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Overview

Pap Smear - Treatment, Procedure And Side Effects

What is the treatment?

A pap smear is necessary for early cancer detection in women. The test not only screens for cervical cancer in women but is also designed to detect abnormal cells in the cervix in order to determine the patient’s predisposition for developing cancer.

The test involves taking sample cells from the cervix, which is the opening of the vagina and testing them for abnormalities. The lab testing of the cells takes place within a few days of your test. Since the test is used to screen for possible pre-cancerous cells in the cervix, any abnormalities which are found are to be followed up by further testing. Further tests might include tests such as a colonoscopy. Cell abnormalities, however, are often caused due to inflammation, so it is not necessarily an indicator of the development of precancerous cells. HPV tests are often conducted at the same time as a pap smear, as it is extremely common for sexually active adults to contract the STD.

It is usually recommended that people get pap smears every three to five years. However, if the need arises, pap smears can be performed within six months of the last test without any problems. While countries such as the United States recommend that sexually active women have pap smears done every three to five years, many countries do not abide by this timeline and recommend pap smears on a patient to patient basis. Despite the fact, it is important for sexually active women to have pap smears as it can lead to early detection of cancer.

How is the treatment done?

A pap smear involves taking cells from your cervix and testing them for abnormalities. The test only lasts for ten to twenty minutes and your results are confirmed between five days to two weeks.

When you go in for the test you are asked questions about your medical history after which you have to lie on a table with your feet placed in stirrups. A speculum is inserted into your vagina in order to widen the opening. The doctor then takes a swab to collect a sample of cells and then places the cells in a liquid substance. After this is over, your sample is tested in a lab and your results are made available to you in a few days. While you may feel some discomfort during the test, there is no lasting soreness or pain.

If the test is negative, it indicates that there are no abnormal cells in your cervix and you can return for another routine pap smear in three to five years. If the test is positive, it indicates that abnormal cells have been detected. It does not necessarily mean that said cells are cancerous, but it does mean that your doctor will prescribe further tests to determine the nature of the abnormal cells.

Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)

A pap smear is recommended for women who are -

  • Between the ages of 21 and 60
  • Are sexually active

Who is not eligible for the treatment?

A pap smear is recommended for sexually active women between the ages of 21 and 60. You do not require a pap smear if you are –

  • Below the age of 21, even if you are sexually active, as there are no real benefits to it
  • If you are above the age of 60 and a history of negative tests, even if you are sexually active
  • If you’ve had a total hysterectomy where the cervix has been removed

Are there any side effects?

There are no negative effects of getting a pap smear. Women under the age of 21 are recommended not to get pap smears as it could delay the detection of cancer or HPV. There is no soreness or pain after the test procedure is completed, so you can get back to your daily activities immediately after.

What are the post-treatment guidelines?

While you might temporarily feel some soreness after your test, you can continue with your daily routine after a Pap Smear. There is no aftercare required post-procedure. You can expect to get your test results within two weeks of undergoing the test. Once your doctor has your test results, they can suggest whether or not you need any follow-up tests based on any abnormalities they may have found. If your test is completely negative, you can just go back for your next pap smear three to five years later.

How long does it take to recover?

You can resume your day to day activities immediately after the test as there is no physical strain during the test.

What is the price of the treatment in India?

The test can cost between Rs. 200 and Rs. 1500 depending on the area in which you live and the cost of medical care in the area.

Are the results of the treatment permanent?

The test is to be repeated every three to five years.

What are the alternatives to the treatment?

A pap smear is a routine cancer screening test. There are no alternatives to it.

Safety: Very High Effectiveness: High Timeliness: Very High Relative Risk: Very Low Side Effects: Very Low Recovery Time: Very Low Price Range: Rs. 200 - Rs. 1500

Popular Health Tips

Cervical Smear - Understanding It In Detail!

MBBS, DGO, MRCOG
Gynaecologist, Mumbai
Cervical Smear - Understanding It In Detail!

