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Neurovascular Disaeses - What Are They?

Written and reviewed by
MBBS, MD - Radiology, DNB (Radiology), DM (Diagnostic & Interventional Neuroradiology), CCST (UK)
Neurosurgeon, Kolkata  •  26years experience
Neurovascular Disaeses - What Are They?

The term neurovascular disease refers to any kind of abnormality that can be observed in the blood vessels or in the blood supply to the spine or brain. The narrowing or shrinking of the arteries due to the plaque buildup also falls under this particular disease, which intervenes the normal blood flow to the brains, and makes the risk of stroke a more prominent one. If not treated at the right time in the right way, neurovascular diseases can not only cause disabilities in the adults, but may also be fatal.

Below are some of the common types of neurovascular diseases.

  1. Aneurysms: Aneurysms are a particular type of neurovascular disease where a vascular lesion or a balloon shaped abnormality manifests in the artery walls due to the walls' weakness or swelling. Vomiting, nausea and sudden headache of a severe kind are a few common symptoms of it.
  2. Arteriovenous malformation: When a defect is formed in the circulatory system which reduces the oxygen supply to the spinal cord and the brain, AVM or arteriovenous malformation occurs. While severe pain in the back is the main symptom of arteriovenous malformation in the spinal, headaches and seizures are common symptoms of the malformation in the brain.
  3. Arteriovenous fistulas: AVF or arteriovenous fistulas are nothing but some unnatural passageways in the vein and the arteries, encompassing the spinal cord and the brain. Here, the blood flows directly into a vein from the arteries through the fistulas, which gives rise to the blood bypassing the capillaries continuously.
  4. Carotid artery stenosis: When the carotid arteries, situated on the both sides of the neck and leads to the brain, starts to become narrower due to the plaque formation or the compositions of fatty deposits, the normal blood flow gets interrupted severely. Sometimes, mini-strokes or transient ischemic attacks are its first signs.
  5. Moyamoya diseaseIt’s comparatively a very rare condition where some blood vessels in the brains close due to blood clots. Some of its early warning signs are speech problems, weakness, limp paralysis and headaches.
  6. Cavernous malformation: Cavernous malformation refers to a neurovascular disease where not only the malformation occurs in the blood vessels, but they bleed too. Blood leaking from the affected blood vessels makes signs like seizures, vision loss or difficulties in swallowing, visible.
  7. Stroke: A stroke is a neurological event that happens all of a sudden, without any warning. As a result of it, often a new onset of different neurological symptoms becomes visible. Hemorrhagic stroke, transient ischemic attack, and cerebral infarction or ischemic stroke are three common types of strokes.

Neurovascular diseases are one of the main illness conditions that affect a considerable number of the population worldwide. Therefore, having a proper idea about the types and consulting with a doctor in case one suspects having any of the neurovascular diseases, is of crucial importance for leading a safe and healthy life. Consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

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