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Overview

Occupational Therapy - Treatment, Procedure And Side Effects

What is the treatment?

Our body is prone to illness and diseases. Not to mention the times and circumstances where we live in, we are prone to more number of ailments than at any point in time in human history. As a result, the human species is finding it increasingly difficult to live and feel satisfied at the same moment. This is what occupational therapists aim to achieve. Occupational Therapy is the treatment where the therapists help people to live as independently as possible. They work in tandem with various sections of individuals and try to identify the solution for the things that ail them. They also cooperate closely with differently abled persons and people who have chronic medical conditions and injuries. They also address your psychological aspect and assist you in becoming independent. They also groom you to blend within the society and find your acceptance. Naturally, the treatment works best when the individual is more open to the treatment and gives the appropriate time needed. Even simple activities like eating and dressing can be addressed as a part of Occupational Therapy. In rare cases, even medications and drugs can be prescribed based on your depression levels. The therapists also work in close contact with other teams of doctors to supplement the best medical care for you.

How is the treatment done?

Occupational Therapy can include various levels of treatment and is not tailor made to suit everyone. It is had as a series of sessions, and the therapist first gets to know the patient first so that the right treatment approach can be adhered to. Once the treatment pattern has been established the therapist would recommend opening up with the individual to address his/her needs. These can include personal care activities like eating, dressing, and walking, home skills such as cooking, gardening and personal management skills such as sticking to timelines and efficiently doing a work. Physical exercise is recommended wherever possible and as per the needs of the person. Some of the treatment can be focused on making you adjust to the assisted devices (if you use any) such as a walking stick or a wheelchair. Also in most treatment plans your family member would also be included as they would have a part in the caregiving schedule. Most of the Occupational Therapy deals with the mental or the physical impairments a person has since birth. The second common cause would include people recovering from long-term injury. In some cases, these can include individuals who are recovering from heart attacks, stroke or an amputation.

Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)

Occupational therapy as stated earlier focuses on helping people as individually as possible. So an individual who has undergone a medical condition or is in the treatment for a situation can be candidates for such procedures. The treatment is usually imparted to persons with mental and physical impairment so that they can adjust to their surrounding and lead a better life.

Who is not eligible for the treatment?

The treatments mostly are of a psychological nature and can be safely undergone by any individual. There is no restriction or an eligibility criterion for such therapies, as these focuses on the betterment of a person as a whole. In rare cases when medications are involved, it would be safe to consult your physician about your body condition.

Are there any side effects?

No, there are no side effects for such treatments as they focus on the physical and mental inabilities of a person and the treatment is imparted as a series of self-care, recreational and work activities. They are also imparted as a series of sessions and can be had for life without any repercussions.

What are the post-treatment guidelines?

Mostly you might be asked to make some lifestyle changes, and you might have to change your home environment to suit your physical needs. The purpose of the treatment is to make you comfortable with yourself and to blend in the society. Hence accordingly you might have to go for group therapies or social sessions to achieve this.

How long does it take to recover?

Once again, there is no recovery period as the treatment is an ongoing process and tries to make you adjust to your surroundings and your life. Even after you are completely in sync, you can follow the procedures like undergoing certain activities or recreation to stay yourself fit and happy.

What is the price of the treatment in India?

In India, the treatment cost depends on the type of session an individual has and also depends on the number of sessions. Each session can be around the average of INR 350.00 and can go up based on the type of treatment imparted. Occupational therapy is not just a uniform treatment, and it has to be customized as per the person’s individual needs.

Are the results of the treatment permanent?

The results vary vastly from every person and depend on how well the person adjusts to his surroundings. The results can be permanent in some cases, while in certain cases the treatment has to be undergone for life. You can consult with your therapist and physician on how you fare and how long you have to undergo the treatment. The fundamental purpose of the treatment is to ease back yourself into the society, and it depends on how far you are willing to be open to the treatment.

What are the alternatives to the treatment?

The options can depend on the basis of your physical condition. For some people meditating and doing yoga can be beneficial, while for others to get back the fitness, they have to work on certain exercises and activities. You can also pursue your hobby and you favorite sports after consulting with your physician.

Safety: Very High Effectiveness: Medium Timeliness: Medium Relative Risk: Very Low Side Effects: Very Low Recovery Time: Very Low Price Range: RS. 350 and above per session

Popular Health Tips

ADHD - Know The Symptoms

MBBS, MS - General Surgery, MCh - Pediatric Surgery
Pediatric Surgeon, Jaipur
ADHD - Know The Symptoms

If you have noticed your child to be restless and anxious all the time, it might look cute as the child is highly energetic, but it could be a cause for concern at the same time. It is not normal and the child could be having ADHD that is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. As the name suggests, it is a disorder with deficiency of attention and in which the child is always hyperactive.

ADHD is a disorder in which the symptoms usually show up before the age of seven. It is characterized by a group of behavioral symptoms that include inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsiveness. The impact of these symptoms is felt extensively where his overall self-esteem is affected, be it at home, preschool or school, academics or extracurricular activities and in interpersonal relationships.