A cervical smear test is often known as a Pap test and is done to establish the changes that might have occurred in cells of the cervix. A small sample of cells is taken from the surface of the cervix and is tested for any abnormalities. The sample is spread on a slide or in some cases mixed with a liquid fixative and studied under a microscope. It is one of the most popular methods to test the abnormalities in your cells and can pinpoint point cervical cancers.

About the test
A typical cervical smear or Pap test is done to identify the changes that have happened to the cells of the cervix. Diagnosing them early can be beneficial in many ways and can lower your chance of cervical cancer. PAP smear or a cervical smear is a screening test for cervical cancer. For other cases, once the results of the cell growth are identified it is safe to seek other tests and medical options for diagnosis.

The procedure of typical Pap smear
The test is mostly recommended when you do not have the periods as the blood can interfere with the results. Also, before taking the test discuss with your doctor about the medications you are taking and in case you are under any birth control pills. No other special preparations are needed for the Pap test. Feel free to discuss with your doctor about the impact the test will have on you or on the pain levels, etc.The test is done by inserting a speculum into the vagina, which spreads it further. Later, a cotton swab is inserted to get the samples of cells from your cervix. The cells from the vagina are also collected in some cases and tested accordingly.

The risks involved
There no chances of risks when you go for such tests. You might feel a bit of pressure in your vaginal region and may experience a small bleeding after the testing. However, this is extremely normal. Also, there is no pain involved. If you experience heavy period and blood loss, you might experience minor discomfort when the test is being done.

The final result
Once the test is done, the results would be available usually within a week. The results can be categorized into normal and abnormal. If your cells are normal and no abnormality is found then the condition is termed as a normal result. In the case of abnormality in the cell structure, then it requires further evaluation and diagnosis to rule out cancer. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.

3664 people found this helpful

Pap Smear - Understanding Its Role In Cancer Screening!

DGO , MBBS
Gynaecologist, Pune
Pap Smear - Understanding Its Role In Cancer Screening!

Cervical cancer can throw life completely off balance. It is one of the most common types of cancer affecting women worldwide. Lack of an early diagnosis makes this life threatening condition almost untreatable. A Pap smear also referred to as a Pap Test comes as a ray of hope for many women.

A Pap smear is a screening test that plays a pivotal role in the diagnosis and detection of cervical cancer in women. A Pap smear may further be used to point out any abnormalities in the cervical cells which may have a potential to turn malignant in the future. Doctors recommend all women (between 21-65 years of age) to undergo a pap smear to be on the safer side. While most women are advised to repeat the pap smear between every 3-5 years, women with the following conditions or ailments should be extra careful.

  1. Women who are HIV positive or those with a weak immune system.
  2. Those who have undergone an organ transplant.
  3. Any woman whose pap smear indicates the presence of precancerous cells.
  4. Women who had chemotherapy sessions.

The above mentioned conditions do not necessarily imply a 100% probability of cervical cancer. Consult your doctor and follow the necessary advice and precautions.

The procedure involved in a Pap smear
The Pap test is not a very tedious process and is often carried out in the doctor's clinic itself. The person to undergo the test is made to lie down on her back (the knees should be in a bent position). The physician then carefully inserts a speculum into the vagina. The main idea is to widen the vaginal walls so that the doctor can have a clear view of the cervix. Next, using a spatula, the doctor will collect samples of your cervical cells and send it for examination.

The significance of the Pap smear result

  • A negative test indicates a healthy cervix with no precancerous cells.
  • A positive result can, however, have many implications, such as there can be a condition known as dysplasia (minute alterations in the cervical cells). There may be some inflammation. However, the condition may be nothing to lose your sleep over. In many women, the condition heals by itself. A thorough investigation, (colonoscopy followed by a biopsy) may be needed if the problem persists for long.

Further, there can be 

  • Squamous intraepithelial lesion: This, unfortunately, indicates the presence of precancerous cells.
  • Squamous cell cancer: As the name suggests, this more than often, confirms the presence of malignant or cancer cells.
  • Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance: Here the squamous cells appear very flat and thin, growing on the cervical surface. The condition may not necessarily indicate something serious. The person concerned may require further tests for a better interpretation of the condition.

