a common infection in the pelvic cavity of the female that inc...
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