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Colonoscopy - Treatment, Procedure And Side Effects

What is the treatment?

Colonoscopy is a test that is done by your doctor to monitor and examine the inner lining of the large intestine; the rectum and the colon. The colonoscope is a long and flexible tube, whose tip is inserted into the anus and gradually advanced, into your rectum and through the first part of the colon.

A virtual colonoscopy is like an X-ray test, which does not require the insertion of the colonoscope. However, it is not effective in detecting all types of polyps. A colonoscopy with a colonoscope is a much better choice for examining the colon in detail.

A colonoscopy can help in finding ulcers, tumours, colon polyps or any area that is affected by inflammation and bleeding. It can also be performed as a screening test for checking precancerous growth, cancer in the rectum or the colon. During a colonoscopy, your tissue sample will be examined to detect abnormal growths.

Colonoscopy can also be done to investigate the cause of blood in your stool, chronic diarrhea, sudden weight loss, anaemia, unexplained pain in the stomach for a long time or for treating inflammatory bowel disease.

It is mandatory to clean out the colon prior to the test. Two days before the test, you have to stop consuming solid food and drink only fluids to clean out your bowel.

How is the treatment done?

A colonoscopy is performed by a trained specialist either in an outpatient centre or in a hospital. He/ She will first inject an IV needle in the vein of your arm. Sedatives, painkillers or anesthesia is given through that IV channel, allowing you to relax during the test. Your vital stats will be monitored by the staff.

You will have to lie on the table and the doctor will insert the colonoscope into the anus and guide it carefully through the rectum and the colon. The scope will pump air inside the large intestine enabling the doctor to get a better view. During this process, you may experience abdominal cramps or the urge to go to the toilet. The attached camera sends the video image of your intestinal lining to the monitor, where the doctor can view and examine the intestinal tissues. You may have to move several times so that the scope can be adjusted for a better view.

If the doctor comes across any polyps during the screening, he/she can remove them and then send to the lab for a biopsy testing.

It can typically take about 20 minutes to an hour to complete the whole examination. The results are generally available just after the completion of the procedure. Your doctor will share it with you as soon as the effect of the sedative and the anesthesia has worn off.

Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)

A person is recommended to undergo a colonoscopy under the following conditions:

  • Blood in the stool/rectal bleeding
  • Dark and sometimes black stool
  • Unexplained and drastic weight loss
  • Chronic diarrhea
  • Treating inflammatory bowel disease
  • Chronic pain in the stomach
  • To check for colorectal cancer
  • If there are any abnormal results from an MRI, CT scan, virtual colonoscopy or a stool test
  • As a routine test for people above the age of 50

Who is not eligible for the treatment?

You may not be able to have a colonoscopy test done if:

  • You have undergone a barium enema test (test is done to find abnormalities in your large intestine) within seven days before the colonoscopy, as there are chances that the colon will not be properly visible
  • There is stool present in the colon even after colon prep
  • There was a colon surgery done in the past
  • You have consumed red or purple coloured food/fluids
  • People suffering from diverticulitis (infection in the digestive tract) and pregnant women are generally not recommended to undergo a colonoscopy

Are there any side effects?

The side effects of undergoing a colonoscopy can be:

  • The test can cause diarrhea. Some people also experience cramping.
  • You may feel extremely sleepy for a few hours after the test has been completed. The sedative often removes the memory of the procedure.
  • You can experience bloating and gas.
  • If a polyp was extracted during the colonoscopy, your stool can have blood traces for some days
  • You may not be able to take any aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for up to 2 weeks
  • In some rare cases, the scope can tear your colon lining or cause bleeding

What are the post-treatment guidelines?

The post treatment guidelines after a colonoscopy would include:

  • You may be required to stay at the hospital or the clinic for 1 or 2 hours
  • Drink adequate amount of liquid to make up for the fluids you have lost during the test
  • Do not drink alcohol immediately after the test
  • It is advisable not to drive for a day after the test if you have been given sedatives
  • Your doctor will advise you when to eat your normal diet and resume your daily activities. If a polyp was removed during the test, you may have to eat a special diet for a certain time period.

How long does it take to recover?

After the test, you will have to remain in the clinic for an hour or two to recover from the sedative that was administered. You may be able to resume your daily activities from the day after. If you have diarrhea, you can rest for an extra two or three days.

What is the price of the treatment in India?