A Pap smear is for your good. Go for a Pap smear and also encourage women in your circle to indulge in this healthy practice. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.

4372 people found this helpful

Cervical Cancer: Symptoms, Causes and Treatment Available

MBBS, MS - Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Gynaecologist, Noida
Cervical Cancer: Symptoms, Causes and Treatment Available

Cervical cancer is a form of cancer which occurs in the cervix or the lower part of the uterus in women, which opens up into the vagina. Its different from the other cancers that occur in other parts of the uterus and has a high rate of being cured if detected early.

Causes of Cervical Cancer: Cervical cancer is usually caused when abnormal cells present in the cervix, get out of control. Usually, major cases of cervical cancer are caused by a virus known as the human papillomavirus or HPV. This virus gets transmitted from one person to another by sexual means or sexual contact. Abnormal changes in the cervix cells lead to cervical cancer. Usually, cell changes occur in the transformation zone in the cervix as the cells tend to change constantly, thereby leading to cancer.

Symptoms:

  1. Abnormal vaginal bleeding between menstrual phases, after menopause or after having sex.
  2. Pain is experienced during sex.
  3. Abnormal vaginal discharge is produced.
  4. Abnormal changes in the menstrual cycle.
  5. Anemia due to abnormal bleeding from the vagina.
  6. Recurring pain in the pelvis, back or leg.
  7. Several urinary problems due to the blockage of the uterus.
  8. Urine or stool leakage into the vagina.
  9. Loss of weight.

How it can be diagnosed?
A routine screening test should be undertaken to observe any abnormal cell changes in the cervix and also for the screening for cervical cancer. Taking regular Pap smear test is recommended to detect abnormal cell changes so that cervical cancer can be prevented before hand. Other diagnostic tests include, Colposcopy and cervical biopsy to determine the presence of abnormal cells in the cervix, Endocervical biopsy and Cone biopsy.

Treatment options available: 
Cervical cancer can be treated when detected at an early stage. The type of treatment depends on the stage and type of cervical cancer. The most common treatment methods are as follows:

  1. Surgery can be undertaken for removal of the cancer. Several types of surgeries exist and the ideal one depends on the location and severity of the cervical cancer.
  2. Radiation therapy involves the use of high dosage X-rays and implants within the vaginal cavity. This kills the cancer cells and is used in some specific stages of cervical cancer. This therapy is often used alongside surgery.
  3. Chemo-radiation is a combination of radiation therapy and chemotherapy. This procedure can be used at various stages of cervical cancer.
  4. Chemotherapy involves using medicines for killing cancer cells. It is used in advanced stages of cervical cancer.

Pelvic cancer is caused by abnormal cell changes in the pelvis. It is a common kind of cancer and can cause negative effects on the health. Proper diagnosis and treatment are essential for treating pelvic cancer. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist.

3994 people found this helpful

Pap Smear Test - Who Should Opt for it?

MBBS, MD - Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Advanced Infertility
Gynaecologist, Mumbai
Pap Smear Test - Who Should Opt for it?

Regular medical checkups and tests can be very helpful in prevention of cancer and growth of malignant cells or tumours. With the increase in the rates of cervical cancer, gynaecological checkups are of utmost need. For effective cervical cancer prevention, Pap smear bears the maximum number of success rates.

Pap smear is a medical procedure that helps to detect cancer or signs of other cervical infections. The Pap smear test however cannot detect ovarian cell cancer or uterine cancer. It is known to detect changes only in the vaginal cells and cervical dysplasia. Cervical dysplasia refers to the growth of pre-cancerous cells.

How this test is conducted?
1. Pap smear is conducted when the woman is not menstruating.
2. An instrument called speculum is inserted into one’s vagina to be able to access the cervix more easily.
3. Pap smear involves the collection of sample cells from the outer cervix area.
4. Cervical brush is inserted into the speculum and the sample cells are collected.
5. Then, the samples are put on a glass slide for further evaluation.
6. The Pap smear procedure takes only a few minutes bu can prevent serious medical problems in the long run.
7. The Pap smear is not a painful procedure, though it may be slightly uncomfortable for a few minutes only.