The most common symptoms, which are almost diagnostic of ADHD are:

  1. Inability to hold attention: The child's attention span is very short and it is very difficult to keep them engaged on one particular thing.
  2. Increased restlessness: The child would be extremely restless and gets distracted easily.
  3. Fidgeting: The child would be seen constantly fidgeting with his fingers.

The following are the less common ones:

  1. Learning disability is rare, but can happen. However, the good news is that it does not affect the child's intelligence.
  2. Sleep disorders
  3. Difficulty in following directions
  4. Poor executive functioning skills
  5. Disorganization, which can lead to poor motor coordination and impaired movements
  6. ADHD kids tend to forget things very easily and need help with coordinating movements
  7. The child suffering from ADHD could easily tire and/or feel lethargic with very low energy levels. This can lead to the child procrastinating things and not wanting to do things on priority basis
  8. These children also have difficulties with fine motor and cognitive skills and so there is delay in their overall participation in games.

While these are the pressing symptoms of ADHD, occupational therapy can play a significant role in managing the child in the following ways. As a first step, the caregiver should have a detailed discussion with the school staff and any other people with whom the child interacts significantly.

This will help identify areas that need support from an Occupational Therapy, which are the following:

  1. Support with gross and/or fine motor skills
  2. Support with improving handwriting
  3. Support with engaging in playing sports and games
  4. Support in engaging in social activities
  5. Improving sensory processing difficulties
  6. Improving visual perception
  7. Support in adapting to the environment
  8. Teaching strategies to participate in various social and academic activities

So, while an ADHD child is definitely a cause for concern, proper support from family can help manage the condition. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a pediatrician.

1898 people found this helpful

How Can Muscular Dystrophy Be Treated in Children?

MD - Paediatrics, MBBS
Pediatrician, Faridabad
How Can Muscular Dystrophy Be Treated in Children?

Weakness of the muscles due to a genetically inherited condition is known as muscular dystrophy. This condition prevents the body from producing the required protein that can help in building muscles. This protein is also responsible for making the muscles strong and stable. This is most commonly seen in children who may seem clumsy as they begin to grow up and indulge in varied kinds of movements. Let us learn more about this condition and the ways in which it may be treated.

  1. Symptoms: In order to better understand the ways of treating this condition, it is important to take stock of the varied signs and symptoms that are associated with the same. The main symptom of this condition includes difficulty in walking as well as constant slips and falls that may be endured by the child. Also, the children suffering from this condition will have trouble in lifting the leg and foot in a normal way.
  2. Other Complications: This condition can also affect the heart and lungs by making the muscles in these regions weak. Also, this condition can lead to a number of serious breathing problems that will need immediate medical intervention so that it does not become fatal. It may also lead to accelerated heart beats and affect the hands and feet of the patient in an adverse manner. This condition can be found in different types, each of which will affect the patient in a different manner.
  3. Physical and Occupational Therapy: One of the most effective ways of dealing with condition in the long run is to indulge in physical and occupational therapy. With the help of a physiotherapist and other specialists, the patient will be taught to move in a more deliberate and normal manner without falling too often. Also, the patient will be eventually trained to go about life and various functions with certain kinds of movements that will be limited to the issues that the patient may be facing. Bracing will also be required so as to help the child cope better in the physical sense.
  4. Prednisone: This medicine may be prescribed by the Pediatrician to ensure that the progression of the heart issues may be slowed down. This will ensure that the heart may function in a more normal manner despite the muscle issues that it may be facing. The doctor will usually recommend that the medicine should be started when the child is around five or six years old.
  5. Spinal Fusion: This surgery can lessen the pain and reduce the severity of the symptoms, which can lead to better chances of moving in a normal manner. This will also give the child better posture so that the child may breathe normally.
4547 people found this helpful

Occupational Therapy For People Recovering From A Stroke!

Master of Occupational Therapy (MOT), Bachelor of Occupational Therapy (BOT)
Occupational Therapist, Delhi
Occupational Therapy For People Recovering From A Stroke!

Stroke is one of the major reasons for disability in adults. In the US alone, 7 million people suffer from a stroke in a year. After a stroke, the affected individual suffers from lots of health issues. They feel week and fatigued. An ache in one side of the body, inability to walk, and social disability are experienced. Emotional and cognitive functioning is disturbed. Continuum care is recommended for the affected individuals and they need interdisciplinary care to ensure they can do things independently. This is where occupational therapy plays a vital role.

What does the therapist do?

Using a range of evidence-based methods, the occupational therapists can address the physical, emotional, and mental challenges caused by the stroke. Occupational therapy does not concentrate only on the ailment. It takes into account the emotional needs, desires, limitations, and activities of the stroke survivors. It helps them to recoup the skill to get the daily chores done independently. An occupational therapist surveys the home of the stroke survivor and evaluates the risk of hazards. The practitioner also helps the affected individuals in coping with the loss of vision and memory. The physical strength and fortitude are augmented. The major focus will be on making the affected reach the heights of performance in the valued occupations.