The price of undergoing a colonoscopy test in India varies from Rs. 9525 to Rs. 22,225.

Are the results of the treatment permanent?

If you have undergone a routine colonoscopy and come clean, you can opt for the next one after ten years. If there were some small disorders found during the first examination, you must repeat the test after five years.

What are the alternatives to the treatment?

Colonoscopy is a test that is performed for screening of colon cancer. Other alternative tests include stool tests, sigmoidoscopy, and computed tomographic colonography.

Safety: High Effectiveness: Medium Timeliness: High Relative Risk: Low Side Effects: Low Recovery Time: Very Low Price Range: Rs. 9525 - Rs. 22,225

Popular Health Tips

Why Should You Get A Colonoscopy Done?

MBBS, MS - General Surgery, Diploma In Minimal Access Surgery
General Surgeon, Bangalore
Why Should You Get A Colonoscopy Done?

Colonoscopy is a testing method that helps a doctor to witness the inner lining of the large intestine. A thin tube known as the colonoscope is used to perform this test. The distinct advantage of this test is the fact that unlike another test, a colonoscopy gives a full view of the rectum and the full colon. This procedure is often used by doctors to eradicate polyps and perform a biopsy.

Detection and eradication of polyps-A polyp size, which has a diameter of more than 1 cm call for a full examination of the colon. Although many doctors suggest colonoscopy with a polyp that is less than 1 cm due to the presence of cancer cells present in preexisting polyps. Colonoscopy is preferred over other tests due to their unique ability to distinguish between malignant and benign structures. It is also very effective in searching for lesions and effectively brings out samples to perform a biopsy.

  1. The case of bowel resection: For patients who are suffering from colon cancer and needs a bowel resection should have a colonoscopy done. This is all the more true for patients who have already undergone a bowel removal surgery. While many authorities suggest that patients of this nature should undergo colonoscopy every year, other authorities believe that a colonoscopy in every 3 years serves the purpose.
  2. Cancer in the family: Individuals having a history of adenomatous polyposis are often recommended to under colonoscopy once in every 12 months. The testing should start at the age of 12 and go up to 35 years. Post this screening can happen after every 3 years. Patients suffering from hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer should also go for a yearly colonoscopy from the age of 10 years until the age of 40 years.
  3. Managing IBD: Patients suffering from Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) should get a colonoscopy done to better manage the disease. Colonoscopy is considered to be more effective than barium enema in comprehending the extent of the inflammation process. Colonoscopy can further distinguish between Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis where clinical and radiologic study fails.
  4. Detecting and treating acute bleeding: Colonoscopy can successfully trace the site of bleeding for patients suffering from lower gastrointestinal bleeding. It is also believed to have a therapeutic intervention. Correctly determining the bleeding source is one key advantage of colonoscopy. If it fails, the doctor might suggest for an angiography.
  5. Colon decompression: When an intestine twists in the cecum or sigmoid colon, it results in bowel obstruction and can compound to ischemia. This condition is known as a volvulus. Some common symptoms of this disease include nausea, abdominal pain, and obstipation. Typically surgical procedure is necessary to arrest this situation. Colonoscopy is used in decompressing the colon.
2015 people found this helpful

Colon Polyps - What Are The Available Treatment Options?

MBBS, MD - Medicine, DM - Gastroenterology
Gastroenterologist, Ghaziabad
Colon Polyps - What Are The Available Treatment Options?

A polyp is a cauliflower-like growth on the skin or the mucosal surface. Colon is the medical term for the larger intestine and the rectum. A growth on the mucosal surface of this part of the intestine is known as a colon polyp. Although not visible, colon polyps is present with symptoms, which can lead to their diagnosis. The main cause for concern is that some colon polyps can turn into colorectal cancer, which is the third largest cancer in America.

Types: There are two main types of polyps

  1. Hyperplastic or inflammatory: These are benign growths and do not carry the risk of developing into cancer.
  2. Adenomas: These carry the risk of turning into cancer, and so early detection and intervention is essential.

Though not all polyps develop into tumors, yet all tumors develop from a polyp. There is a strong genetic component, which makes it worse. Someone with inflammatory bowel disease or Crohn’s disease is also at a higher risk of mucosal inflammation, which can induce dysplasia and then polyps.