Who can undergo Pap smear?
1. Women can undergo Pap smear procedures once they are of 21 years of age and are generally sexually active
2. Women can go for pap smears up to the age of 70
3. Pap smears should be conducted preferably every two or three years
4. Women aged 65 and above and who have had no abnormalities in the last three consecutive tests, may stop taking pap smears
5. Before undergoing the test, it is important to stop douching and using vaginal creams for at least 2 days.
6. If there has been a case of multiple and frequent change of sexual partners, then you must go for Pap smear frequently
7. Women with weak immune system and who bear the risk of HIV Aids
8. Women who are heavy smokers

4362 people found this helpful

Gynaecological Cancer - How they are Diagnosed?

MBBS, DNB - Obstetrics and Gynecology, DGO
Gynaecologist, Delhi
Gynaecological Cancer - How they are Diagnosed?

Cancer or the big ‘C’ can affect any part of the body including the female reproductive system. These types of cancer are known as gynaecological cancers. Gynaecological cancers occur when normal cells start growing in an uncontrolled manner. There are many different types of gynaecological cancers which are named as per the organs in which they first develop. These include:

  1. Ovarian cancer: Cancer that affects the ovaries and ova
  2. Uterine cancer: Cancer that begins inside the uterus
  3. Cervical cancer: Cancer that begins in the cervix or the section of the reproductive tract between the uterus and vagina
  4. Vaginal cancer: Cancer that begins in the vagina
  5. Vulval cancer: Cancer that originates in the opening of the vagina, labia minora or labia majora, clitoris or mons pubis
  6. Fallopian tube cancer: Cancer that affects the fallopian tubes that connect the ovaries to the uterus
  7. Placenta cancer: Pregnancy related cancer

Gynaecological cancers are more commonly diagnosed in cases where the woman has a family history of cancer or has mutated genes. Advancing in age, exposure to hormones, and diethylstilbestrol can also increase the risk of suffering from such cancers. Additionally, viral infections such as human papilloma virus, obesity and unhealthy lifestyle choices such as smoking have also been identified as risk factors for cancer.
However, a woman may suffer from these types of cancer even if she does not fall into any of the above risk factor categories. Hence, it becomes important to focus on the symptoms. The symptoms of gynaecological cancers depend on the organ from where the tumour originated, the size of the tumour and it’s rate of growth.

Some of the symptoms which may be noticed are:

  1. Abnormal bleeding from the vagina
  2. Bleeding after intercourse
  3. Unusual discharge from the vagina
  4. Pain or discomfort in the abdominal area
  5. Swelling of the abdomen
  6. Painful intercourse
  7. Itching or burning sensations in the genital area
  8. Lumps, warts or sores in the genital area
  9. Unusual bladder and bowel habits

Gynaecological cancers can be treated by using chemotherapy, radiation, hormonal therapies or surgery depending on the stage of the cancer and the type of cancer. Hence, the earlier it is diagnosed, the better it is. Keeping the risk factors in mind, if the above symptoms are noticed, the doctor may ask for a number of tests to diagnose gynaecological cancers.

These tests include:

  1. A pap smear
  2. Pelvic examination
  3. Blood tests
  4. CT scan, ultrasound, MRI or any other form of imaging tests
  5. Biopsy scan 

    If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist and ask a free question.

3833 people found this helpful

Popular Questions & Answers

Table of Content

What is the treatment?
How is the treatment done?
Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)
Who is not eligible for the treatment?
Are there any side effects?
What are the post-treatment guidelines?
How long does it take to recover?
What is the price of the treatment in India?
Are the results of the treatment permanent?
What are the alternatives to the treatment?
Play video
Cervical Cancer: Symptoms and Treatments
Lybrate - Dr.Nupur Gupta talks about Cervical Cancer.