How does it help?

Studies prove that occupational therapy does not only help one to recover faster, but also prevents worsening of the condition further. The stroke survivor, who receives the occupational therapy, is independent when it comes to daily living chores. Wouldn’t it be a great improvement on the emotional health when the affected feels he or she can get things done with little or occasional help? Also, this reduces the caregiver burden. The family is relieved that the survivor can eat, bath, and take a few things without someone having to sit closer and help. This mentally boosts the caregivers and the family to motivate the survivor. The stroke survivor also looks forward to the rehabilitation treatment as the occupational therapy makes them feel great.

Transitional and community integration services can make sure that the patients are engaged in their specific environments, once they get back home after occupational therapy in the specialized care center. After a certain period, when the stroke survivors show considerable improvement, the practitioner again evaluates to find if activities like driving can be resumed by the clients. Community mobility of different choices is recommended if the client is not fit for driving. There are driver rehab programs and the driving skills can be regained.

An occupational therapist spends more time with the client than any other healthcare professional. This is because the practitioner is responsible for alleviating the challenges faced by the affected individual emotionally and physically. The practitioner not only helps the client to achieve the goals but also ensures that the client is psychologically motivated whenever he or she is discouraged. Rehabilitation can reverse the damage done to the brain. But it takes lots of efforts to learn the things to do them in a different way. An occupational therapist makes this goal easier for his or her clients.

3852 people found this helpful

Central Nervous System (CNS)!

MD - Acupuncture, Diploma In Accupuncture, Advanced Diploma In Accupuncture
Acupuncturist, Delhi
Central Nervous System (CNS)!

Central Nervous System (CNS)
CNS (Central Nervous System) comprises of the brain and the spinal cord. The brain is the most important and complex organ in the human body. It consumes about 20% of the oxygen that we breathe. There are hundreds of thousands of well-connected neurons in the brain. The brain is protected by the skull. The spinal cord is connected to the back of the brain and it runs up to the lumbar region of the back.

Brain and the spinal cord are protected by a three-layered membrane and it is called meninges. The central nervous system has a great impact in controlling our emotions, movements and thoughts. It will affect our breathing, body temperature, production of hormones, heart rate and many other functions. Optic never, retina and other parts are connected to the brain directly.

CNS diseases are trauma, infections, degeneration, tumours, structural defects, stroke and an autoimmune disorder. The signs and symptoms vary from one disease to another disease.

Symptoms of CNS (Central Nervous System)-
The structure and function of the spine or brain will be affected when a person is suffering from CNS.

Some of the symptoms are listed below:

-  Persistent headache

-  Pain in the face

-  Pain in the back

-  Pain in the arms or legs

-  Unable to concentrate

-  Loss of feeling

-  Memory loss

-  Loss of muscle strength

-  Paralysis

-  Slurred speech

-  Sensitivity to light, sound and smell

-  If a person is suffering from a migraine, there will be frequent vomiting and nausea. The person experiences trouble in vision by finding flashing lights. The sensitivity to sound, light and smell is obvious. The patient may experience speech issues as well.

-  Brain tumours will lead to trouble in memorizing things.  The patient suffers from poor thinking and cognitive skills. The other symptoms are seizures, headache, and problem in walking, seeing, hearing and talking. There will be mood swings, weakness and nausea.

-  Multiple sclerosis will affect the brain and spinal cord cells which are integral for the functioning of the nervous system. The symptoms that are prominent with this condition include weakness of muscles, visual disturbances, sensation (pricking to numbness) and trouble in thinking and memory.

-  If there are spinal cord disorders, there will be a change in reflexes. The other symptoms are a loss of bowel movement or bladder, partial or incomplete paralysis, and severe back pain. The general weakness is profound in patients suffering from spinal cord issues.

-  If there are blood clots or blocking of the blood vessel, a person might suffer from a stroke. In addition to dizziness and weakness, there will be sudden numbness in various parts such as an arm, leg and face. The person suffers from a severe headache, trouble with understanding or speaking and problem in walking. A person may lose balance and coordination as well.

Causes of CNS (Central Nervous System)
-  The injury to the brain or the spinal cord will lead to disability. The disability is based on the section of the spinal cord or brain affected by the injury

-  Microorganism or virus will lead to infection. The infection can spread in several ways. There are some infections that affect the spine or the brain directly. Cryptococcal meningitis, malaria and leprosy are some of the infections affected by either virus or bacteria.

-  If a person is affected by Parkinson’s disease, there will be degeneration of the spinal cord or brain. The dopamine-producing cells will degenerate on a gradual basis.

-  Due to birth defects, parts of the brain or spinal cord are not formed properly. The structural defects will lead to various kinds of complications.

-  There are cancerous and non-cancerous tumours which affect the central nervous system. The symptoms and damage are based on the area affected the body.

-  If a person is suffering from the autoimmune disorder, the healthy cells in the body will be destroyed. The nerve’s insulation (myelin) will be affected when a person is suffering from acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. In this process, the white matter in the body will be eliminated.

