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Malaria - Symptom, Treatment And Causes

Malaria is serious life threatening disease. Malaria is typically transmitted via a bite of a mosquito, which is known as the Anopheles. Infected Anopheles mosquito are the carrier of Plasmodium parasite that causes Malaria. When this type of mosquito bites any human, the plasmodium parasite is released in the host’s bloodstream.

Once the malaria parasite enters the bloodstream, it wades through the circulatory system and travel to the liver, where they hibernate and mature. Once matured, after several days, the grown up plasmodium parasite enters the bloodstream once more and now it begins to affect the red blood cells. Within 48-72 hours these parasites gets inside the host’s red blood cells and multiply very rapidly, causing the infected cells to burst open.

As the malaria parasites continue to infect the host’s red blood cells, it results in symptoms that occurs in cycles that lasts for three to four days at a time.

This disease is typically found in the warm and humid tropical and subtropical places all across the globe, where the plasmodium parasites can thrive. According to the WHO (World Health Organization) there are estimated 3200,000 people who are at risk of this disease across the world. Mothers infected with plasmodium parasites can also pass this disease to their babies. This is called congenital malaria. Although malaria is primarily transmitted through blood, but it can also be passed over during an organ transplant surgery, used of shared syringes and needles and during blood transfusion therapy.

It’s only your doctor who can diagnose you of this disease. While doing so, the doctor generally review your health history which also include information whether you did any recent travel to a topical zone, or you have anyone infected with this disease in your family or neighborhood.

Next the doctor try to determine if you have an enlarged liver or spleen, and if it’s so, your doctor may advice additional blood tests to confirm the diagnosis.

These blood tests will determine whether you are infected with malaria, what type of malaria you have, if the malaria you are having is resistant to certain type of drugs, have the disease caused anemia and have effected your vital organs and others.

Cerebral malaria, is one of the deadliest type of this illness that causes swelling of the blood vessels inside your brain. This can result in brain damage. Moreover, patients who are infected with drug-resistant plasmodium parasites are also at a risk once infected with this disease. For in both of these cases, malaria may recur in patients affected with these disease, which can cause many other complications later on in their lives.

Treatable by medical professional Require medical diagnosis Lab test required Short-term: resolves within days to weeks Spread through the air or contaminated surfaces
Chills Fever and sweating Pian in the muscles Shivering and sweating Fast heart rate Headache and nausea

Popular Health Tips

Are You Aware Of These Symptoms Of Malaria?

Dr. Dinesh Chandra Pant 87% (308 ratings)
General Physician, Gurgaon
Are You Aware Of These Symptoms Of Malaria?
Malaria refers to the disease transmitted through the bite of an infected mosquito. The primary agent of transmission of this disease is the Anopheles mosquito. This particular breed of mosquito carries the species causing organism, a parasitic protozoan, known as Plasmodium species . The parasite, upon entering the bloodstream, attaches itself to the liver. It is at this location that the parasite matures and after a few days begins to infect the red blood cells that are secreted by the liver. The red blood cells that are infected tend to explode in about forty eight to seventy two hours due to the rapid multiplication of parasites inside them. The subtropical regions and regions that exist in a broad band around the equator are known to be the hotspots of species. Symptoms Upon being infected, the symptoms and signs show up within 10 days to 4 weeks. Some of the general symptoms include: Nausea High fever Headache Extreme sweating Moderate to severe chills Vomiting Anaemia Diarrhoea Pain in muscles Blood in stools In some cases, malaria can lead to further severe complications, such as: Kidney, spleen or liver failure Cerebral malaria (swollen blood vessels in the brain) Low blood sugar Pulmonary oedema (fluid accumulation in the lungs which causes breathing difficulties) The medications administered for malaria depend on factors such as: Severity of the infection Physical conditions such as allergies, pregnancy and other health problems, Age Some of the most common medicines used to address malaria include: Chloroquine Malarone Doxycycline Quinine sulphate Mefloquine Hydroxychloroquine A mix of Proguanil and Atovaquone
3527 people found this helpful

