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Colonoscopy - Treatment, Procedure And Side Effects

What is the treatment?

Colonoscopy is a test that is done by your doctor to monitor and examine the inner lining of the large intestine; the rectum and the colon. The colonoscope is a long and flexible tube, whose tip is inserted into the anus and gradually advanced, into your rectum and through the first part of the colon.

A virtual colonoscopy is like an X-ray test, which does not require the insertion of the colonoscope. However, it is not effective in detecting all types of polyps. A colonoscopy with a colonoscope is a much better choice for examining the colon in detail.

A colonoscopy can help in finding ulcers, tumours, colon polyps or any area that is affected by inflammation and bleeding. It can also be performed as a screening test for checking precancerous growth, cancer in the rectum or the colon. During a colonoscopy, your tissue sample will be examined to detect abnormal growths.

Colonoscopy can also be done to investigate the cause of blood in your stool, chronic diarrhea, sudden weight loss, anaemia, unexplained pain in the stomach for a long time or for treating inflammatory bowel disease.

It is mandatory to clean out the colon prior to the test. Two days before the test, you have to stop consuming solid food and drink only fluids to clean out your bowel.

How is the treatment done?

A colonoscopy is performed by a trained specialist either in an outpatient centre or in a hospital. He/ She will first inject an IV needle in the vein of your arm. Sedatives, painkillers or anesthesia is given through that IV channel, allowing you to relax during the test. Your vital stats will be monitored by the staff.

You will have to lie on the table and the doctor will insert the colonoscope into the anus and guide it carefully through the rectum and the colon. The scope will pump air inside the large intestine enabling the doctor to get a better view. During this process, you may experience abdominal cramps or the urge to go to the toilet. The attached camera sends the video image of your intestinal lining to the monitor, where the doctor can view and examine the intestinal tissues. You may have to move several times so that the scope can be adjusted for a better view.

If the doctor comes across any polyps during the screening, he/she can remove them and then send to the lab for a biopsy testing.

It can typically take about 20 minutes to an hour to complete the whole examination. The results are generally available just after the completion of the procedure. Your doctor will share it with you as soon as the effect of the sedative and the anesthesia has worn off.

Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)

A person is recommended to undergo a colonoscopy under the following conditions:

  • Blood in the stool/rectal bleeding
  • Dark and sometimes black stool
  • Unexplained and drastic weight loss
  • Chronic diarrhea
  • Treating inflammatory bowel disease
  • Chronic pain in the stomach
  • To check for colorectal cancer
  • If there are any abnormal results from an MRI, CT scan, virtual colonoscopy or a stool test
  • As a routine test for people above the age of 50

Who is not eligible for the treatment?

You may not be able to have a colonoscopy test done if:

  • You have undergone a barium enema test (test is done to find abnormalities in your large intestine) within seven days before the colonoscopy, as there are chances that the colon will not be properly visible
  • There is stool present in the colon even after colon prep
  • There was a colon surgery done in the past
  • You have consumed red or purple coloured food/fluids
  • People suffering from diverticulitis (infection in the digestive tract) and pregnant women are generally not recommended to undergo a colonoscopy

Are there any side effects?

The side effects of undergoing a colonoscopy can be:

  • The test can cause diarrhea. Some people also experience cramping.
  • You may feel extremely sleepy for a few hours after the test has been completed. The sedative often removes the memory of the procedure.
  • You can experience bloating and gas.
  • If a polyp was extracted during the colonoscopy, your stool can have blood traces for some days
  • You may not be able to take any aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for up to 2 weeks
  • In some rare cases, the scope can tear your colon lining or cause bleeding

What are the post-treatment guidelines?

The post treatment guidelines after a colonoscopy would include:

  • You may be required to stay at the hospital or the clinic for 1 or 2 hours
  • Drink adequate amount of liquid to make up for the fluids you have lost during the test
  • Do not drink alcohol immediately after the test
  • It is advisable not to drive for a day after the test if you have been given sedatives
  • Your doctor will advise you when to eat your normal diet and resume your daily activities. If a polyp was removed during the test, you may have to eat a special diet for a certain time period.

How long does it take to recover?

After the test, you will have to remain in the clinic for an hour or two to recover from the sedative that was administered. You may be able to resume your daily activities from the day after. If you have diarrhea, you can rest for an extra two or three days.