Risk factors:

  1. Family history
  2. Inflammatory bowel disease
  3. Obesity
  4. Diet rich in processed meat and red meat
  5. Smoking
  6. Lack of physical activity
  7. Type 2 diabetes
  8. Being male, being African American

Symptoms: Though often silent, some symptoms which also appear only after the polyp has grown considerably include:

  1. Bleeding with stools – often small amounts intermittently, which is occult bleeding, not visible though
  2. Altered bowel habits (constipation, diarrhea)
  3. Abdominal pain and discomfort
  4. Unexplained weight loss
  5. Anemia (due to blood loss)

Diagnosis: If a person is at risk from medical history and has the above symptoms, then the following are done:

  1. Sigmoidoscopy Viewing the colon and rectum to see if there are any polyps. A biopsy may also be taken to confirm cancerous growth.
  2. Colonoscopy The entire colon is viewed to rule out polyps in other areas of the colon.
  3. CT scan of the abdomen which is non-invasive and can be used as the first step.


  1. If a polyp is diagnosed, then it needs to be removed.
  2. If it turns out cancerous, then detailed evaluation should be done to rule out spread to other areas. Additionally, chemotherapy and radiotherapy may be required to completely eliminate the tumor and contain it.
  3. The surgical removal of the tumor would be planned depending on the stage of the tumor.
  4. Adapting a healthy lifestyle is very essential to managing polyps and preventing cancer. Quitting smoking, managing weight, eating healthy, and being physically active are some ways to prevent colorectal cancer.
  5. Repeat colonoscopy needs to be done to ensure these are not recurrent.
2 people found this helpful

Surgery and Post Surgery Care for Ulcerative Colitis

Membership of the Royal College of Surgeons (MRCS), MS - General Surgery, MBBS
General Surgeon, Mohali
Surgery and Post Surgery Care for Ulcerative Colitis

This is a disease that affects the large intestine and the rectum. The Ulcerative Colitis refers to the inflammation in the innermost lining of the large intestine. The main function of the large intestine is to absorb water from indigestible food matter in the body before throwing away any waste. Hence, the large intestine is a vital part of our body. If left untreated, the disease increases risk of colon cancer.


  1. Diarrhea with blood or pus: A person suffering from Ulcerative Colitis is likely to suffer from loose stools accompanied with blood or pus.
  2. Stomach pain and Cramping: In many cases, patients complain of severe stomach pain and cramping.
  3. Rectal pain: At times, many patients feel pain while sitting or even after a bowel movement.
  4. Bleeding from the rectum: Bleeding can be observed while passing stools.

The other complications leading to this disease are kidney stones, swelling of the colon, thickening of intestinal walls and blood infection.

This disease can be diagnosed by several methods. A simple stool test may be done to check out for bacteria and parasites. A blood test to check the level of C-reactive protein helps determine the inflation rate of the body. Endoscopy, colonoscopy, biopsy are some other methods of diagnosis.


  1. Oral medication: Treatment involves drug therapy or surgery. The first step in treating Ulcerative Colitis will be an intake of anti-inflammatory drugs, but these may have a side effect. Another option is immune system suppressors, which help to bring down the inflammation by suppressing the immune system response. Antibiotics, anti-diarrheal medications, pain relievers are some of the additional drug supplements recommended by doctors.
  2. Surgery: Surgery plays an important role because this disease is pre-malignant in nature. Depending on the severity of the condition, the medical practitioner may advice surgery. The common methods of surgery are:
    1. Proctocolectomy and Ileostomy: Proctocolectomy involves removal of the colon in part or whole. Ileostomy is carried out by placing a special bag in the small intestine to collect waste from the body.
    2. Proctocolectomy and Ileo-anal: Ileo-anal pouch is a bag directly created the small intestine and connected to the anus, for diffusing the stools. As colon is removed Ulcerative Colitis cannot re-occur.

Precautions after surgery
It is very important that the patient takes healthy, sufficient and nutritious food so that bowel movement can be carried out with ease and zero strain. The patient has to restrict lifting of heavy grocery, mowing the lawn, any physical activity that can strain the abdomen and related areas.

3410 people found this helpful

Ischemic Colitis - In Depth Of It!

MD - Acupuncture, Diploma In Accupuncture, Advanced Diploma In Accupuncture
Acupuncturist, Delhi
Ischemic Colitis - In Depth Of It!

What is Ischemic colitis?

Ischemic colitis is a disorder that develops when there is a temporary loss of, or reduction in, blood flow to the colon.