4 Ways To Prevent Miscarriage!

Dr. Ruchi Rai Ahuja 93% (268 ratings)
MBBS, MD - Obstetrtics & Gynaecology, PhD(breast diseases)
Gynaecologist, Chandigarh
4 Ways To Prevent Miscarriage!
Miscarriage is the early loss of foetus within 20 weeks of pregnancy. It is also known as spontaneous abortion . According to research, about 8-20% of the pregnancies end in miscarriage. Out of the total number of miscarriages, 80% of them end within 12 weeks of pregnancy. Types of Miscarriages and their Symptoms Threatened Miscarriage As the term suggests, in this condition the process of miscarriage might have begun. This is the initial stage of the process. In threatened miscarriage, there is slight bleeding accompanied by cramps and pain in the lower back, which is usually mild. The cervix (the lower part of the uterus) remains closed. Inevitable and Incomplete Miscarriage In these conditions, there is bleeding along with an open cervix. When there is dilatation and thinning of the cervix, miscarriage is inevitable. In incomplete miscarriage, part of the tissue comes out and a part remains inside the uterus. In inevitable and incomplete abortions, the bleeding and cramps are more severe. Complete Miscarriage Complete miscarriage is when the embryo has completely emptied from the uterus. The pain and bleeding reduce once the foetus is expelled. This can be confirmed through ultrasound. Missed Miscarriage In Missed miscarriage, there is no sign of the life of the embryo and there is no expulsion of the embryo. It can be detected from the absence of heartbeat of the embryo found on ultrasound. Recurrent Miscarriage It happens when there are two or three miscarriages one after the other. It affects about 1% of the pregnancies. Risk Factors Increased maternal age i.e., women above 35 years. Excess or insufficient chromosome in embryo. Placenta is the organ which links mother and the baby for blood supply. Problem in the development of placenta can cause miscarriage. Excessive smoking and drinking during pregnancy. Obese women have higher risk of miscarriage. Long-term health conditions like high blood sugar, high blood pressure, liver disease etc. Infections like rubella, malaria etc. Weakened cervix, which is the result of previous injury or surgery, can also result in miscarriage. What are the symptoms of a miscarriage? Bleeding or spotting can be one of the symptoms of miscarriage. It should be kept in mind that not all pregnant women who suffer from spotting or bleeding, end in miscarriage. Lower backache starts before or right after bleeding, which can be persistent or you could have cramps which may be mild or sharp and can feel like more of pelvic pressure. Missed miscarriages are detected through ultrasound when the doctor finds that there is no heartbeat of the embryo or when the uterus is not growing. What are the treatment options in miscarriage? Medical In most of the cases, there are no specific drugs to stop a miscarriage from occurring. In some cases, certain hormonal preparations help. There is no point in prescribing medicines for prevention of miscarriage if there is heavy bleeding. Surgery Dilatation and evacuation (D&E) is a simple operation which is done under general/local anaesthesia. In this operation, the cervical canal is dilated and contents present in the uterus are evacuated. There is no cutting involved as it happens through the vagina. The process needs only five to ten minutes, but the patient has to stay in the hospital for about 3-4 hours. This process is opted when: There is heavy bleeding. The patient suffers from missed miscarriage. What can you do to prevent miscarriage? Nothing much can be done to prevent miscarriage in most of the cases. However, following supportive measures may help: There should not be overexertion during pregnancy. Moderate amount of physical activity is permissible. One should have a well-balanced diet. Studies have shown that a diet loaded with fruits and veggies helps in overall well-being during pregnancy. One should limit the consumption of caffeine. Avoid smoking, alcohol and certain drugs to prevent miscarriage. Avoid stress and anxiety. Report to Doctor (preferably Obstetrician) as soon as any symptom related to miscarriage appears.
4 people found this helpful

Malaria During Pregnancy - 4 Ways it Can be Treated!