-  The blood supply to the brain will be interrupted which is called a stroke. When the cells are exposed to the lack of oxygen, the tissue will die and irreversible damage will take place.

How CNS (Central Nervous System) is diagnosed?
-  CNS infection should be diagnosed to determine the right kind of therapy to overcome the condition.

-  To diagnose the CNS disorder, the doctor will take the complete medical history of the patient. After the physical exam, various kinds of diagnostic procedures are implemented to figure out the disorder.

-  Computed tomography scan (CT scan or CAT scan) – It is a diagnostic imaging procedure which uses x-rays and computer technology to figure out the disease. Horizontal as well as axial images of the body will be taken in various angles. It is possible to collect detailed pictures of the body including bones, organs, muscles and fat.

-  Electroencephalogram (EEG) is used to record the brains electrical activity through the electrodes.

-  Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses magnets, radiofrequency, and a computer to record detailed images of organs and structures of the body.

-  The metabolic activity of cells will be measured with Positron emission tomography (PET)

-  Electrodiagnostic tests are used to evaluate and diagnose muscle disorders and motor neurons. The electrical activity and muscle response will be recorded.

-  Arteriogram will be used to detect the blocks in arteries.

-  Spinal tap or lumbar puncture will be done to measure the pressure in the spinal canal and brain. Cerebral fluid will be collected and the possibility of infection will be found.

-  A die will be injected into the spinal canal to obtain the accurate picture of the structure through x-rays. This procedure is called Myelogram.

-  Blood flow in case of stroke will be analyzed with the neurosonography by using high-frequency sound waves.

-  Ultrasound (sonography) uses high-frequency sound waves and computer. Images of blood vessels, organs, tissues will be captured very accurately. The internal organs, as well as their functions, can be assessed with ultrasound.

Prevention
-  Prevention is considered for certain conditions such as a stroke. Most of the other conditions can be focused on the post-infant phase of life. The risk factors for neurological conditions should be avoided. The risk factors include inherited biological traits such as genetic predisposition.

-  The behavioural and biological factors will play an important role in preventing the condition

-  Temperature and climatic conditions and geographical variations will help in managing the condition in a better way

Treatment of CNS (Central Nervous System)
-  If you are suffering from depression, you will want to undergo psychotherapy.  You will want to take the help of psychologist, psychiatrist and trained medical professional to overcome the disorder. You will learn new ways to overcome various challenges and changes that depression affects.

-  If a person is suffering from sleep disorder due to CNS, the rehab management is based on the type of disorder. In most of the cases, the doctors recommend good sleep hygiene. The routines to go to bed will be changed so that there is a possibility to optimize the sleep. Patients are advised to avoid naps and they should exercise on regular basis. Coffee should be avoided before bedtime. The exercising should be avoided before going to bed. Some patients are required to use medications and devices to overcome insomnia and breathing issues.

-  With the help of family members, patients can change their sleep-related issues. The patient should go through the counselling if the sleep affects the work-life balance.

-  The birth defects of the CNS will be overcome through the surgical procedures. There will be defects in the structure of the brain and the spinal cord. There are various kinds of disorders and medical conditions which come under minor to major categories. In the case of microcephaly, the brain growth will be affected. With spina bifida, the spinal cord will not form properly.

-  If a person is suffering from Parkinson’s disease, the muscles will become stiff. There will be difficulty in the initiation and the muscles will become slow. The patient will find it difficult to maintain the balance and posture. The issues include urination problems, constipation, sleep problems, loss of smell, dementia and depression. In addition to general measures to overcome the condition, physical and occupational therapy will be implemented by medical professionals. Some patients will be benefited through the deep brain stimulation.

-  The root cause of CNS disorders that arise due to tumours will be diagnosed before offering the treatment. There are chemically induced tumours, brain tumours formed due to oncogenic viruses and other factors. Certain conditions occur in children as well as adults. Doctors will explore various options including brain chemotherapy to overcome the condition.

-  There is no cure for autism and it is a permanent condition. By implementing the right kind of therapy, the disruptive behaviour can be managed in the best possible way. By imparting special education, the person will become independent. If the autism is diagnosed earlier, the treatment can be initiated quickly and there will be better results. The autism varies from one person to another person. Hence, the required treatment varies as per the condition.

-  The stroke in a newborn baby or children is called as cerebral venous thrombosis. It will lead to a blood clot in the venous sinuses of the brain. The flow of blood from the blood to various parts of the organs will be affected. Cerebral venous thrombosis should be taken up as a medical emergency and the patient should be admitted into the hospital immediately. In addition to IV fluids, the patient will get medications to treat blood clots and seizures.

-  Attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (ADHD) is a behavioural disorder in children. The disorder affects 3% to 7% of children. There will be a tendency to be hyperactive and the patient will be impulsive and will not pay attention. There will be behavioural and academic difficulties in a person suffering from ADHD. The treatment options for ADHD include psychological intervention, medication, special counselling and support groups.