Hello I am Dr. Nupur Gupta consultant gynaecologist and obstetrician practising in Gurgaon. Today I am going to talk about cervical cancer and its prevention. We all know it is one of the very common cancers amongst females all over the world especially in developing countries, it is more common in developed countries because of poor maternal health. The patients don t want to go to the gynaecologist. There are no guidelines which they know about and they can go for screening for cancer. There are various symptoms that women should know that how cervical cancer can be diagnosed and when is the right time for them to report to their gynecologist. Especially with women, it can happen at any age and especially women who are sexually active with multiple sexual partners who have been infected with human papillomavirus at some point during their life and who have irregular vaginal bleeding and who have bleeding after intercourse which is called Postcoital bleeding and who have inter menstrual bleeding or sometimes they have foul smelling and vaginal discharge. These are all the symptoms which should prompt any female in reproductive age or during menopause, post menopause to come to a gynaecologist and go for screening.

There are various guidelines which are developed in UK, in US and over world and especially in India for females. When should Pap smear be done in any female, is every three years after three samples are negative in three consecutive years. After the age of 60 to 65 years we do it every five years and so on. So women don t need to fear about cervical cancer anymore because now-a-days research has led to development of a new vaccine, a new innovation in health care which is vaccine against human papillomavirus which leads to this kind of cancer in females. It can be given to adolescent girls from nine years of age onwards and now-a-days it is also part of Indian Academy of Paediatrics immunisation in India.

In some countries even boys are given this vaccine because this virus is known to be transmitted from male to female. Up to 26 years of age, any women is eligible to take the vaccine and also women above 26 but who are not sexually active and never had intercourse till date. But taking the immunisation doesn t mean that Pap smear need not be done, still Pap smear screening is mandatory to detect cervical cancer as far as possible. So now we know that cervical cancer is preventable and there is a vaccine which is available, there is Pap smear that can be done in women who are sexually active.

So if you want to know more about this cancer and prevent yourself being affected by this kind of cancer and go for screening you can consult me on lybrate.com which has all modes of consultation audio, video or a text mode of consultation.














Play video
Cancer Of Cervix (Cervical Cancer)
Hello friends,

I am Dr. Jayanti Kamat, director of Srishti Fertility Care Centre and Women's Clinic I am an IVF Consultant, an obstetrician and gynecologist practicing for the last 20 years.

