S100 protein is a small dimeric protein which consists of two subunits and belongs to the family of intracellular calcium-binding proteins. There are currently 25 identified different proteins in this family. A blood test is carried to know the measurement of S100 protein in the body of the patient. Most S100 proteins are there in nucleus tissue which makes up to 85-90% of the total content and 10-15% of S100 proteins are available at the neurons. Glial cells are used to synthesize the S100 proteins and then it is transported into neurons. In the cell, they are mainly localized into the cytoplasm.
The S100 protein test is the common lgE blood test in which a small amount of blood sample is required for checking the measurement of S100 protein in blood of the patient. It is advised that patient should wear half sleeve shirt or easily foldable sleeves shirt on the day of test as blood sample are usually taken from the veins of the elbow. As mentioned above it is the common type of lgE blood test which requires no fasting and patient can carry on with their normal diet on the day of the test. Unless advised by the doctor, no fasting is required for the test.
S100 protein is associated with various uses and it is the marker of brain damage in the following pathological conditions:
• Traumatic brain injury.
• Alzheimer's disease.
• Subarachnoid hemorrhage.
• Ischemic stroke and other neurological disorders.
• Monitoring, assessing treatment efficacy, early detection of recurrences in malignant melanoma and other neoplastic diseases.
• Perinatal hypoxic CNS lesions in children.
• Inflammatory diseases.
Determining the level of S100 protein can be used as an additional tool to clinical data and results of instrumental studies in the management of patients with possible brain damage.
A small amount precisely few milliliters will be drawn out from the veins of the patient by the healthcare professional. For small children or infants blood can be drawn from puncturing the skin with the help of a needle.
• An antiseptic is used first to clean the skin surface.
• For the veins to swell up an elastic band is placed around the upper arm.
• A needle is inserted into the vein to draw blood and is collected in a vial or syringe.
The sample is carried in the vessel to the laboratory with your name placed over the vessel
All age groups