Complications
-  There is a difference between CNS and peripheral nervous system. Even though CNS and peripheral nervous system are interconnected, the peripheral nervous system is connected outside the brain and spinal cord.

-  Stroke, migraine, brain tumours, multiple sclerosis and spinal cord disorders are common CNS disorders. As per the research, there are more than 600 neurological disorders. The way the disorder affects the human body should be understood and the most appropriate treatment should be offered to the patient. The recovery and normalization of the patient are based on several factors. The condition and cause should be detected at an early phase so that the patient will get the best treatment and the condition can be managed in the best possible way.

-  If there are neurological issues, there will be an impact on the movement, swallowing, speaking, breathing and learning difficulties. The functioning of the brain, nerves, spinal cord and nervous system will be affected.

Myths Related to CNS (Central Nervous System)
Myth #1:  
CNS disorders can be treated very efficiently – Even though most of the neuropsychiatric diseases do not have well-defined etiopathogenesis, there has been great progress on their causes. There are factors that affect genetics as well as the environment. The condition can be managed in a very efficient way by offering medication and family support.

Myth #2:  CNS disorders will lead to social isolation – Patients suffering from CNS disorders should get the best support from the family and friends. There should be a broadminded approach to deal with the patients. With the institutional and community support, the social isolation can be avoided.

Conclusion
CNS diseases or CNS disorders are a group of neurological disorders which affect the structure of the brain or spinal cord. Your vital signs are controlled by CNS. Your ability to see, talk, move, smell and think will be affected by CNS. If a patient is suffering from neurodegenerative disease, there will be an impact on the family and society as well. Hence, early diagnosis will help in offering the best treatment to overcome the condition. In most of the cases, the condition can be managed even though there is no permanent cure for those conditions.

Ataxia - Know More About It!

MD - Acupuncture, Diploma In Accupuncture, Advanced Diploma In Accupuncture
Acupuncturist, Delhi
Ataxia - Know More About It!

Ataxia- 
The muscle coordination in the body will perform crucial functions. A perfect coordination is required to deliver a speech, walk, move, swallow food, drink water and pick up objects. You will be able to perform various kinds of voluntary movements if there is perfect coordination of muscles. There are many causes which lead to Ataxia which include head trauma, stroke, alcohol abuse, tumour and multiple sclerosis. As there are many types of Ataxia, the doctor will figure out the type after the diagnosis and right kind of treatment will be offered to the patient.

It is crucial to figure out the type of ataxia. If there is a loss of balance and coordination, there will be great difficulty in performing the day-to-day activities. After diagnosing the cause, the patient should implement the course of action as suggested by the doctor. The patient should get support from family members and associates so that there will be a quick recovery.

Causes of Ataxia-
- There are wide ranges of factors that lead to Ataxia. Some people are born with Ataxia while others develop it gradually.

-  Some people are affected by Ataxia after a stroke, brain tumour, head injury, multiple sclerosis and excess alcohol consumption.

-  Ataxia can become severe over a period of time. However, it can stabilize and the stability is based on the cause.

-  Cerebellar ataxia is a common form of Ataxia. Cerebellum will combine the sensory perception, motor control and coordination. If there is dysfunction of the cerebellum, it will lead to Ataxia.

-  The assimilation of sensory perception, motor control and coordination will take place in the brain’s region called the cerebellum.

-  The neurological abnormalities will take place with the vitamin B-12 deficiency. There will be overlapping of cerebellar and sensory ataxia.

-  There will be changes in the behaviour and personality when you are affected with the ataxia. The changes in voice and muscle tone will take place gradually.

Symptoms of Ataxia-
-  People suffering from Ataxia will witness poor coordination and they fail to lift objects successfully.

-  If a person is suffering from cerebellum Ataxia, it will lead to neurological issues.

-  The neurological issues associated with cerebellum ataxia include floppiness, lack of coordination between organs, limbs, muscles and joints.

-  The patient will not have the ability to control distance, power, the speed of the arm, hand, leg and eye movement.

-  There will be difficulty in estimating the passage of time as well.

-  The patient will fail to perform activities at a rapid phase and in an alternate manner.

-  The symptoms of ataxia are based on the parts that are in the cerebellum. There is the probability of occurrence of lesions on either sides or one side.

-  If there is damage of vestibulocerebellum, the person will lose balance and there will be an impact on the eye movement as well. A person might want to stand a foot apart (between legs) to hold items and avoid swaying backwards or forward.

-  The patient fails to maintain the balance when the feet are together and the eyes are open.

-  If the spinocerebellum is affected, there will be unusual gait and there will be difficulty in stepping. The patient finds it difficult to step and there will be sideways steps, unequal steps and stuttering starts and stops. The body and limb movements are regulated by spinocerebellum.

- If there is the impact on cerebrocerebellum, there will be issues with voluntary and planned movements. There will be difficulty in head, eyes, limbs and torso while making voluntary movements. With slurred speeches, there will be variation in rhythm and loudness.