What is the price of the treatment in India?

The price of undergoing a colonoscopy test in India varies from Rs. 9525 to Rs. 22,225.

Are the results of the treatment permanent?

If you have undergone a routine colonoscopy and come clean, you can opt for the next one after ten years. If there were some small disorders found during the first examination, you must repeat the test after five years.

What are the alternatives to the treatment?

Colonoscopy is a test that is performed for screening of colon cancer. Other alternative tests include stool tests, sigmoidoscopy, and computed tomographic colonography.

Safety: High Effectiveness: Medium Timeliness: High Relative Risk: Low Side Effects: Low Recovery Time: Very Low Price Range: Rs. 9525 - Rs. 22,225

Popular Health Tips

At What Age Should You Get a Colonoscopy?

Dr. Sanjay Jain 89% (19 ratings)
MBBS, MD - Medicine, Member of the Royal College of Physicians, UK (MRCP UK)
Gastroenterologist, Delhi
At What Age Should You Get a Colonoscopy?
Screening for cancer of the colon or large intestine and rectum is a proven way of saving a person from the impacts of colorectal diseases. This is partly because colon cancer is something that can be prevented if detected at an early stage and the polyps which may advance to cancer are removed properly. Thus if you are turning 50 soon, be prepared to present yourself for a screening colonoscopy that will help you ensure good health and well-being. It may sound uncanny, but do you know that 50,000 people across the world die from colorectal cancer every year, and it is ranked second in terms of cancer-centric deaths. Understanding the importance of having colonoscopy: You may wonder how a painful, invasive, embarrassing, uncomfortable and time-consuming health test may be called a present. There are reasons enough. A screening colonoscopy is able to expose a cancerous tumour that's presently under way and cast light on the chances and risk factors that may precede it. When you choose to intervene early, you have the power to nip those risks at their budding stage, much before those malicious cells become malignant. Spreading of the colorectal cancer: Your large intestine is really a big and last organ of the gastrointestinal system where the small intestine discontinues. Its primary function is to remove the water out of the leftover solids of digestion and get rid of them in the form of stool. Cancer may start to develop anywhere within the tube that expands 5 feet long and squares the vacant area of the abdomen. The large intestine expands up towards the right side, i.e. the ascending colon and then turns left through the liver, i.e., the transverse colon, bending down right at the spleen on its left, i.e. descending colon and loops to the middle, i.e., the sigmoid colon before it runs across the rectum and ends at the anus. People who need a colonoscopy: To simplify matters, it can be said that all adults are at a potential risk of the colorectal cancer, including those people who lead a healthy life. But some people are at a higher risk. Those individuals have a specific gene mutation that predisposes them to develop into numerous polyps. The risk is also high with people who are first-degree relatives of a person diagnosed with cancer before the age of 50. People with Ulcerative colitis, various types of inflammatory bowel diseases and Crohn's disease are also at a higher risk. Colorectal cancer is a serious ailment and screening colonoscopy is a feasible means of detecting any polyps that may be cancerous in the future. Speak with a reputed gastroenterologist today to stay ahead of the disease.
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11 Most Common Types of Endoscopy!

Dr. Raj Vigna Venugopal 91% (10 ratings)
MBBS, MD - Internal Medicine , DM - Gastroenterology
Gastroenterologist, Bangalore
11 Most Common Types of Endoscopy!
A cut on your skin can be seen by the naked eye, but injuries and infections to internal organs are not so easily visible to the eye. The procedure to view and operate on the body s internal organs is known as an endoscopy. An endoscopy is performed using a flexible tube with a camera attached at one end known as an endoscope. This is inserted into the body though a natural opening in the body such as the mouth or through a small incision on the body. While the camera gives the doctor a view of the internal organs, forceps or a pair of scissors can be used to operate or remove tissue that needs to be biopsied. Since an endoscopy is performed without making large incisions, it negates the development of scarring. Types of Endoscopies Endoscopies can be used for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. It is also one of the means for early detection of cancer. There are 11 main types of endoscopies which include: Arthroscopy: This is used to get a closer look at joints. In such cases, the endoscope is inserted into a small incision near the joint being examined. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy: Examining the esophagus and upper intestinal tract by inserting a scope through the mouth is known as an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Colonoscopy: In this procedure, a scope is inserted through the anus to get a view of the colon. Bronchoscopy: This procedure is used to examine a patient s lungs. It involves the insertion of a scope into the nose or mouth to give a view of the lungs. Cystoscopy: When the bladder needs to be examined closely, an endoscope is inserted through the urethra. This is known as a cystoscopy. Enteroscopy: This is a procedure where the scope is inserted through the mouth or anus to get a look at the small intestines. Hysteroscopy: Here a scope is inserted through the vagina to get a look at the inside of the uterus. Laparoscopy: It is an endoscopy to examine the abdominal area is known as a laparoscopy. This scope is inserted through an incision in the abdomen. Laryngoscopy: This type of endoscopy involves inserting a scope through the mouth or nose to examine the voice box. Mediastinoscopy: By inserting a scope into an incision above the breastbone, doctors can get a look at the area between the lungs. This is known as a mediastinoscopy. Ureteroscopy: This procedure is used to examine the patient s ureter by inserting a scope through the urethra.
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Colon Cancer - Treat it the Ayurvedic Way!