Dr. Anita K Sharma 89% (37 ratings)
MD - Obstetrics & Gynaecology, MBBS
Gynaecologist, Noida
Malaria During Pregnancy - 4 Ways it Can be Treated!
Malaria is a disease that is caused by the bite of a certain mosquito or protozoan parasite. This can attack the red blood cells and is mainly found in tropical as well as subtropical areas. Until recently, there was little chance of recovering from this ailment. Yet, in today's day and age of great medical advancement, it has become possible to cure a patient suffering from this disease with the help of timely and proper diagnosis. This disease becomes even more complicated and problematic when it affects pregnant women. The ways in which this disease can be treated during pregnancy is as follows: Medication therapy: If woman is found to be suffering from this disease in the second or third trimester of their pregnancy, they may be prescribed artemisinin-based therapy. This therapy can be used only if the pregnant lady is not suffering from any other kind of complications like heart conditions, diabetes and high blood pressure, during the pregnancy. This medicine is short-acting, with artemether or artesunate,which can greatly reduce the number of parasites that may have invaded the red blood cells. Other antimalarials: The treatment of this disease for pregnant women can also be done with the help of other antimalarials, which should typically be prescribed and administered in a clinical setting. These also include quinidine gluconate which can be used in place of the IV quinine in order to bring down the number of parasites in the body. This will lessen the attack on the red blood cells to a great degree. Lumefantrine tablets may also be used in such cases. Also, the doctor will have to first try a test dose to ensure that the patient is not allergic to any of the elements or compounds of these medicines. Monitoring: Pregnant women suffering from malaria will need to get their blood samples tested on a regular basis. The blood smears will usually be tested daily to check whether the body is responding adequately to the treatment. This will also ensure that the doctor knows when to change the dose or the drug involved. Diet and exercise: The patient will be asked to stick to the normal diet and activity levels. Yet, care must be taken to avoid any situation where fatigue might set in, as this can aggravate the condition. One must also increase the intake of water to ensure that the body is always well hydrated. This helps the body in bouncing back to normal as the toxins are continuously flushed out, and the immunity system is better equipped to fight the disease causing parasites.
2910 people found this helpful

मलेरिया के लक्षण

Dt. Radhika 93% (462 ratings)
MBBS, M.Sc - Dietitics / Nutrition
Dietitian/Nutritionist, Delhi
मलेरिया के लक्षण
सबसे प्रचलित संक्रामक रोगों में से एक मलेरिया प्लाजमोडियम कुल के प्रोटोजोआ परजीवी के माध्यम से फैलता है. आपको बता दें कि केवल चार प्रकार के प्लाजमोडियम परजीवी ही मानवों को प्रभावित कर पाते हैं. इन चारों में सबसे ज्यादा खतरनाक हैं प्लाजमोडियम फैल्सिपैरम और प्लाजमोडियम विवैक्स माने जाते हैं. इसके अलावा प्लाजमोडियम ओवेल और प्लाजमोडियम मलेरिये नामक परजीवी भी मानव जीवन को प्रभावित करते हैं. इन सारे समूहों को ही मलेरिया परजीवी कहा जाता है. इस सन्दर्भ में मलेरिया परजीवी के वाहक रूप में मादा एनोफ़िलेज मच्छर है. इसके काटने से ही मलेरिया के परजीवी लाल रक्त कोशिकाओं में प्रवेश करके बहुगुणित होते हैं. इस वजह से रक्ताल्पता, साँस फूलना आदि लक्षणों के साथ सर्दी, जुखाम और उल्टी जैसी अनुभूति देखी जा सकती है. 1. ठण्ड लगने के साथ बुखार आना मलेरिया के संक्रमण का सबसे प्रमुख लक्षण है कि अचानक तेज कंपकंपी के साथ ठंड ठंड लगती है और इसके कुछ ही देर बाद बुखार आ जाता है. ये बुखार लगभग चार से छः घंटा तक रहता है और फिर पसीना आकर बुखार उतर जाता है. 2. हर दो-तीन दिन में बुखार आना दुसरे तरह का संक्रमण जिसे पी. फैल्सीपैरम कहते हैं. इसमें भी शुरू-शुरू में कंपकंपी के साथ ठंड लगती है. इसके बाद आपको 36 से 48 घंटे तक बुखार रह सकता है. ये देखा गया है कि ये बुखार हर दो-तीन दिन में फिर से आ जाता है. 3. तीव्र सरदर्द के साथ बुखार मलेरिया के कुछ गंभीर मामले जिसके पीछे पी. फैल्सीपैरम ही जिम्मेदार होता है. ये संक्रमण के 6 से 14 दिन बाद होता है. इसमें तिल्ली और यकृत के आकार में वृद्धि, तेज सर दर्द, रक्त में ग्लूकोज की कमी जिसे अधोमधुरक्तता आदि लक्षण दिखाई पड़ते हैं. हलांकि इसमें मूत्र में हिमोग्लोबिन का उत्सर्जन और किडनी की विफलता भी हो सकती है जिसे आमतौर पर कालापानी बुखार कहते हैं. 4. गंभीर मामलों में मूर्छा युवाओं, बच्चों और गर्भवती महिलाओं को हुए मलेरिया के गंभीर मामलों में काफी कुछ हद तक मूर्छा या मृत्यु की भी संभावना रहती है. कई मामलों में तो मृत्यु कुछ घंटों तक में भी हो सकती है. महामारी वाले क्षेत्रों में मृत्युदर ज्यादा पाई जाती है. 6. हाँथ-पाँव में ऐंठन कई युवाओं या बच्चों में दिमागी मलेरिया की संभावना ज्यादा पाई जाती है. इसमें दिमाग में रक्त की आपूर्ति में कमी आ जाती है. ज्यादा असर होने पर हाथ-पाँव में अजीब सी ऐंठन भी आ जाती है. कुछ बच्चों का तो मानसिक विकास भी रुक सकता है. 7. कुछ अन्य लक्षण * कई बार ऐसा भी देखा जाता है कि शरीर की त्वचा धीरे-धीरे ठंडी पड़ने लगती है. ऐसा बुखार के कारण होता है. * मलेरिया बुखार में अक्सर ही लोगों को उलटी होने या जी मचलने की शिकायत होती है. इसकी वजह से कई बार मन भारी होने लगता है. * इसके लक्षणों में से एक ये भी है कि आपकी आँखें लाल होने लगती हैं. हो सकता है कि आँखों में थोड़ा जलन भी महूसस हो. * इसमें आपको थकान भी महसूस होता है. कई बार इस थकान की वजह से कमजोरी भी लगने लगता है. * कई लोगों में तेज सरदर्द देखा जाता है जो कि धीरे-धीरे बढ़ता है. ये उलटी या थकान की वजह से भी हो सकता है. * कई छोटे बच्चों में डायरिया की शिकायत होती है. चूँकि बच्चों का प्रतिरक्षा तंत्र कमजोर होता है इसलिए इन्हें ज्यादा परेशानी होती है. इन लक्षणों के नजर आने पर आपको तुरंत किसी डॉक्टर को दिखाना चाहिए. ध्यान रहे कि समय से अस्पताल जाने पर आपको जल्द ही आराम मिल जाता है. लेकिन वहीँ यदि आप देर करके अस्पताल में जाते हैं तो आपकी बिमारी के साथ-साथ परेशानी भी बढ़ जाती है.
1 person found this helpful