-  Patients affected by sensory ataxia will suffer from the loss of proprioception. Proprioception is nothing but the sense of the relative position of the neighbouring parts of the body. You will get a sense whether the body is moving as per the effort exerted by the person. It will also give a feedback on the current position of body parts in relation to the other.

-  If a person is suffering from sensory ataxia, there will be an unsteady stomping gait. The heel will strike hard while touching the ground with each step.

-  If a person walks in poor lighting conditions, there will be postural instability.

-  The instability will worsen while standing with close feet and closed eyes. With the loss of proprioception, there will more dependence on visual data.

-  With vestibular ataxia, the vestibular system will be affected. In acute cases, the patient will experience nausea, vomiting and vertigo. If there are slow-onset chronic bilateral cases, the patient will experience unsteadiness.

-   If the ataxia takes place due to injury or health condition, the symptoms will appear at any age. The symptoms will improve on their own without any treatment. The initial ataxia symptoms include poor limb coordination and dysarthria. There will be slow and slurred speech which cannot be produced very easily. There will be difficulties in controlling the volume, pitch and rhythm.

-   In severe vestibular ataxia, there will be difficulty in swallowing. Coughing and choking symptoms are very common. You can find the change in facial expressions. There will be issues such as walking difficulty, vision and hearing issues and imbalance.

-   The cerebral ataxia will occur between 4 years and 26 years. There will be less severe symptoms compared with acute ataxia.

-  There will be the appearance of small veins around the eyes, cheeks and ears. The patient may experience delayed physical and sexual development. It will weaken the heart muscle. Diabetes, high arching feet and scoliosis are the symptoms of Friedreich’s ataxia.

-  The doctor should differentiate the symptoms of ataxia from other conditions. In addition to normal physical check-up, various kinds of tests are performed to assess the condition of the patient.

 

Diagnosis of Ataxia- 
-  The doctor will suggest several tests to diagnose the disorder. In addition to physical examination, neurological tests will be conducted to figure out the issue.

-  The tests are performed to find out the hearing, memory, balance & walking, vision, concentration, reflexes and coordination.

- The symptoms are evaluated by conducting a number of tests.

-  Nerve conduction study – The functioning of nerves will be studied by the nerve conduction study.

-  EMG – Electromyogram will record and evaluate the electrical activity in muscles.

-  The cerebrospinal fluid surrounding the spinal cord and brain will be measured with the spinal tap.

-  The rise or fall of blood cells will be evaluated with the complete blood count test. The overall health assessment will be done with the blood test.

-  CT or MRI scan will help in the assessment of the brain damage through the images. Pictures of the brain will be taken at various angles so that closer look and evaluation will be done.

-  The doctor may perform a urine analysis and ultrasound test as well.

Treatment of Ataxia
-  Generally, ataxia is not curable. The purpose of the treatment is to improve the symptoms and it will improve the quality of life.

-  By using adaptive devices, the treatment will address coordination and balance issues. The patient will be independent after undergoing the treatment.

-  The support will be provided by using cane stick, walker, crutches and wheelchair.

-  By undergoing the physical therapy, the symptoms such as insomnia, depression, sadness, anger and muscle weakness will be addressed.

-  There will be the management of things at home and office after undergoing the occupational therapy.

-  The speech therapy will address the speech issues, choking, coughing, and swallowing. If there are speech-related issues, the speech therapist will help the patient in using the speech aids.

-  The curvature of the spine can be treated with the orthopaedic care.

-  There will be an improvement in the strength and mobility after the physical therapy.

-  The frustration and depression can be handled by the counselling. These are the symptoms which may arise due to physical immobility and coordination.

-  By taking special diet and vitamin supplements, it is possible to overcome the ataxia. If there is vitamin E deficiency, it should be addressed in the best possible way.

-   By offering the gamma-globulin injections, ataxia telangiectasia can be treated.

-  Various kinds of drugs are available to deal with muscle spasm and uncontrollable eye movements.

-   The treatment for ataxia is dependent upon the cause. The treatment period varies from few weeks to few months. In some case, a lifelong management of the condition is necessary. The caretaker should have the patience to bring the best changes in the patient.

Complications of Ataxia-
-  If there is bleeding in the cerebellum, you should undergo the surgery.

-  If you are suffering from an infection, antibiotics will be prescribed by the doctor.

-  The stroke that led to ataxia will be treated by using blood thinners.

-  By using steroids, the inflammation of the cerebellum will be treated in a very efficient manner.

-  The exposure to toxin should be eliminated if toxins are the reason for the ataxia.

-  Blood loss in the brain, tumour in the brain, chickenpox, reaction to certain cancers, vitamin E and B12 deficiency will increase the risk of ataxia.

-   If you have not inherited ataxia, illness or injury will lead to ataxia. The condition is called idiopathic ataxia. If there is no other medical reason, the doctor will diagnose the idiopathic ataxia. Combination of environmental factors as well as genetic causes will affect the condition.

Prevention of Ataxia
-  Ataxia can be inherited or non-inherited. If it is a genetic defect, the inheritance will take place from either mother or father. It is a health condition which can pass on from one generation to another generation. The severity may decrease from one generation to another generation. In some cases, the condition will weaken with the increase in age.