Dr. Mayur Surana 87% (562 ratings)
Ayurveda, Nashik
Colon Cancer - Treat it the Ayurvedic Way!
According to the American Cancer Society and Colon Cancer Alliance, colon cancer, which is also referred to as colorectal cancer is regarded as the third most commonly diagnosed type of cancer, as well as the second most important reason of cancer deaths in the U.S. affecting both men and women. But thankfully, colon cancer can be prevented by changing the food habits. It is also important to get regular screenings through colonoscopy, which will help you to determine the early or precancerous stage that can be treated with the removal of cancerous cells. Colorectal cancer is deemed to be cancer, related to the food habits and it can be prevented by correcting the same. Here are the top ways through which you can help your condition naturally: Reduce the amount of red meat consumption: Health studies reveal that people who eat red meat on a regular basis are more prone to developing colon cancer. This is because the chemicals required to digest this food damage the DNA material which in turn is the main reason behind the cause of cancer. Increase the amount of garlic intake: By consuming more garlic, you can reduce the risk of developing different types of cancer, particularly those of the gastrointestinal tract. Garlic is rich in anti-bacterial properties that can block the pathway of cancer causing elements and boost the repair as well as reduce the proliferation of cells. It is also high in selenium and sodium content which are beneficial for the overall health. Consume all types of plant antioxidants: The bright-coloured fruits and vegetables, as well as herbs and spices, can greatly contribute to adding a wide array of antioxidants in your regular diet. Foods that are rich in antioxidants include carrots, pomegranates, cranberries, kale, broccoli, tomatoes, apples, cabbage, turmeric, sage, rosemary, saffron, purple and red grapes. Cook foods in sesame oil: The many health benefits of sesame seeds are due to its nutritional content, including vitamins, minerals, natural oils, and organic compounds which consist of calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorous, manganese, copper, zinc, fiber, thiamin, vitamin B6, folate, protein, and tryptophan. Increase the consumption of Omega-3 fatty acids: It has been reported by several types of research that a diet rich in Omega-3 fatty acids can reduce the occurrence of colon cancer and therefore you must eat a lot of salmon, cod, mackerel and sardines for decreasing the pro-inflammatory levels in your body. Go For Ayurvedic Panchakarma Therapy: Panchakarma is the ultimate mind-body healing experience for detoxifying the body, strengthening the immune system and restoring balance and well-being. It is one the most effective healing modality in Ayurvedic Medicine. It promotes Detoxification and Rejuvenation. It is recommended on a seasonal basis, as well as when an individual feels out of balance or is experiencing illness. According to Ayurveda, good health depends upon our capability to fully metabolize all aspects of life, assimilating that which nourishes and eliminating the rest. When we can t completely digest our food, experiences, and emotions, toxins accumulate in our bodily tissues, creating imbalance and ultimately disease. Panchakarma is an elegant cleansing process that releases stored toxins and restores the body s innate healing ability. These few alterations to your food habits can greatly help you in preventing colon cancer and you can consult your doctor for a detailed analysis and recommendation based on your individual health condition.
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Surgery and Post Surgery Care for Ulcerative Colitis