All About Malaria!

Dr. Ramakanth Reddy 90% (95 ratings)
MBBS, Diploma in Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad
All About Malaria!
What is malaria? Malaria is caused by a parasite. It is passed to humans by the bite of an infected Anopheles mosquito. These mosquitoes are found in the tropics and subtropics in almost all countries. Nearly all cases of malaria in the U.S. occur in people who have traveled to other countries. Treatment removes the parasite from the blood. After the parasites enter the body by a mosquito bite, they disappear from the circulating blood within an hour and gather in the liver. After several days, infected red blood cells (RBCs) emerge from the liver and infect other RBCs. What causes malaria? Malaria is caused by when you are bitten by an Anopheles mosquito that is infected by a Plasmodium species parasite. There are several different species of Plasmodium that can infect humans and cause illness. Some cause more serious problems than others do. One type in particular can be life-threatening and may cause liver and kidney failure. Another can remain dormant in the liver for many months or years. Who is at risk for malaria? The risk of getting malaria depends on: Your destination Duration of your travel Place where you will spend the evenings and nights. (Anopheles mosquitoes bite most often during nighttime hours from dusk to dawn.) What are the symptoms of malaria? Early stages of malaria may be similar to the flu. The following are the most common symptoms of malaria. However, each person may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include: Fever Chills Headache Muscle ache Fatigue Nausea Sometimes vomiting, diarrhea, and coughing Symptoms of malaria usually appear from 7 to 30 days after the mosquito bite. However, malaria they can develop as early as 6 to 8 days after being bitten by an infected mosquito or as late as several months after leaving an area where there is malaria. Always consult your health care provider for a diagnosis. How is malaria diagnosed? In addition to a complete medical history and physical exam, diagnostic procedures for malaria may include blood tests to rule out other possible infections. Infected red blood cells from a person's blood sample can also often be seen under the microscope. How is malaria treated? Specific treatment for malaria will be determined by your health care provider based on: Your overall health and medical history Extent of the condition Your tolerance for specific medications, procedures, or therapies Expectations for the course of the condition Your opinion or preference Malaria can be treated effectively in its early stages, but delaying treatment can have serious consequences. Treatment for malaria will vary depending on the country where you were infected and the severity of the disease. Treatment involves taking medications that kill the parasite in the blood. What are the complications of malaria? Complications of malaria are more common with falciparum malaria, which is the most potentially life-threatening. People with severe falciparum malaria may develop liver and kidney failure, convulsions, and coma. Can malaria be prevented? Malaria can be prevented by the use of antimalarial drugs and protection measures against mosquito bites. Medications When planning to travel to an area where malaria occurs, talk with your health care provider well in advance of your departure. Drugs to prevent malaria can be prescribed, but travelers from different countries may receive different recommendations. Travelers visiting only cities or rural areas where there is no risk of malaria may not need preventive drugs. An exact itinerary is necessary to determine what treatment you need. There are several medications to prevent malaria in travelers. Determining which medication is best depends on several factors, such as your medical history and the amount of time before your scheduled departure. For treatment to be effective, you must take the medication exactly as prescribed. These medications must be started before you arrive at your destination and continued for a specific number of days or weeks after your return, depending on which medication is prescribed. Protection from mosquitoes Be aware that you are still at risk for malaria even with the use of protection. To avoid mosquito bites, the CDC recommends the following: Apply insect repellent to exposed skin. The recommended repellent contains 20 to 35 percent N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET). Wear long-sleeved clothing and long pants if you are outdoors at night. Use a mosquito net over the bed if your bedroom is not air-conditioned or screened. For additional protection, treat the mosquito net with the insecticide permethrin. Spray an insecticide or repellent on clothing, as mosquitoes may bite through thin clothing. Spray pyrethrin or a similar insecticide in your bedroom before going to bed. Note: According to the CDC, vitamin B and ultrasound devices do not prevent mosquito bites. Important, current information about prevention and precautions is available online from the CDC. When should I call my health care provider? If you become ill with a fever during or after travel in a malaria risk area, seek prompt medical attention and tell your health care providers of your recent travel. Don t assume you have the flu or some other disease without completing a lab test to determine if the symptoms are caused by malaria.
1 person found this helpful