So today I will be talking about Cancer of the cervix, Cancer cervix is the commonest cancer found in Indian women after breast cancer. Every year according to WHO studies 1, 24,000 cases have been detected and annually there are 64,000 deaths, so cancer cervix is a very deadly disease. So what is this cancer cervix, the cervix is the mouth of the uterus? Now, what are the causes of Cancer cervix there are many causes of Cancer cervix but the commonest cause is a virus called as HPV or Human Papilloma Virus, now this virus is responsible for 70% of cases of Cancer cervix. HPV is a very common virus it is usually contracted during sexual intercourse so what does this HPV virus do, it enters into a normal cell and it changes the mechanism and the machinery inside the cell and once it changes the mechanism in machinery of the cell, the cell start behaving little differently and then these abnormal cells they multiply and once they multiply they form a tumor called as cancer cervix. Now, what are the other causes of Cancer cervix that is an early age of marriage then repeated pregnancies the more the number of pregnancies more is the incidence of Cancer cervix, then sexually transmitted diseases, smoking also increases the incidence of cancer cervix? Now this HPV virus it is not that every woman who is infected with HPV virus will develop cancer cervix it all depends on the dose of the virus which infects the cells and the immunity of the person as well. In some women the HPV infection becomes a self-limiting disease in the sense, it gets cured by itself. And in some women say after the period of 5, 10 or 15 years it can cause dysplasia or changes in the cells which later on formed cancer cervix. Fortunately, friends, cancer cervix is one of the few cancer which can be detected at an early stage very easily and how can we do it, there is the simple test called for Pap Smear and also we do have vaccines as of today or HPV vaccines which helps to prevent this HPV infected cells to get converted into cancer. HPV vaccine, now this HPV vaccine is one of the few vaccines which have been invented for the prevention cancer, so we are lucky to have such a vaccine. So this vaccine it has to be given to all girls between the ages of 9 and 26 days before they become sexually active. So this vaccine will prevent the HPV cells from HPV infected cells from developing into cancer there are three roses of this vaccine which have to be completed within 6 months. Now what is this Pap test is a very simple test it can be done on a small clinic or in a big hospital it can be done anywhere, it is an OPD procedure the patient does not have to go for fasting nor it is painful, nor does it required anaesthesia. So when should this Pap test is ideally done, Pap test should be ideally done after menses preferably between the 5th and 10th day of menses and what should you expect during the Pap test procedure the gynaecologist will examine you and take a few cells from your cervix with the help of a spatula and then send those cell to the pathologist for examination. So by examination these cells the pathologist will know whether the cells are normal or abnormal. So what are the advantages of Pap smear so when the gynaecologist examine you she or he will also find out whether your cervix is normal or whether the cervix has Erosion. So this erosion can also cause white discharge so what is that erosion the cells from inside the cervix they just come out so the treatment for this erosion can be done by cautery or just burning the tissue. The gynaecologist will also see that if you have some cervical polyp that also will be visible during the Pap test procedure. So if the polyp is there the polyp can be removed at the same sitting. Now, what is the Pap test come abnormal, the next step will be colposcopy. What is colposcopy? Colposcopy is when the cervix is visualized with an instrument called as colposcope which magnifies, which gives a very magnify review of the cervix. So what does the doctor see through the colposcope, the doctor will see whether the cells are normal or abnormal, there are different criteria blood vessels, the pattern of blood vessels etc and by observing all these things the doctors will be able to make out whether there is some suspicious area which is indicative of malignancy. So from such a suspicious area the biopsy is taken and the biopsy is again sent to the pathologist, so ensure the biopsy will be the test in which we can find out whether the lady has cancer or not. So now what are the symptoms of cancer cervix, so cancer cervix in its early stage has no symptoms at all and that is why we do Pap smear? Pap smear my dear friends is a screening method and not a diagnostic method, what is the screening method that we try to find out the early stages of the disease even before the patient has symptoms and why do we do that because if this cancer is detected in early stage the treatment is very simple and if it is detected in the later stage, the treatment can get complicated and goes much agony and pain to the patient. Now cancer in the little later stage will give rise to symptoms such as white discharge, blood stained discharge, discomfort, pain during sex, bleeding immediately after sexual intercourse and even with the small gynaec examination also the patient may start bleeding, patient may have swelling of feet, sudden loss of weight or pain during urination so all these can be the symptoms of cancer cervix. So whenever lady has these symptoms she has to go and consult her gynecologist. Now what if the biopsy report comes as positive for malignancy there are various methods in which cancer cervix is treated, one is surgery where we remove the cancerous part. The next is radiotherapy, radiotherapy can be two types of radiotherapy, one is external radiotherapy whereas the radioactive source is kept outside the body of the uterus and there is another method called as the intracavitary radiotherapy whereas the radioactive source is kept inside the body of the lady. Then we have chemotherapy as well or sometimes the patient may require a combination of various therapies. So, friends, it is my earnest request to you please get a Pap test done today itself and Pap smear has to be done once in every 3 years for all women under the age of 40 and after 40 it has to be done every year, the Pap test has to be done every year after the age of 40 combined with the HPV testing as well. So we can reduce the incidence of Cancer cervix by being very vigilant, by following safe practices, by avoiding things like smoking and of course getting a Pap smear and an HPV testing done just as we have eradicated polio from India, I strongly believe that if all of us are vigilant we can surely reduce the incidence of cancer cervix in India today, thank you.