Symptoms of Ischemic colitis-

  • Diarrhea
  • Nausea and Vomiting
  • Abdominal pain or cramps
  • blood in your stool
  • A feeling of urgency to move your bowels

Causes of Ischemic colitis-

  • Buildup of fatty deposits (atherosclerosis) in the blood vessels
  • Inflammation of the blood vessels
  • Radiation treatment to the abdomen
  • Colon cancer
  • Dehydration
  • Elevated sugar (glucose) levels in the blood (diabetes)
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
  • Estrogen replacement medications
  • Blood pressure lowering drugs
  • Certain antipsychotic drugs

Risk factors of Ischemic colitis-

Complications of Ischemic colitis-

  • Gangrene
  • Abdominal pain and blockage
  • Hole (perforation) in your intestine or persistent bleeding 
  • Diagnosis of Ischemic colitis

Diagnosis of Ischemic colitis involves the following tests:

  • Physical exam and medical history
  • Colonoscopy
  • Biopsy
  • Abdominal arteriogram
  • X-rays of the abdomen and pelvis
  • Ultrasound and CT scan
  • Blood tests
  • Stool sample

Precautions & Prevention of Ischemic colitis-

There is no prevention of ischemic colitis. You can do following to avoid complications:

  • Stop smoking
  • Take cholesterol-lowering medication
  • Control chronic illnesses, such as diabetes
  • Exercise regularly

Treatment of Ischemic colitis-

  • Homeopathic Treatment of Ischemic colitis
  • Acupuncture & Acupressure Treatment of Ischemic colitis
  • Psychotherapy Treatment of Ischemic colitis
  • Conventional / Allopathic Treatment of Ischemic colitis
  • Surgical Treatment of Ischemic colitis
  • Dietary & Herbal Treatment of Ischemic colitis
  • Other Treatment of Ischemic colitis

Homeopathic Treatment of Ischemic Colitis-

Homeopathy pain vomiting diarrhea and improves circulation. It treats the person as a whole. Treatment is constitutional. It means that homeopathic treatment focuses on the patient as a person, as well as his pathological condition. It balances the energy system, improves immunity and body functions. It naturally cures the root cause of disorder. Some of the homeopathic medicines that can be used for treatment of ischemic colitis are:

  • China
  • Ipecac
  • Carb S
  • Merc C
  • Colch
  • Lach

Acupuncture and Acupressure Treatment of Ischemic Colitis-

cupuncture relieves by improving the physiological function of the organs and organ system. In acupuncture therapist will first diagnose the case on the basis of energy system or chi blockage as well as on the basis of status of five elements. On this basis certain disease specific acupoints are selected and stimulated.

Conventional / Allopathic Treatment of Ischemic colitis-

You may need hospitalization to provide fluids and nutrients through your veins (intravenously), if you’re dehydrated. Antibiotics are used to prevent infections from developing.

Surgical Treatment of Ischemic colitis-

  • Surgery is needed for ischemic colitis if your condition is associated with:
  • Abdominal tenderness and fever that are severe and persistent
  • A hole (perforation) in your colon.
  • Gangrene and blood infection (sepsis).

Dietary & Herbal Treatment of Ischemic colitis-

  • Avoid fried foods and packaged baked goods
  • Choose heart-healthy fats such as omega-three fatty acids from seafood
  • Reduce your intake of saturated fat
  • Drinking enough fluid to stay hydrated


1 person found this helpful

Colorectal Surgery - Know Everything About It!

MS - General Surgery, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
General Surgeon, Pune
Colorectal Surgery - Know Everything About It!

Colorectal surgery is the broad term for surgical procedures performed on the colon, the rectum and the anus. There are various different surgical procedures which fall under colorectal surgery and these are used to treat a vast array of disorders, such as:

  1. Anal cancer
  2. Colorectal cancer
  3. Severe complications related to constipation
  4. Anal injuries
  5. Inflammatory conditions of the gastrointestinal tract
  6. Congenital defects