Popular Questions & Answers

Last month my mother got severe chill ,fever and throat pain. Later she took DOLO 650 Mg. She recovered in 4 days. My town has many malaria cases on that time. Is it necessary for my mother should go for malaria test? Please suggest.

Dr. S. Prakash 88% (11 ratings)
General Physician, Delhi
If she had recovered, then no need of malaria test right now. But you should look for recurrence of fever, if occur then go for malaria test along with few more test for proper diagnosis. Consult me if fever appears again.

What are the symptoms of malaria? What are the precaution should be taken for malaria?

Dr. Jatin Soni 93% (31198 ratings)
General Physician, Mumbai
Fever with chills and headache are few symptoms of malaria and See to it that there is no stagnation of water in your house and nearby locality for more than 7 days because these are breeding grounds for mosquitoes

Hi doctor, I want to ask some questions can you explain me what is malaria and its solution

Dr. Prakhar Singh 89% (727 ratings)
MBBS, Basic Life Support (B.L.S), Advanced Cardiac Life Support, Fellow of Academy of General Education (FAGE)
General Physician, Bangalore
Hi , thank you for your question. Malaria is a vector borne disease transmitted by mosquito caused by a parasite known as Plasmodium . It needs to be treated and treatment depends on the species of Plasmodium causing it. If you are diagnosed with it , you need to be started on treatment immediately. Feel free to connect with me if you need any further advice and I will be happy to assist you.

Please suggest What are the symptoms of malaria and what are the Prevention that could be taken for that?

Dr. Nash Kamdin 95% (3819 ratings)
General Physician, Mumbai
Dear lybrateuser, - Symptoms of malaria include fever, chills, sweating, headache, weakness, bodyache, abdominal pain, vomiting - prevention is by avoiding collection of water in & around the house as the larvae of the mosquito breeds in it, mosquito proofing the house by installing mosquito net on windows & doors, applying mosquito repellent cream on exposed parts of the body, wearing full sleeve shirt & trousers to protect from bite, using mosquito coil & appliances in the house, maintaining good hygiene & sanitation in & around the house, fumigating the surrounding area with mosquito repellent chemicals.

Health Quizzes

Malaria Fever - How To Get Relief?

Dr. Arunesh Dutt Upadhyay 94% (310 ratings)
MBBS, MD - Aerospace Medicine, Eular Certification in Rheumatology
General Physician, Pune
Medication is the main form of treating Malaria. True or False. Take this quiz to know now!
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