Dr. Kanwaljit Chahl 88% (329 ratings)
Membership of the Royal College of Surgeons (MRCS), MS - General Surgery, MBBS
General Surgeon, Mohali
Surgery and Post Surgery Care for Ulcerative Colitis
This is a disease that affects the large intestine and the rectum. The Ulcerative Colitis refers to the inflammation in the innermost lining of the large intestine. The main function of the large intestine is to absorb water from indigestible food matter in the body before throwing away any waste. Hence, the large intestine is a vital part of our body. If left untreated, the disease increases risk of colon cancer. Symptoms: Diarrhea with blood or pus: A person suffering from Ulcerative Colitis is likely to suffer from loose stools accompanied with blood or pus. Stomach pain and Cramping: In many cases, patients complain of severe stomach pain and cramping. Rectal pain: At times, many patients feel pain while sitting or even after a bowel movement. Bleeding from the rectum: Bleeding can be observed while passing stools. The other complications leading to this disease are kidney stones, swelling of the colon, thickening of intestinal walls and blood infection. Diagnosis: This disease can be diagnosed by several methods. A simple stool test may be done to check out for bacteria and parasites. A blood test to check the level of C-reactive protein helps determine the inflation rate of the body. Endoscopy, colonoscopy, biopsy are some other methods of diagnosis. Treatment Oral medication: Treatment involves drug therapy or surgery. The first step in treating Ulcerative Colitis will be an intake of anti-inflammatory drugs, but these may have a side effect. Another option is immune system suppressors, which help to bring down the inflammation by suppressing the immune system response. Antibiotics, anti-diarrheal medications, pain relievers are some of the additional drug supplements recommended by doctors. Surgery: Surgery plays an important role because this disease is pre-malignant in nature. Depending on the severity of the condition, the medical practitioner may advice surgery. The common methods of surgery are: Proctocolectomy and Ileostomy: Proctocolectomy involves removal of the colon in part or whole. Ileostomy is carried out by placing a special bag in the small intestine to collect waste from the body. Proctocolectomy and Ileo-anal: Ileo-anal pouch is a bag directly created the small intestine and connected to the anus, for diffusing the stools. As colon is removed Ulcerative Colitis cannot re-occur. Precautions after surgery It is very important that the patient takes healthy, sufficient and nutritious food so that bowel movement can be carried out with ease and zero strain. The patient has to restrict lifting of heavy grocery, mowing the lawn, any physical activity that can strain the abdomen and related areas.
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Popular Questions & Answers

I'm having mucus in my stool since 2 months I had a colonoscopy it's negative but after that my stool is like a chewing gum and mucus like.

Dr. Bhagyesh Patel 93% (3025 ratings)
General Surgeon, Gandhinagar
Hello dear lybrate-user, hi Warm welcome to I have evaluated your query thoroughly.* This is in relation with infection of intestine or inflammatory bowel disease.* Kindly get a stool microscopic examination and consult with the report. Hope this clears your query. Wishing you fine recovery. Welcome for any further assistance. Regards dear take care.

Dear Sir, I am 70 years and male. I suffer from 4 stools a day and a lot of wind is passed, as well suffer from Respiratory and find myself breathless. Please advice. You may mail back, Thank you.

MD, Fellowship in Intergrative Medicine, MBBS
Integrated Medicine Specialist, Kochi
Breathlessness may be due several causes like cardiac diseases, respiratory diseases, anxiety to name a few. You have not mentioned whether you are a smoker, whether you take alcohol, the environment you live and food and other allergies. What is your daily diet what are the investigations you have done till now and their results and the medications you are currently taking. Get a comprehensive stool examination done as well as as you grow old digestive enzymes are not produced adequately so you might require supplementation use probiotics and fermented foods was a colonoscopy done any time because you are 70 for more specific advice detailed history is required Please take a consult.
1 person found this helpful

My husband suffering abdominal fullness and breathing shortness. We already consult so many doctored and also done colonoscopy, so many blood test and x-rays but no improvement yet, so please advice what we can do?

Dr. Chandu M 88% (32 ratings)
General Physician,
Along with medications, try changing food habits as certain foods tend to get digested slowly and cause bloating and certain foods simply release more gas. So try to strike a balance between the two.

Health Quizzes

Colostomy In Children - Things To Remember!

Dr. Shyam Behari Sharma 84% (119 ratings)
MBBS, MS - General Surgery, MCh - Pediatric Surgery
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Caring for colostomy in children requires additional training. True or false? Take this quiz to know more.
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