If you have any queries about Cancer Cervix, please contact me on Lybrate.
Play video
Preventive Screening
Here are benefits of Preventive Screening

Hi I m doctor Asthta Dayal and I m a consultant gynecologist. And I practice in Gurgaon. I have completed my graduation and post-graduation from Maulana Azad Medical College and I have done my MRCOG from London. I have practiced in hospitals like MediCity and Artemis and now I m privately practicing in Gurgaon so I would like to discuss about preventive screening. Unfortunately preventive screening is something that is highly ignored by women in India and in fact the only time when a woman visits the gynecologist is when she s actually pregnant now the kind of diseases that we re having these days like PCOD, thyroid cancers. It is very important that we detect them at an early stage and treat them and unfortunately they don t produce any symptoms still at very late stage. So that is why a preventive screening is the need of the hour.

So all women should get an annual preventive health check from a gynecologist. Now what happens in the gynea-check that when you count all the gynecologist, we first take your history in which try illicit factors which will put out a higher-than-usual risk of getting a certain disease like PCOD or cancer if you have a family history and then we go on to an examination which includes a breast examination. You can actually learn the examination from your gynecologist which you should be doing yourself once every month and now. This is important because breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in cities in India and India we have a 50-percent of vitality of breast cancer and main reason for this is because it is detected a very late stage.

So this besides the self-examination we mentioned also go for mammography once every other year, once there is about the age of 40. Besides this we also do an abdominal examination and an internal gynea examination. Now an internal check is something which women really are apprehensive about and that s the reason they don t want to visit a gynecologist but believe me it s not painful. At the most it is a little uncomfortable or a little weird and it does not even take a minute during the internal check. We take you for any infection, sexually transmitted diseases, any cervical polyps and any conditions of the uterus like a fibroid or ovarian cyst and you can also take a pap tests at the same time. Now what is a pap smear? Pap Smear is a test which in which we just take cells from the mouth of the uterus, which is the cervix and we send it for testing. It is a screening test for cervical cancer which actually detects the cancer 15 years before the cancer develops.

Now cervical cancer is the second most important cancer in women in India. In fact, one woman is dying every eight minutes because of cervical cancer in India and this is such a distressing statistic because this cancer is highly preventable and treatable in fact there is a vaccine for cervical cancer. Vaccine which can be given to women in the age group of 19 to 27 and this actually prevents the occurrence of cancer. It is given routinely in US and UK in schools but in India we are highly unaware about it. So it is a good practice to get your routine screening for the PAP smear once every three years and an ultrasound annually to detect problems like PCOD and thyroid and other fibroids and so I would highly recommend that women do get an annual health check. And because the health of the woman and reflect only health the family.

So in case you want to get in touch with me you can do that through the Lybrate through a chat or a call or you would consult me in my clinic in Gurgaon.
Play video
Cervical Cancer
Here are screening and treatments of cervical cancer.

Hi all I am Dr Gunjan Gupta Govil . I am director by Gunjan s Gynae and Neuro clinic. I am senior consultant gynaecologist at Max hospital, Vaishali and Shanti Gopal hospital, Indrapuram. My field of interests are infertility, laparoscopy, IVF and quantroscopy. I Have trained from St George Medical College Lucknow and Mulana Azad Medical College and then I further moved to United Kingdom. I am a member of Royal College of Obesteration and Gynaecologist, London and trained into Laparoscopy from France. My other field of interest which is very close to my heart is about women health and their upliftments, so that is why I plan to speak about cervical cancer screening and treatment.

The one to talk about cervical cancer. Well it is the most common cancer in females of India. It surpasses the battle breast cancer also in this country, whereas worldwide it comes at number three. Believe me one out of seven are diagnosed with disease in this country, so why in our country we are having such a high incident of cervical cancer. Well because we do not have a organised screening system which runs worldwide. It is so sad that a simple test like Pap smear which can diagnose the condition. All the abnormalities of the cervix at much earlier stage than cancer that it is 100% curable is not been done in our country. We can diagnose the abnormalities of the cervix by Pap smear and there is advancement in the technique or liquid based hydrology and further evaluation is done by cytoscope and HPV DNA testing.