-  To rule out the genetic forms of ataxia, genetic testing should be done. However, it is not possible to trace all genetic forms of ataxia.

-   By maintaining a healthy lifestyle, it is possible to prevent ataxia to some extent. You should be able to deal with the stress so that there will not be the impact on the brain.

-   By taking nutritious food, the condition can be avoided or managed in the best possible way.

-   Counselling, support groups and speech therapy will help in improving the condition in the best possible way.

Myths of Ataxia
Myth #1.  
Treatment is must to overcome ataxia – 

treatment for acute ataxia is always not necessary. If the virus is the cause of acute ataxia, it is possible to achieve full recovery without treatment. The viral acute cerebellar ataxia will subside in a few weeks. However, you should undergo the treatment if the virus is not the cause of ACA.

Myth #2.  You will get ataxia due to reaction –

 There are various reasons to be affected by ataxia. Some people may be affected by ataxia due to certain medications. Prolonged usage of drugs, alcohol and medications will also have a negative impact on the health.

Myth #3.  Acute ataxia can be treated –

 If you are suffering from acute ataxia, it can turn into chronic due to other complications. The complications such as stroke, infection and bleeding in the brain will have a severe impact on your health.

Myth #4.   Laboratory tests are not required - 

To find out the toxins, the physician may recommend lumbar puncture in which case electrolyte and chemical abnormalities will be found in a very efficient manner.

Conclusion-
The movement disorder is called Ataxia and it will surface if there is a problem in the brain. There are various types of ataxia. You will want to move the muscles in your arms or legs and they will not move.  The doctor will assess the condition through the physical examination and other kinds of tests. Non-invasive tests are performed to diagnose the cause and the condition can be managed through the treatment. It will take time to assess the condition of the patient. The most appropriate treatment will be suggested by the doctor to overcome the condition. It may take a few weeks to a few months to overcome the condition. In some cases, it will take many years.

 

Popular Questions & Answers

My daughter is suffering from cerebral palsy. We r giving her occupational therapy but she is not responding well. We r frustrated.

DNB (Neurosurgery)
Neurosurgeon, Visakhapatnam
Dear madam, very sorry to hear your problem. Cerebral palsy is one condition where the treatment journey is tough and requires a lot of patience and family support. The response of treatment is very slow and aim is usually to maintain the present health and prevent further complications. As parents only you can give the best care to the child. Hence your patience is atmost important.

He is a asperges kid. We are going for therapies like occupational speech cognitive behaviour vision therapy for last 2 years and physical activity like swimming now he has developed in all areas but still the delay is there. Can you recommend from whom I can know how much delay is still there. He is 5 year old.

Master of Occupational Therapy (MOT), Bachelor of Occupational Therapy (BOT)
Occupational Therapist,
In which area you think delay is there. If she achieve all the milestone and able to perform her normal routine work (ADL) activity.then no need to worry .Please go for IQ TEST.

My 2 years old kid (female - till now no speech, but says 2 or 3 word only) having mild autistic spectrum disorder. Doctors informed to go for occupational therapy and speech therapy. I want to know about this. It is curable or not? Most of them telling that, this is not curable. Please advice.

Diploma in Child Health (DCH), MRCPCH, MRCP (UK), MD - Paediatrics, MBBS
Pediatrician, Delhi
If your child has mild autistic features and can speak 2-3 words then she should do well with intensive therapies, this is the right age to act. You should learn yourself and work with therapist.
1 person found this helpful

My child 3 and half years old is having mild autism we are giving occupational therapy also he is responding also but I just want to ask till what age this therapy will continue and he hits children in his class or even people at home. His therapist are also not able to know the reason for his behaviour. He is tactile and vestibular which has affected speech.

Master of Occupational Therapy (MOT), Bachelor of Occupational Therapy (BOT)
Occupational Therapist, Delhi
You should take therapy for at least 1 year, exact estimation of how long it will take to completely cure the problem cant be told but things will be under control within 1 year. Keep a close watch on the changes occuring in your child; sometimes there could be occurrence of new symptoms, for every positive or negative change you must observe child carefully. Spend lots of time with your child, take him to the park & let him play with other children. If child is having problem with communicating then you must start with speech therapy as well. Hitting is one of the behavior in autistic children, negative reinforcement technique need to be used. He avoids or seeks tactile & vestibular sense? Is he hypersensitive or hyposensitive?

Table of Content

What is the treatment?
How is the treatment done?
Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)
Who is not eligible for the treatment?
Are there any side effects?
What are the post-treatment guidelines?
How long does it take to recover?
What is the price of the treatment in India?
Are the results of the treatment permanent?
What are the alternatives to the treatment?
Play video
Know The Different Types Of Therapy
Hi,

I am Dr. R K Lohiya. I am an occupational therapist. And director of Kite Intervention Therapeutic Pvt Ltd. We are giving occupational therapies, piece therapies, special education, child physiotherapy for pediatric cases. We deal with the children like autism, ADHD, mental retardation, multiple disabilities, slow learner, stammering etc. Out moto is to make the child independent in daily living at home, school and society. Child therapy to develop the child's skill as per his age. Speech therapy is to improve stammering. And also to make the conversation properly. In special education, we provide writing skill and make independent in daily living.