  • Procedures: The surgeries under colorectal surgery are performed after diagnostic tests such as proctoscopy, sigmoidoscopy and defecating proctography. The most common diagnostic test is colonoscopy. These help to identify the origin and nature of the problem and decide which surgical procedure is to be followed. The procedures under colorectal surgery are as follows:
  • Colectomy: This procedure involves removal of a section of the large intestine. This is known as partial colectomy. In extreme cases, such as advanced cancer or severe gastrointestinal infection, the entire colon is removed and this is called total colectomy. Sometimes, the rectum is also taken out along with the colon and this is called proctocolectomy.
  • Colonic polypectomy: An abnormal growth of tissues in the inner lining of an organ is known as a polyp. Colonic polypectomy is done to eliminate polyps from the colon and rectum before they become malignant. This can be done endoscopically. Surgery is required in case of large polyps.
  • Strictureplasty: Chronic or repeated bowel inflammation causes scar tissue to accumulate in the large intestine. This results in the narrowing of the colon. Stricturoplasty removes the scar tissue so that proper flow of digestive contents is resumed.
  • Colostomy or Ileostomy: A damaged section of the colon is removed and the shortened intestine is then attached to another opening (stoma) in the anterior wall of the abdomen.
  • Hemorrhoidectomy: This surgical process is used for swollen hemorrhoids or blood vessels, which form in the anal canal. Hemorrhoidectomy is extremely effective in removing hemorrhoids, but the surgery also involves a number of complications.
  • Anoplasty: Anoplasty or imperforate anus correction is done to correct birth defects in the rectum and the anus. The structural flaw does not allow the stool to pass properly from the rectum and so it is repaired through surgery.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

1838 people found this helpful

Popular Questions & Answers

I have done my colonoscopy and then the biopsy report shows Acute on chronic non specific colitis what does it mean I am very depressed please tell me about this problem.

Masters In Clinical Psychology
Psychologist, Lucknow
Discuss your concerns with a mental health professional in detail for effective therapy consult with me or any psychologist for therapy & counseling connect with me through text or audio on Lybrate app follow my page on facebook Juhi parashar clinical psychologist for updates on mental health issues. All the best seek help for early recovery.

Im suffering from constipation from many years. Undergone endoscopy and colonoscopy. Have hemorrhoids and some small ulcers in intestine.

DNB GENERAL SURGERY, MBBS, National Board Of Examination
General Surgeon, Mumbai
Start syrup lactulose 30 ml at night Anovate cream for local application consume high fibre diet Sitting in warm water bath for 30 minutes at a time for 4 times a day take. Care.
1 person found this helpful

Please suggest me this is very urgent. My father colostomy surgery was operated in June 27.17 and now recently his MRI reports shows every thing is normal. And surgeon has also told reports are good and we can do colostomy reversal surgery but problem is he told the cost of surgery 3 lac. But we can't afford that much earlier also we had given 3 lakh please help me what to do I just to save my father's life. Please help me for my father Colostomy reversal surgery.

MS - General Surgery, FMAS.Laparoscopy
General Surgeon, Gandhinagar
Hello dear Jaspreet , hi Warm welcome to I have evaluated your query for your father thoroughly . * The cost of colostomy closure seems unpredictebly high as 3 lakh . In our center at Gujarat it costs around 35,000 Rs. inclusive of all . Welcome to Gujarat , we are offering medical tourism as well . Hope this clears your query . Wishing him fine recovery . Welcome for any further assistance . Regards take care .
1 person found this helpful

I am 30 yr. During colonoscopy ulcer at ileumand anal fissure found .gi endoscopy is normal .ct entrography is normal.

Homeopath, Noida
1. Don't Overeat 2. Don't take tea empty stomach. Eat something like a banana (if you are not diabetic) or any seasonal fruit or soaked almonds and a glass of water first thing in the morning (within 10 mins of waking up). No only biscuits or rusk will not do. 3. Take your breakfast every day. Don't skip it. 4. Have light meals every 2 hours (in addition to your breakfast, lunch n dinner) e.g. Nariyal paani, chaach, a handful of dry fruits, a handful of peanuts, any fresh n seasonal fruit, a cup of curd/milk etc 5. Finish your dinner at least 2 hours before going to sleep. 6. Maintain active life style 7. Avoid fast foods, spicy n fried foods, Carbonated beverages 8. Take a lot of green vegetables n fruit. It contains a lot of fiber which will help reduce tendency for constipation 9. Drink lot of water. 10. Take half cup of cold milk when you feel acidity, it will help. Curd is good for u. 11. Everyday preferably sleep on same time 12. Elevate your bed. Raising the head of your bed six to eight inches can help gravity keep gastric acid down in your stomach. Exercise in the form of yoga, cycling, Swimming, gymming, walking etc. This is for long term results But for now to bring your digestive system back on track you need to take medicines. For that I need more details, you can consult me.