A common myth is that pap smear is painful, well they are not. They are a simple procure including LBC and Colposcopy can be done in the outpatient basis in clinic requires 10 to 15 minutes. No bed rest is required and you can resume your day to day activity after that. How is LBC done? This is done by simple brush which we take, we take brushing from the month of the uterus or the cervix and send it to the lab for testing. The test takes 3 to 5 days to come and further evaluation is done by cytoscopy if abnormalities are diagnosed. During cytoscope we can see and diagnose abnormalities of the cervix like ulcers on the mouth of the uterus which are know cervical erosion or pre cancerous lesions of the cervix which we call cervical displacias. In the procedure we take special images by means of a microscope or special equipment called a scroscope put certain filter and colours to it and certain medicines to it. Its gives us the exact mapping of the abnormalities and on the bases of the abnormalities simple procures can help us in treating the condition.

At this stage the treatment is as simple as freezing procure called cyro by means of extraction which we call leap. So here I would like to show you a simple thing. This is how cytroscope report looks in which there is a normal normal cervix and this has no abnormalities in it therefore it is dark brown in colour whereas this is a image of abnormal cervix which does not take up any stain and it is yellow in colour and here we see it white. So these are simple test which help us to diagnose the condition. Here I Gunjan s Gynae and Neuro clinic we are doing this procure as a routine.

If you want to connect with me, you can call, chat or picture call me through Lybrate.com
Play video
Cancer Screening in Woman
Here are screening and treatment of different types of cancers in women

Hello I am Dr. Uma Verma. I am consultant gynecologist in West Delhi, Narayana. Today I will talk about the screening of the cancer in women.

What is screening? Checking your body for cancer before you have symptom increase the chances of detecting certain cancer when they are in most curable stage. First I will talk about cervical cancer. Cervix is the lowermost part of the womb. This is the only cancer which is preventable and it has a very long indolent part present as a precancer region. Nowadays vaccine is also available to prevent this cancer. Pap smear is the ultimate screening of chest to prevent the cervical cancer. Once we start screening Pap smear 3 year after the first intimate relation from 21 to 29 years of age yearly and after 29 it should be done with the HPV virus detection. It can be done till 65 years of age and later also if anything abnormal with the Pap smear, patient can go further for the rompers copy also.

Second cancer we are going to discuss is about the breast cancer. We have the Mammogram Manual examination of the breast and MRI. Self examination of the breast is controversial issue, It should be done or not. Some authorities say to be done, some say it is of no use. If at all it should be done it should be started at age of 29 till 40. It should be done with three early and after 40 year it should be done annually. Candidate for the genetic testing, Personal history of CA breast should undergo genetic testing for the breast cancer. Close relative having history of breast, prostate or unaware cancer. Breast cancer developing before the age of 50 having both the breast in ovarian cancer, near relative having the breast cancer, Easter European, Jewish ancestors, anybody who is having ovarian cancer, these are all above the position should be genetically investigated for the screening of the breast cancer.

Now we come to ovarian cancer. This is the ninth most common female cancer. The test used for the click screening is CA 125 and trans vaginal sonography. There is no reliable way to screen for the ovarian cancer in women who do not have any sign. Screening should start at 30 to 35 years that is 5 to 10 year areas when the cancer detected in youngest member of the family. Screening does not reduce death from the cancer in general population. 20 to 25% of the women diagnosed with ovarian cancer have the heriditary tendency. Now come to the uterine cancer screening.

For the uterine cancer there is no screening way. We only have Diagnostic test that Diagnostics test are Endrometrial sampling, DLC, hysteroscopy and also we have the ultrasound to see the endrometrial sickness. Now come to the Colorectal cancer. Colorectal cancer screening is to begin at the age of 50. In this we do high sensitivity fecal occult blood testing, colonoscopy and sigmatoscopy. It should continue annually till the age of 70. That is all.

In summary I want to tell the cancer screening is important so that we can treat the disease at earliest possible. And when the disease is detected earlier the chances vof cure is high. Once the patient develop the disease then nobody knows what is going to happen. Two cancer in the females are the cervical and breast which needs definite screening for the general population as well as for the high risk population. Breast cancer the screening is not of much use.

That is all. Thank you
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