Thank You.
Play video
Know More About Therapies
Know the diffent types of therapy which can help in heeling the pain.
Play video
Know About Therapies
Therapies are a substitute for medications and prove to be a brilliant way of dealing with patient psychological issues such as technology addiction and so on.
Play video
Multimodal And Multidisciplinary Therapy For Postoperative Pain Management
In a pain clinic, we generally advocate multimodal and multidisciplinary approach to get the best possible outcome. These patients can be offered multiple different modality is to get the best possible outcome. So, we start mainly with pharmacotherapy these patients various drugs as appropriate for the type of pain that the patient present with. Besides this we also got a spectrum of intervention right from basics to the advance intervention which can be offered to the patient as appropriate for their particular pain syndrome. So, here we target the nerves or the pixies which are responsible for causing this a pain and the interventions are done ideally under image guidance and nowadays we definitely prefer to offer interventions under image guidance experienced fluoroscopic or ultrasound guidance. This is to reach the target precisely with minimum side-effects. We also have physical, psychological and occupational therapies and several other complimentary therapies. Overall we can achieve the best outcome if we combine more than one modality depending on individual pain syndrome. So, the most common interventions that we perform as pain specialist are directed towards the spinal pain such as low back pain in which we most commonly perform transforaminal epidural injections under guidance or facet joint injection in form of medial branch diagnostic block or frequency ablation. And these are all performed under local anesthesia and on day care basis. So, these patient can go home within a couple of hours after these procedures. Besides this we also have several other options as required for the patients with fail back surgeries, we perform a called epidural adhesiolysis because they are found to often have fibrosis and scarring around the nerves after having under gone spinal surgery. If the patient fails to respond to the conservative line of management and they have severe pain we also have the option of advanced pain therapies in form of neurostimulation or intra-thical drug delivery system. They have a good success rate with a good evidence in literature for the use in common clinical practice. The complications are very rare if it's been performed with all the due precautions. However, there is the remote possibility of infection occasionally or hemotoma or nerve injury and the patient have to be explained about this but these are extremely rare performed by an experience operator with all due precaution. I am Dr. Preeti Doshi. I am the incharge of pain clinic at Jaslok Hospital and Research Centre, Mumbai.
Play video
PRP Therapy And Prolozone Therapy
Good evening friends.

This is Dr. Nilay Shah. I run a medical tourism company, called as positive medical services. It s a medical tourism company, which provides one stop solution for many medical problems. The unique part of us, we are different as compared to modern medicine. We are into tolerant therapies. Various alternative therapies which I practised like chelation, ozone, PRP, prolozone, Vitamin C, etc. today we are going to talk about PRP therapy and prolozone therapy. Both of these therapies are very useful in ligament test and tender problems. PRP. That is the first thing about which we are going to talk about. The word itself, PRP stands for Platelet Rich Plasma, Platelet Rich Plasma means its plasma which is rich in platelet. That means that is very useful in producing growth factors, which are produced naturally in the body. The way we do is we draw a certain amount of blood from the patient s vein, now this drug is taken into centrifugation machine. And we Centrifuge it. The moment we centrifuge it, there is a layer which is separated out, which is full of platelets. This layer, we take it in a syringe. And we inject at the place where there is a ligament tear or a tendon problem. Now how does it work? It works by producing growth factors, as I said earlier. These growth factors help in natural rebuilding or tissue repair. Most of the patients which we get for PRP are patients who are asked to go for arthroscopy or surgery. This is a natural way. Where our own tissue is helping it to rebuild again without any surgery or any other invasive procedures. And the best part is since you are using your own blood so there is no question of any side effects. Now, the next thing we are gonna talk about is Prolozone. Prolozone is very much similar to PRP, but the only difference is we are using a polorofent. Polorofrent is something like an irritant which produces a second inflammation to already a tissue which is already injured or damaged. Polorofrent and ozone, when we combine these together it is called as prolozone. Again the mechanism is very such similar to PRP. Whereby we are helping the tissue to get it repaired. The only difference is, in PRP what we were doing is we were using our own tissue for the repair, but here we are using prolofent, giving a second inflammation which is already injured and thereby giving it a second healing. Now, both this PRP and prolozone are very useful. In major cases where patients comes in a lot of pain, they don t want to go for a surgery, they are diabetic and there are certain complications for a surgery. This is the easiest and the safest way for getting the tissue repaired as compared to the convention medicine where you go for an arthroscopy or a tissue repair through a surgery. And since these therapies don t have any side effects as compared to convention medicine, people have been opting for it. And there is one of the major reason, throughout the world these therapies are getting popular. I hope I have been quite informative in explaining you guys PRP and proozone therapy. For more information. If you all at wich to contact me, you can contact me through Lybrate.

Thank you very much.
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