Table of Content

What is the treatment?
How is the treatment done?
Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)
Who is not eligible for the treatment?
Are there any side effects?
What are the post-treatment guidelines?
How long does it take to recover?
What is the price of the treatment in India?
Are the results of the treatment permanent?
What are the alternatives to the treatment?
Play video
Healthy Lifestyle
Good morning everyone. My name is Mahendra B Mehta. I am graduated from Mumbai University. And my designation is MBBS, MBPS, Diploma in acupuncture and post graduation Diploma in Clinical research.

Here, I want to highlight that by modifying lifestyle and by Alkalizing ourself and by doing immunotherapy, we can definitely restore our health. In 1931, Dr Auto Heinrich Wurzburg had been awarded Nobel prize for his excellent work proving that Hypoxia and Acidosis cause cancer. The cancer cells can not survive in the Alkaline medium. and therefore the usage of alkalization is important. This was done 90 years back, and we have seen Industrialization, Deforestations, Pesticides, fumes, unhealthy food habits, unhealthy food, radiations, all these are producing acidic radicles in our body. And this is how body reaches the alkaline stage, i.e, 7.4 pH. We advance our age being exposed to all acidic foods, which results in more of an Acidosis pH. Where the chances of diseases Chronic diseases, hypertensions, diabetes, autoimmune diseases, COPD and asthma, all these diseases happen due to pollution, pesticides as discussed above.

In order to emphasise, it is a great work done by Dr Hiromi Shinya, he is a doctor who invented Colonoscopy. He is one of a renowned best Gastroenterologist in Japan and America. Practising 6 months over year in Japan and practising 6 months in America. And it is his Hiromi lifestyle which advocates the usage of Alkaline diet and usage of alkalinization energic water which is going to have a great benefit to our body. And this is how, by modifying our body alkalinization, because it has got three properties of;

Ionization, which reduces the Oxidative stress
The alkalinization is to neutralise the acidic effect of the body.
The micro clustering ensures the great transportation to the target cells.
Because all these three radicles are producing, are damaging our cells, degenerative diseases, lifestyle changes diseases and the cardio vascular diseases, which are more prominent due to the acidic nature.

Having highlighted you about the importance of alkalinization by changing the lifestyle, immunotherapy, one can restore the normal health.

By doing all these things, we can be helped out greatly, By Dr Hiromi Shinya is food practising in total alkalinization diet, not to himself, but he has installed the machine for his own clinical practices and he is working on all his cancer patients, all other patients for great testimonials are always available. So I advocate alkalinization, immunotherapy to improve your health to the desired level.

In order to clear the doubts and for guidlines, you can contact me through Lybrate, as I am the member of Lybrate and I would definitely help

In order to clear the doubts and for guidelines, you can contact me through Lybrate, as I am the member of Lybrate and I would definitely help.
Play video
Cancer Screening in Woman
Here are screening and treatment of different types of cancers in women

Hello I am Dr. Uma Verma. I am consultant gynecologist in West Delhi, Narayana. Today I will talk about the screening of the cancer in women.

What is screening? Checking your body for cancer before you have symptom increase the chances of detecting certain cancer when they are in most curable stage. First I will talk about cervical cancer. Cervix is the lowermost part of the womb. This is the only cancer which is preventable and it has a very long indolent part present as a precancer region. Nowadays vaccine is also available to prevent this cancer. Pap smear is the ultimate screening of chest to prevent the cervical cancer. Once we start screening Pap smear 3 year after the first intimate relation from 21 to 29 years of age yearly and after 29 it should be done with the HPV virus detection. It can be done till 65 years of age and later also if anything abnormal with the Pap smear, patient can go further for the rompers copy also.

Second cancer we are going to discuss is about the breast cancer. We have the Mammogram Manual examination of the breast and MRI. Self examination of the breast is controversial issue, It should be done or not. Some authorities say to be done, some say it is of no use. If at all it should be done it should be started at age of 29 till 40. It should be done with three early and after 40 year it should be done annually. Candidate for the genetic testing, Personal history of CA breast should undergo genetic testing for the breast cancer. Close relative having history of breast, prostate or unaware cancer. Breast cancer developing before the age of 50 having both the breast in ovarian cancer, near relative having the breast cancer, Easter European, Jewish ancestors, anybody who is having ovarian cancer, these are all above the position should be genetically investigated for the screening of the breast cancer.

Now we come to ovarian cancer. This is the ninth most common female cancer. The test used for the click screening is CA 125 and trans vaginal sonography. There is no reliable way to screen for the ovarian cancer in women who do not have any sign. Screening should start at 30 to 35 years that is 5 to 10 year areas when the cancer detected in youngest member of the family. Screening does not reduce death from the cancer in general population. 20 to 25% of the women diagnosed with ovarian cancer have the heriditary tendency. Now come to the uterine cancer screening.

For the uterine cancer there is no screening way. We only have Diagnostic test that Diagnostics test are Endrometrial sampling, DLC, hysteroscopy and also we have the ultrasound to see the endrometrial sickness. Now come to the Colorectal cancer. Colorectal cancer screening is to begin at the age of 50. In this we do high sensitivity fecal occult blood testing, colonoscopy and sigmatoscopy. It should continue annually till the age of 70. That is all.

In summary I want to tell the cancer screening is important so that we can treat the disease at earliest possible. And when the disease is detected earlier the chances vof cure is high. Once the patient develop the disease then nobody knows what is going to happen. Two cancer in the females are the cervical and breast which needs definite screening for the general population as well as for the high risk population. Breast cancer the screening is not of much use.

That is all. Thank you
Play video
Piles or Hemorrhoids
Here are cause,symptoms and treatment of Piles or Hemorrhoids

"Hi friends! Nice to be with you through this wonderful medium called Lybrate . Today I am here to discuss with you one of the most common, irritating and nagging problem which we in common language call as Piles or in medical terminology we call them as Hemorrhoids .

Bleeding Piles or Hemorrhoids is one of the most common problem in our society. It has evolved, the presentation has changed and the number of patients getting effected by this problem continues to be very high. It effects males as well as females in equal number. Early age group and late age group, both are included in this irritating problem. The main issue with this particular disease is that a lot of people in our country still feel a little bit inhabited and ashamed to discuss this problem.

Now what are basically Hemorrhoids or Piles? They are basically nothing but Venus or small veins which are there in our rectum and anal canal, which over a period of time for some reasons, known and unknown, become prominent, dilated thin walled and then with every episode of passage of stools there is bleeding. One of the most important symptom, bleeding, whenever it occurs more than once or twice is never to be ignored because we could be dealing with what we call as Hemorrhoids. Classically, Hemorrhoids never cause pain, it will be a painless bleeding and if it is associated with pain then we must keep an option of fissure in association with Hemorrhoids.

Fissure is nothing but a cut onto the tracheal wall or the anal canal wall, which at every time of passage of motion will produce pain, bleeding and after that some variable amount of burning sensation. This problem does not need high funda stuffs like CT scans and MRI, we can do away with a diagnosis of Hemorrhoids and fissure with a good clinical examination. In some patients with extreme age groups we do recommend Sigmoidoscopy or a Colonoscopy which are basically an outpatient endoscopic tests. No higher level of investigations are required in these particular patients.

Well, the treatment of Hemorrhoids varies. It comprises of some medical treatment in terms of medication tablets, syrups, other things, and surgery. Small Hemorrhoids what we medically call them as Grade-1 Hemorrhoids, rarely require treatment. Grade-1 and Grade-2 Hemorrhoids, they may settle down with medical treatment in terms of some syrups which reduce constipation, antibiotics and some analgesics. The remaining patients of Grade-3 and Grade-4 definitely need operation.

Surgery can be done in various methods. There are newer techniques, one of the popular newer technique is what we call as a stapled Hemorrodectomy and then there are conventional techniques. In our mammoth experience of last ten to fifteen years, irrespective of technique if the surgery is performed safely in experienced hands, it rarely produces symptoms again, recurrences are less and complications are fewer. I recommend all the patients who are in regular working hassles not to delay these symptoms. Try and see at which level your hemorrhoids are and choose an appropriate treatment from a good competent doctor. As I have said earlier and in many instances, simple diseases become complicated when they are ignored or they are wrongly treated.

My sincere request to all of you is, do not ignore bleeding per rectum, have a quick correct diagnosis through a good doctor and don t get unnecessary jitters by listening to the word surgery. Hemorrhoid surgery has become safe and is very very complication free in safe and experienced hands. Thank you. "
Having issues? Consult a doctor for medical advice